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Evaluation of the Impact of EISA Federal Project Investments

Description: The DOE's Federal Energy Management Program has been charged by Office of Management and Budget to conduct an evaluation on actual and verifiable energy savings and carbon emissions reductions from federal energy management investments made across the Federal government as a result of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. This study presents the findings from that evaluation.
Date: December 31, 2012
Creator: Judd, Kathleen S.; Wendel, Emily M.; Morris, Scott L.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Halverson, Mark A.; Livingston, Olga V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

Description: The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.
Date: December 1, 2012
Creator: Love, Lonnie J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs: Best Practices, Technical Methods, and Emerging Issues for Policy-Makers

Description: "This paper reviews the issues and approaches involved in considering and adopting cost-effectiveness tests for energy efficiency, including discussing each perspective represented by the five standard cost-effectiveness tests and clarifying key terms."
Date: November 2008
Creator: National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?

Description: Intuitively it seems obvious to most observers that increasing energy efficiency will ultimately reduce demand for an energy resource such as electricity. Paradoxically, economic theory suggests that this decrease in demand and subsequent decrease in cost of using the resource could cause a rebound in demand. A commonly cited example is an increase in the efficiency of home air conditioning which may reduce the resident’s monetary incentive to conserve. The resident may opt to change the thermostat setting to keep the amount he pays constant, but living at a more comfortable temperature. When actually measured this “Rebound Effect” is generally acknowledged to lower predicted reductions in electricity demand by 10%-40% depending on the device that is made more efficient.
Date: July 30, 2001
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency: Key to Sustainable Energy Use

Description: This report includes the debate in the 105th Congress over the funding and direction of energy efficiency programs involves the FY1999 spending request, the Administration's Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI), and proposals for restructuring the electricity industry.
Date: November 27, 1998
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk Management And Market Efficiency On The Midwest Independent System Operator Electricity Exchange.

Description: Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the ...
Date: December 2011
Creator: Jones, Kevin
Partner: UNT Libraries

The National Fuel Efficiency Program During the War Years, 1943-45

Description: From Forward: "This bulletin describes how the work was accomplished, including the functioning of the central office, the division of the nation into working areas, the acquiring of volunteer workers, the functioning of the area offices, and achievement of publicity. Representative resulting fuel saving at a number of individual plants are listed, as well as the estimated over-all accomplishments. This report should be of future value as an example of national organizing of volunteer workers, in addition to serving as a historical record."
Date: 1949
Creator: Barkley, J. F.; Cheasley, Thomas C.; Waddell, K. M. & Waddell, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Guide for Reducing Fuel Consumption in Commercial Plants

Description: From Forward: "This bulletin of the handbook type assembles in one volume educational "quiz sheets" and reference material used in the program that have permanent value in detecting waste and in lowering fuel consumption. It is believed that this handbook will serve the same purpose in the postwar period and aid in good measure the efficiency of fuel utilization."
Date: 1947
Creator: Barkley, J. F.; Cheasley, Thomas C.; Waddell, K. M. & Waddell, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data Envelopment Analysis: Measurement of Educational Efficiency in Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of Texas public school districts through Data Envelopment Analysis. The Data Envelopment Analysis estimation method calculated and assigned efficiency scores to each of the 931 school districts considered in the study. The efficiency scores were utilized in two phases. First, the school district efficiency scores were combined with school district student achievement to evaluate effectiveness with efficiency. A framework was constructed to graph the scores on an x-axis of student achievement scores and a y-axis of efficiency scores to further illustrate the data. The framework was evaluated with the full statewide sample and with school districts categorized into similar peer groups. Then, using variables selected from related scholarly literature, a regression analysis identified which factors impacted school district efficiency statewide. The non-discretionary variables included in the study were total student enrollment, the percentage of non-white students and the percentage of economically disadvantaged students. The discretionary variables selected included the teacher-to-student ratio, teachers’ average years of experience, the percentage of teachers with master’s degrees and the average teacher base salary. Amongst the seven factors selected for regression analysis, five statistically significant variables were identified as impacting statewide school district efficiency. All three non-discretionary variables were identified as statistically significant on efficiency and included total student enrollment, the percentage of non-white students and the percentage of economically disadvantaged students. Two discretionary factors showed statistically significant effects on efficiency which included teachers’ average years of experience and the percentage of teachers with master’s degrees. The teacher-to-student ratio and the average teacher base salary were ineffective in predicting efficiency. This study contributed to the understanding on educational efficiency. Data Envelopment Analysis has been employed mainly in the private sector to analyze efficiency in economics and business organizations. This study added to the educational research ...
Date: August 2012
Creator: Carter, Lacy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance of Single-Stage Turbine of Mark 25 Torpedo Power Plant with Two Special Nozzles, III, Efficiency with Standard Rotor Blades

