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Evaluation of the Impact of EISA Federal Project Investments

Description: The DOE's Federal Energy Management Program has been charged by Office of Management and Budget to conduct an evaluation on actual and verifiable energy savings and carbon emissions reductions from federal energy management investments made across the Federal government as a result of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. This study presents the findings from that evaluation.
Date: December 31, 2012
Creator: Judd, Kathleen S.; Wendel, Emily M.; Morris, Scott L.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Halverson, Mark A.; Livingston, Olga V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

Description: The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.
Date: December 1, 2012
Creator: Love, Lonnie J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs: Best Practices, Technical Methods, and Emerging Issues for Policy-Makers

Description: "This paper reviews the issues and approaches involved in considering and adopting cost-effectiveness tests for energy efficiency, including discussing each perspective represented by the five standard cost-effectiveness tests and clarifying key terms."
Date: November 2008
Creator: National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?

Description: Intuitively it seems obvious to most observers that increasing energy efficiency will ultimately reduce demand for an energy resource such as electricity. Paradoxically, economic theory suggests that this decrease in demand and subsequent decrease in cost of using the resource could cause a rebound in demand. A commonly cited example is an increase in the efficiency of home air conditioning which may reduce the resident’s monetary incentive to conserve. The resident may opt to change the thermostat setting to keep the amount he pays constant, but living at a more comfortable temperature. When actually measured this “Rebound Effect” is generally acknowledged to lower predicted reductions in electricity demand by 10%-40% depending on the device that is made more efficient.
Date: July 30, 2001
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency: Key to Sustainable Energy Use

Description: This report includes the debate in the 105th Congress over the funding and direction of energy efficiency programs involves the FY1999 spending request, the Administration's Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI), and proposals for restructuring the electricity industry.
Date: November 27, 1998
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of the wings of single engine airplanes on propulsive efficiency as shown by full scale wind tunnel tests

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.
Date: October 1929
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wood, Donald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk Management And Market Efficiency On The Midwest Independent System Operator Electricity Exchange.

Description: Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the ...
Date: December 2011
Creator: Jones, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries

The National Fuel Efficiency Program During the War Years, 1943-45

Description: From Forward: "This bulletin describes how the work was accomplished, including the functioning of the central office, the division of the nation into working areas, the acquiring of volunteer workers, the functioning of the area offices, and achievement of publicity. Representative resulting fuel saving at a number of individual plants are listed, as well as the estimated over-all accomplishments. This report should be of future value as an example of national organizing of volunteer workers, in addition to serving as a historical record."
Date: 1949
Creator: Barkley, J. F.; Cheasley, Thomas C.; Waddell, K. M. & Waddell, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Guide for Reducing Fuel Consumption in Commercial Plants

Description: From Forward: "This bulletin of the handbook type assembles in one volume educational "quiz sheets" and reference material used in the program that have permanent value in detecting waste and in lowering fuel consumption. It is believed that this handbook will serve the same purpose in the postwar period and aid in good measure the efficiency of fuel utilization."
Date: 1947
Creator: Barkley, J. F.; Cheasley, Thomas C.; Waddell, K. M. & Waddell, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Envelopment Analysis: Measurement of Educational Efficiency in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of Texas public school districts through Data Envelopment Analysis. The Data Envelopment Analysis estimation method calculated and assigned efficiency scores to each of the 931 school districts considered in the study. The efficiency scores were utilized in two phases. First, the school district efficiency scores were combined with school district student achievement to evaluate effectiveness with efficiency. A framework was constructed to graph the scores on an x-axis of student achievement scores and a y-axis of efficiency scores to further illustrate the data. The framework was evaluated with the full statewide sample and with school districts categorized into similar peer groups. Then, using variables selected from related scholarly literature, a regression analysis identified which factors impacted school district efficiency statewide. The non-discretionary variables included in the study were total student enrollment, the percentage of non-white students and the percentage of economically disadvantaged students. The discretionary variables selected included the teacher-to-student ratio, teachers’ average years of experience, the percentage of teachers with master’s degrees and the average teacher base salary. Amongst the seven factors selected for regression analysis, five statistically significant variables were identified as impacting statewide school district efficiency. All three non-discretionary variables were identified as statistically significant on efficiency and included total student enrollment, the percentage of non-white students and the percentage of economically disadvantaged students. Two discretionary factors showed statistically significant effects on efficiency which included teachers’ average years of experience and the percentage of teachers with master’s degrees. The teacher-to-student ratio and the average teacher base salary were ineffective in predicting efficiency. This study contributed to the understanding on educational efficiency. Data Envelopment Analysis has been employed mainly in the private sector to analyze efficiency in economics and business organizations. This study added to the educational research ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Carter, Lacy
Partner: UNT Libraries

