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Establishing an energy efficiency recommendation for commercial boilers

Description: To assist the federal government in meeting its energy reduction goals, President Clinton's Executive Order 12902 established the Procurement Challenge, which directed all federal agencies to purchase equipment within the top 25th percentile of efficiency. Under the direction of DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Procurement Challenge's goal is to create efficiency recommendations for all energy-using products that could substantially impact the government's energy reduction goals, like commercial boilers. A typical 5,000,000 Btuh boiler, with a thermal efficiency of 83.2%, can have lifetime energy cost savings of $40,000 when compared to a boiler with a thermal efficiency of 78%. For the federal market, which makes up 2% of the boiler market, this means lifetime energy cost savings of over $25,600,000. To establish efficiency recommendations, FEMP uses standardized performance ratings for products sold in the marketplace. Currently, the boiler industry uses combustion efficiency and, sometimes, thermal efficiency performance measures when specifying a commercial boiler. For many years, the industry has used these efficiency measures interchangeably, causing confusion about boiler performance measurements, and making it difficult for FEMP to establish the top 25th percentile of efficiency. This paper will illustrate the method used to establish FEMP's recommendation for boilers. The method involved defining a correlation between thermal and combustion efficiency among boiler classifications; using the correlation to model a data set of all the boiler types available in the market; and identifying how the correlation affected the top 25th percentile analysis. The paper also will discuss the applicability of this method for evaluating other equipment for which there are limited data on performance ratings.
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: Ware, Michelle J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

Description: Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely …
Date: April 28, 2005
Creator: Wiel, Stephen & McMahon, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

Description: Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other technical performance requirements in existing international programs in order to shed light on where Chinese programs currently stands …
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina & Zhou, Nan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

Description: China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie & Ke, Jing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

Description: This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.
Date: September 15, 2008
Creator: Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles & Schlegel, Jeff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Evaluation of the Impact of EISA Federal Project Investments

Description: The DOE's Federal Energy Management Program has been charged by Office of Management and Budget to conduct an evaluation on actual and verifiable energy savings and carbon emissions reductions from federal energy management investments made across the Federal government as a result of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. This study presents the findings from that evaluation.
Date: December 31, 2012
Creator: Judd, Kathleen S.; Wendel, Emily M.; Morris, Scott L.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Halverson, Mark A.; Livingston, Olga V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

Description: China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.
Date: June 7, 2010
Creator: Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An energy efficiency guide for use in cleanroom programming

Description: This guide was developed to provide ideas for considering energy efficiency in the early stages of a cleanroom design project. Use of this guide will facilitate selection of design features that will improve energy efficiency in cleanrooms. Cleanroom owners and designers can use the guide to focus on energy intensive items in the design of a cleanroom facility.
Date: December 7, 2001
Creator: Tschudi, Bill; Xu, Tengfang & Sartor, Dale
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that would be smaller, more efficient, and cheaper as part of the "High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Environmental Stewardship: How Semiconductor Suppliers Help to Meet Energy-Efficiency Regulations and Voluntary Specifications in China

Description: Recognizing the role that semiconductor suppliers can playin meeting energy-efficiency regulations and voluntary specifications,this paper provides an overview of Chinese policies and implementingbodies; a discussion of current programs, their goals, and effectiveness;and possible steps that can be taken tomeet these energy-efficiencyrequirements while also meeting products' high performance and costgoals.
Date: January 15, 2007
Creator: Aizhen, Li; Fanara, Andrew; Fridley, David; Merriman, Louise & Ju, Jeff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Nebraska Dollar and Energy Saving Loans

Description: The Nebraska Energy Office administers the Nebraska Dollar and Energy Savings Loans that makes available low-cost financing for energy efficiency projects for state citizens and businesses.
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Loos, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

Description: We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.
Date: August 13, 2007
Creator: Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning with more efficient cooling systems as part of the "Thermoelastic Cooling" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: University of Maryland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that would reduce system corrosion and be more efficient as part of the "Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: United Technologies Research Center
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Glass--Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

Description: This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Glass. Information on what works for the Glass industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included.
Date: February 12, 2001
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Office of Industrial Technologies.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Review of U.S. ESCO industry market trends: An empirical analysis of project data

Description: This article summarizes a comprehensive empirical analysis of U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry trends and performance. We employ two parallel analytical approaches: a comprehensive survey of firms to estimate total industry size and a database of {approx}1500 ESCO projects, from which we report target markets and typical project characteristics, energy savings and customer economics. We estimate that industry investment for energy-efficiency related services reached US $2 billion in 2000 following a decade of strong growth. ESCO activity is concentrated in states with high economic activity and strong policy support. Typical projects save 150-200 MJ/m2/year and are cost-effective with median benefit/cost ratios of 1.6 and 2.1 for institutional and private sector projects. The median simple payback time is 7 years among institutional customers; 3 years is typical in the private sector. Reliance on DSM incentives has decreased since 1995. Preliminary evidence suggests that state enabling policies have boosted the industry in medium-sized states. ESCOs have proven resilient in the face of restructuring and will probably shift toward selling ''energy solutions,'' with energy efficiency part of a package. We conclude that a private sector energy-efficiency services industry that targets large commercial and industrial customers is viable and self-sustaining with appropriate policy support both financial and non-financial.
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: Goldman, Charles A.; Hopper, Nicole C.; Osborn, Julie G. & Singer, Terry E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning with a more efficient heat pump as part of the "Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Georgia Institute of Technology
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Compact Solid State Cooling Systems

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that eliminates polluting refrigerants as part of the "Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: University of California, Los Angeles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that would be more efficient and not use polluting refrigerants as part of the "Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices" project.
Date: February 16, 2012
Creator: Sheetak, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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