Description: A Mark 25 torpedo power plant modified to operate as a single-stage turbine was investigated to determine the performance with two nozzle designs and a standard first-stage rotor having 0.40-inch blades with a 17O met-air angle. Both nozzles had smaller port cross-sectional areas than those nozzles of similar design, which were previously investigated. The performance of the two nozzles was compared on the basis of blade, rotor, and brake efficiencies as a function of blade-jet speed ratio for pressure ratios of 8, 15 (design), and 20. At pressure ratios of 15 and 20, the blade efficiency obtained with the nozzle having circular passages (K) was higher than that obtained with the nozzle having rectangular passages (J). At a pressure ratio of 8, the efficiencies obtained with the two nozzles were comparable for blade-jet speed ratios of less than 0.260. For blade-jet speed ratios exceeding this value, nozzle K yielded slightly higher efficiencies. The maximum blade efficiency of 0.569 was obtained with nozzle K at a pressure ratio of 8 and a blade-jet speed ratio of 0.295. At design speed and pressure ratio, nozzle K yielded a maximum blade efficiency of 0.534, an increase of 0.031 over that obtained with nozzle J. When the blade efficiencies of the two nozzles were compared with those of four other nozzles previously investigated, the maximum difference for the six nozzles with this rotor was 0.050. From, this comparison, no specific effect of nozzles size or shape on over-all performance was discernible.
Date: January 1, 1949
Creator: Schum, Harold J. & Whitney, Warren J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of nozzle secondary flows on turbine performance as indicated by exit surveys of a rotor

Description: Report presenting detailed circumferential and radial surveys of total pressure and total temperature made downstream of the turbine rotor of a high-speed, high-specific-mass-flow turbine at design operating conditions. The purpose of this testing was to determine the sources and magnitudes of losses in turbines. Results regarding total pressure ratio, total-temperature-drop ratio, contours of efficiency, and location of the losses are provided.
Date: April 5, 1954
Creator: Whitney, Warren J.; Buckner, Howard A., Jr. & Monroe, Daniel E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of blade-section camber on aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale supersonic-type propellers at Mach numbers to 1.04

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of two full-scale supersonic propellers with a 6000-horsepower propeller dynamometer. One propeller had symmetrical NACA 16-series airfoil sections and the other was similar except for a blade-section camber and a slight difference in pitch distribution.
Date: October 19, 1956
Creator: Maynard, Julian D.; Swihart, John M. & Norton, Harry T., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of two full-scale propellers with different pitch distributions, at blade angles up to 60 degrees

Description: Two 3-blade 10-foot propellers were operated in front of a liquid-cooled engine nacelle. The propellers differed only in pitch distribution; one had normal distribution (nearly constant pitch for a blade angle of 15 degrees at 0.75 radius), and the other had the pitch of the tip sections decreased with respect to that for the shank sections (blade angle of 35 degrees for nearly constant pitch distribution). Propeller blade angles at 0.75r from 15 degrees to sixty degrees, corresponding to design speeds up to 500 miles per hour, were investigated. Propeller blade angles at 0.75r from 15 degrees to 60 degrees, corresponding to design speeds up to 500 miles per hour, were investigated. The results indicated that the propulsive efficiency at a blade angle of 60 degrees was about 9 percent less than the maximum value of 86 percent, which occurred at blade angle of about 30 degrees. The efficiency at a blade angle of 60 degrees was increased about 7 percent by correcting for the effect of a spinner and, at a blade angle of 30 degrees about 3 percent. The peak efficiencies for the propeller having the washed-out pitch distribution were slightly less than for the normal propeller but the take-off efficiency was generally higher.
Date: 1939
Creator: Biermann, David & Hartman, Edwin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of blade-section thickness ratios on the aerodynamic characteristics of related full-scale propellers at Mach numbers up to 0.65

