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The Role of Chosen Creativity Measurements in Observed Relationships to Personality

Description: Creativity is a complex construct that is conceptualized and measured in multiple ways. This study examined the relationship between creativity and personality taking this into account. It was hypothesized that applying different conceptions and measures would cause variation in the creativity-personality relationship. The participants (N = 224) were undergraduate students completed six creativity measures, a personality inventory, and a demographic questionnaire. Personality predicted more creative production (R2 = .277) than creative potential (R2 = .176) and more self-reported creativity (R2 = .348) than that which was externally-rated (R2 = .149). Personality predicted creativity beyond demographic and intellect variables, but the effects varied based on the creativity measure. Openness was most consistently and strongly related to creativity. Other personality factors demonstrated suppression effects in multiple models. Overall, the results suggest that despite relatively small effects of personality on creativity, it can help strengthen prediction in creativity models. Implications for educational settings and future research are discussed.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Puryear, Jeb S
Partner: UNT Libraries

Catalysts of Women's Success in Academic STEM: A Feminist Poststructural Analysis

Description: This study analyzes senior women faculty's discourses about personal and professional experiences they believe contributed to their advancement in academic careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The purpose of the study is to understand factors that activate women's success in STEM disciplines where women's representation has not yet attained critical mass. A poststructuralist emphasis on complexity and changing nature of power relations offers a framework that illuminates the ways in which elite women navigate social inequalities, hierarchies of power, and non-democratic practices. Feminist poststructural discourse analysis (FPDA) methods allow analysis of women's talk about their experiences in order to understand the women's complex, shifting positions. Eight female tenured full professors of STEM at research-focused universities in the United States participated in the study. Data sources were in-depth semi-structured interviews, a demographic survey, and curricula vitae. Findings will help shape programs and policies aimed at increasing female representation and promoting achievement at senior levels in academic STEM fields.
Date: December 2017
Creator: Mullet, Dianna Rose
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Potential of Misdiagnosis of High IQ Youth by Practicing Mental Health Professionals: A Mixed Methods Study

Description: The difficulty of distinguishing between genuine disorder and characteristics that can be attributed to high IQ increases the likelihood of diagnostic error by mental health practitioners. This mixed methods study explores the possibility of misdiagnosis of high IQ youth by mental health professionals. Participants were private practice mental health professionals who read case study vignettes illustrating high IQ youth exhibiting characteristics associated with their population. Participants then completed a survey and provided an assessment of the hypothetical client. In the study, 59% of participants were unable to recognize behavioral characteristics associated with high IQ youth unless suggested to them, and 95% of participants were unable to recognize emotional characteristics associated with high IQ youth unless suggested. The results of this study provide much-needed empirical exploration of the concern for misdiagnosis of high IQ youth and inform clinical practice and education.
Date: December 2017
Creator: Bishop, James
Partner: UNT Libraries

Integrative Technology-Enhanced Physical Education: An Exploratory Study with Elementary School Students

Description: Wearable technology has made a positive impact in the consumer industry with its focus on adult fitness. Devices and applications are pervasive, inexpensive and are in high demand. Our nation struggles with obesity and health concerns related to poor fitness. However, the research on such technology has been more focused on adults. Therefore, the need to investigate wearable technology for fitness improvement with children is essential. Children lead increasingly sedentary lifestyles through TV watching, technology-use and a reduction in physical activities. Further, our society is exposed to quick food loaded with calories. These factors contribute to the growing epidemic of childhood obesity. The need to educate students early, on their ability to monitor their fitness, is the focus of this research. This dissertation investigated the impact of an integrated technology-enhanced physical education model with 127 fifth grade students over an 11-week period. A detailed analysis, looking at theoretical perspectives across multiple data collections was conducted. This study answered the questions, 1. To what extent can students improve their performance with technology-enhanced physical education? 2. To what extent can students learn to self-monitor their performance levels? How do affective components impact teaching and learning with a technology-enhanced physical education model? Results showed that technology-enhanced physical education does improve performance measures, does improve students' ability to self-regulate and positively impacts student and teachers' affective states. However long term results were inconclusive, stimulating multiple, potential opportunities for continued research.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Barbee, Stephanie Sparkman
Partner: UNT Libraries

Construct Validation and Measurement Invariance of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory for Educational Settings

Description: The present study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the revised version of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI-28), following adjustment of the wording of items such that they were appropriate to assess Coping Skills in an educational setting. A sample of middle school students (n = 1,037) completed the revised inventory. An initial confirmatory factor analysis led to the hypothesis of a better fitting model with two items removed. Reliability of the subscales and the instrument as a whole was acceptable. Items were examined for sex invariance with differential item functioning (DIF) using item response theory, and five items were flagged for significant sex non-invariance. Following removal of these items, comparison of the mean differences between male and female coping scores revealed that there was no significant difference between the two groups. Further examination of the generalizability of the coping construct and the potential transfer of psychosocial skills between athletic and academic settings are warranted.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Sanguras, Laila Y
Partner: UNT Libraries

How Attitudes towards Statistics Courses and the Field of Statistics Predicts Statistics Anxiety among Undergraduate Social Science Majors: A Validation of the Statistical Anxiety Scale