The general efficiency curve for air propellers

Description: This report presents a formula which may be used to obtain a "general efficiency curve" in addition to the well-known maximum efficiency curve. These two curves, when modified somewhat by experimental data, enable performance calculations to be made without detailed knowledge of the propeller. The curves may also be used to estimate the improvement in efficiency due to reduction gearing, or to judge the performance of a new propeller design.
Date: 1923
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of the structural efficiency of panels having straight-web and curved-web Y-section stiffeners

Description: Report presenting comparisons of the structural efficiency of panels with straight-web and curved-web Y-section stiffeners. In the high-stress region in which failure is at least in part associated with local buckling, panels with curved-web Y-section stiffeners have higher structural efficiencies than panels with straight-web Y-section stiffeners, which is evidenced by higher average stresses at failure, smaller stiffener heights, or wider average spacing of rivet lines.
Date: January 1949
Creator: Dow, Norris F. & Hickman, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of immersed surfaces in combustion zone on efficiency and stability of 5-inch diameter ram-jet combustor

Description: Report presenting an extension of previous work on immersed surfaces in the combustion zone of a ramjet engine. The primary focus was to determine the effect of combustion efficiency and stability of blades located within the immediate wake of a V-gutter flame holder and to find some location and orientation of blades for optimum combustion efficiency and improved stability limits with a minimum of pressure loss.
Date: June 21, 1954
Creator: Reynolds, Thaine W. & Male, Donald W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turbojet combustion efficiency at high altitudes

Description: Report presenting research on the single problem of combustion efficiency of turbojet engines at high altitudes. Representative results of investigations with turbojet combustors are presented to analyze trends regarding combustor operating variables, combustor-design variables, and fuel variables.
Date: October 27, 1950
Creator: Olson, Walter T.; Childs, J. Howard & Jonash, Edmund R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of efficiency characteristics of a single-stage turbine with downstream stators in terms of work and speed requirements

Description: One-dimensional mean-section flow and blade specific losses proportional to average specific kinetic energy are assumed in the analysis. Range of the work-speed parameter lambda considered includes low to moderate blade speeds with high specific work outputs, where critical turbojet, turbopump, and accessory-drive turbines are encountered. A diffusion factor of 0.5 limits the loading on the downstream stators. Turbine efficiences considered are total or aerodynamic, rating, and static. Efficiences of velocity-diagram types at impulse and that corresponding to values of maximum efficiency are presented and compared to indicate in what range of lambda downstream stators are beneficial as well as the attending improvements in efficiency.
Date: January 23, 1957
Creator: Wintucky, William T. & Stewart, Warner L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A theoretical study of the lifting efficiency at supersonic speeds of wings utilizing indirect lift induced by vertical surfaces

Description: Report presenting a theoretical study of the possibility of improving the lifting efficiency of aircraft flying at supersonic speeds using indirect lift, which can be induced on the wing by the fuselage shape and/or wing end plates. Results indicated that lifting efficiency of a planar wing may be improved by favorable interference induced by lateral forces on the end plates or on the sides of the fuselage.
Date: March 26, 1956
Creator: Rossow, Vernon J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance of annular combustor type turbojet engine with JFC-2 fuel

Description: An investigation was made comparing the performance of JFC-2 fuel and unleaded, clear gasoline in a 3000-pound-thrust turbojet engine. The JFC-2 fuel was a blend of percent diesel fuel and 25 percent aviation gasoline. Engine combustion efficiency was equal to that obtained with gasoline at rated engine speed and altitudes up to 35,000 feet, but at lower engine speeds or at higher altitudes the JFC-2 fuel gave lower combustion efficiency. No discernible difference was obtained in starting or low-speed combustiion blow-out characteristics of the two fuels. Turbine-discharge radial temperature profiles were nearly the same at altitudes up to 35,000 feet.
Date: February 5, 1952
Creator: Useller, James W.; Harp, James L., Jr. & Barson, Zelmar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Inlet Temperature and Pressure on the Efficiency of Single-Stage Impulse Turbine Having a 13.2-Inch Pitch-Line Diameter Wheel

Description: From Summary: "Efficiency tests have been conducted on a single-stage impulse turbine having a 13.2-inch pitch-line diameter wheel and a cast nozzle diaphragm over a range of turbine speeds from 3000 to 17,000 rpm, pressure ratios from 1.5 to 5.0, inlet total temperatures from 1200 deg to 2000 deg R, and inlet total pressures from 18 to 59 inches of mercury absolute. The effect of inlet temperature and pressure on turbine efficiency for constant pressure ration and blade-to-jet speed ration is correlated against a factor derived from the equation for Reynolds number. The degree of correlation indicates that the change in turbine efficiency with inlet temperature and pressure for constant pressure ration and blade-to-jet speed ration is principally a Reynolds number effect."
Date: September 1945
Creator: Chanes, Ernest R. & Carman, L. Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department