Description: Report discussing an investigation of two full-scale NACA propellers at a range of blade angles and at speeds of up to 500 miles per hour. The results are compared to previous investigations of five NACA propellers to evaluate the effects of blade-section thickness ratios on propeller characteristics.
Date: June 6, 1949
Creator: Maynard, Julian D. & Steinberg, Seymour
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental evaluation of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel in a 16-inch-diameter ram-jet engine

Description: Report presenting a determination of the combustion efficiency of gaseous hydrogen fuel in a ramjet engine in a connected-pipe test facility. Operating conditions simulated a range of Mach numbers and altitudes. Results regarding the effect of inlet parameters and design variables on combustion efficiencies, comparison between methods of determining efficiency, and ignition characteristics are provided.
Date: March 6, 1956
Creator: Dangle, E. E. & Kerslake, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of changing the ratio of exhaust-valve flow capacity to inlet-valve flow capacity on volumetric efficiency and output of a single-cylinder engine

Description: Report presenting a series of tests with a single-cylinder engine in order to determine the effect on volumetric efficiency and on engine performance of changing the ratio of exhaust-valve flow capacity to inlet-valve flow capacity when operating with exhaust pressure equal to inlet pressure.
Date: October 1947
Creator: Eppes, James V. D.; Livengood, James C. & Taylor, C. Fayette
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance of annular combustor type turbojet engine with JFC-2 fuel

Description: An investigation was made comparing the performance of JFC-2 fuel and unleaded, clear gasoline in a 3000-pound-thrust turbojet engine. The JFC-2 fuel was a blend of percent diesel fuel and 25 percent aviation gasoline. Engine combustion efficiency was equal to that obtained with gasoline at rated engine speed and altitudes up to 35,000 feet, but at lower engine speeds or at higher altitudes the JFC-2 fuel gave lower combustion efficiency. No discernible difference was obtained in starting or low-speed combustiion blow-out characteristics of the two fuels. Turbine-discharge radial temperature profiles were nearly the same at altitudes up to 35,000 feet.
Date: February 5, 1952
Creator: Useller, James W.; Harp, James L., Jr. & Barson, Zelmar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constraining Energy Consumption of China's Largest IndustrialEnterprises Through the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming EnterpriseProgram

Description: Between 1980 and 2000, China's energy efficiency policiesresulted in a decoupling of the traditionally linked relationship betweenenergy use and gross domestic product (GDP) growth, realizing a four-foldincrease in GDP with only a doubling of energy use. However, during Chinas transition to a market-based economy in the 1990s, many of thecountry's energy efficiency programs were dismantled and between 2001 and2005 China's energy use increased significantly, growing at about thesame rate as GDP. Continuation of this one-to-one ratio of energyconsumption to GDP given China's stated goal of again quadrupling GDPbetween 2000 and 2020 will lead to significant demand for energy, most ofwhich is coal-based. The resulting local, national, and globalenvironmental impacts could be substantial.In 2005, realizing thesignificance of this situation, the Chinese government announced anambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20percent between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizingthis goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. Thecomprehensive energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for33 percent of national and 47 percent of industrial energy usage in 2004.Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets wereannounced for each enterprise. Activities to be undertaken includebenchmarking, energy audits, development of energy saving action plans,information and training workshops, and annual reporting of energyconsumption. This paper will describe the program in detail, includingthe types of enterprises included and the program activities, and willprovide an analysis of the progress and lessons learned todate.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Price, Lynn & Wang, Xuejun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department