Description: The aim of this study was to validate an instrument that can be used by instructors or social scientist who are interested in evaluating statistics anxiety. The psychometric properties of the English version of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS) was examined through a confirmatory factor analysis of scores from a sample of 323 undergraduate social science majors enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States. In previous studies, the psychometric properties of the Spanish and Italian versions of the SAS were validated; however, the English version of the SAS had never been assessed. Inconsistent with previous studies, scores on the English version of the SAS did not produce psychometrically acceptable values of validity. However, the results of this study suggested the potential value of a revised two-factor model SAS to measure statistics anxiety. Additionally, the Attitudes Towards Statistics (ATS) scale was used to examine the convergent and discriminant validities of the two-factor SAS. As expected, the correlation between the two factors of the SAS and the two factors of the ATS uncovered a moderately negative correlation between examination anxiety and attitudes towards the course. Additionally, the results of a structural regression model of attitudes towards statistics as a predictor of statistics anxiety suggested that attitudes towards the course and attitudes towards the field of statistics moderately predicts examination anxiety with attitudes towards the course having the greatest influence. It is recommended that future studies examine the relationship between attitudes towards statistics, statistics anxiety, and other variables such as academic achievement and instructional style.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Obryant, Monique J
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparing Three Approaches for Handling a Fourth Level of Nesting Structure in Cluster-Randomized Trials

Description: This study compared 3 approaches for handling a fourth level of nesting structure when analyzing data from a cluster-randomized trial (CRT). CRTs can include 3 levels of nesting: repeated measures, individual, and cluster levels. However, above the cluster level, there may sometimes be an additional potentially important fourth level of nesting (e.g., schools, districts, etc., depending on the design) that is typically ignored in CRT data analysis. The current study examined the impact of ignoring this fourth level, accounting for it using a model-based approach, and accounting it using a design-based approach on parameter and standard error (SE) estimates. Several fixed effect and random effect variance parameters and SEs were biased across all 3 models. In the 4-level model, most SE biases decreased as the number of level 3 clusters increased and as the number of level 4 clusters decreased. Also, random effect variance biases decreased as the number of level 3 clusters increased. In the 3-level and complex models, SEs became more biased as the weight level 4 carried increased (i.e., larger intraclass correlation, more clusters at that level). The current results suggest that if a meaningful fourth level of nesting exists, future researchers should account for it using design-based approach; the model-based approach is not recommended. If the fourth level is not practically important, researchers may ignore it altogether.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Glaman, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Wearing the Inside Out: The Effects of Exogenous Oxytocin, Reading, and Stress on the Expression of Empathy for Victims of Trauma

Description: Considerable psycho-physiological research on empathy examines biological structures such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and oxytocin systems as efficacious methods for strengthening positive emotional responses. This study recruited 76 adult participants (54 female, 23 male) for the purpose of evaluating the effects oxytocin and fiction reading have on empathetic responses. Participants completed a measure of trauma and received either intranasal oxytocin, a story created to induce emotional responses, or a neutral non-fiction story. Stressors were counterbalanced as a family or non-family stimuli to assess changes in stress response measured by salivary cortisol and heart rate variability. Results supported existing research stating that heart rate variability (HRV) is a more sensitive measure of stress. HRV statistically significantly interacted between type of stressor and PTSD symptomology (1, 70) = 5.018, p = .028, η2 =0.06. Scores on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) indicated there were increases in empathy across time, but were not impacted by exposure to stress or treatment condition. Trauma was identified as a statistically significant factor on heart rate variability F(1, 70) = 8.39, p = .005, η2 = .10. Treatment condition did not impact cortisol levels across time F(2, 71) = .2.532, p = .087, η2 = .11. Taken together, these results suggest support for the use of biomarkers in measuring the rate of stress and recovery for those with and without trauma. These findings suggest potential avenues for translational research and implications for theory and practice.
Date: December 2017
Creator: Seddio, Kaylee Rae
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Roles of Coaches, Peers, and Parents in High School Athletes' Motivational Processes: A Mixed-Method Study

Description: Grounded in self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the underlying motivational processes from social environments created by coaches, peers, and parents to motivational outcomes in high school athletes, with an emphasis on the relative influence of social agents in basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness). The quantitative part of this study tested a hierarchical model of high school sport motivation in a final sample of 311 student athletes (204 boys, 107 girls) using structural equation modeling: social factors (coach-, peer-, and parent-created motivational climates) -> psychological mediators (need satisfaction and frustration) -> types of motivation (autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation) -> consequences (subjective vitality, athlete burnout, and intention to drop out). Invariance across gender and across team type (varsity vs. non-varsity) was also tested. Adequate model fits were achieved in separate "brighter side" and "darker side" models across the overall sample, gender, and team type. The follow-up qualitative part of this study explored "how" beyond "what" coaches, peers, and parents contribute to the social environments, need frustration, and negative motivational outcomes in sport in a subsample of 37 student athletes (24 boys, 13 girls) who reported high amotivation/burnout and higher than average dropout intentions in the quantitative survey. Content analysis and observation were conducted to interpret the focus group interview data among athletes across gender and team type. The results of both quantitative and qualitative parts were integrated and compared to summarize the roles of coaches, peers, and parents in the "brighter and darker sides" of athletic experience in high school athletes.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Chu, Tsz Lun
Partner: UNT Libraries