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The Validity of the Texas Economic Index

Description: Since the economic index is one of the two instruments which are so important to the financing of every school district of the state, and since the index is a hypothetical measure, it should be studied at regular intervals. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to re-examine the economic index used in Texas school finance for the purpose of determining its validity.
Date: January 1956
Creator: Simpson, Edgar Randell
Partner: UNT Libraries

To Determine a Sound Method of Distributing the Public School Funds in Texas

Description: It is the purpose of this study to discover and report a sound method of distributing the public school funds of Texas. This investigation will discuss present-day practices in distributing the public school funds, and where advisable will make recommendations to secure more adequate distribution.
Date: 1947
Creator: Alderdice, Joseph Lloyd
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of the Current Texas School Finance System to Determine to What Extent it Meets Criteria for Equity Concerning School Finances

Description: The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Texas House Bill 72 on equalization of finances in the public school districts of Texas. House Bill 72 is a finance reform bill which was passed by the Texas Legislature during the Summer of 1984. This study involves basically three steps. First, current criteria for equity as defined by school finance "experts" and recent definitive court decisions were determined. Second, financial data from the Texas Education Agency were statistically analyzed for the 1984-1985 school year. Third, the statistical analysis was used to determine if the current Texas school finance plan meets the current criteria for equity. The population used in the study was 1,068 school districts. Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions were drawn. 1. The use of a per capita flat grant by the Texas Public School Finance System contributes to the unequalizing of financial resources available to school districts. 2. School districts with greater property index values are required to exercise very little effort toward the support of their public schools. 3. School districts with high property index values tend to have lower effective tax rates and high per-pupil expenditures. 4. School districts of least wealth exercised substantially more local tax effort in support of educational programs in their schools than more wealthy school districts. 5. School districts with low property index values are almost entirely dependent upon the Foundation School Program monies to provide the educational opportunities available within the school district. 6. The disparities in local tax effort, per-pupil expenditures, and revenues are attributable primarily to the school district's heavy reliance on local property wealth. 7. A completely perfect system of equalization would be full state funding with monies distributed to districts on an educational needs basis.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Arrington, Ronald L. (Ronald Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Funds Budgeted for Educational Programs in Texas Schools during a Period of Changing Enrollment

Description: This study analyzes budgets of Texas school districts experiencing declining enrollments, as opposed to districts with increasing or steady enrollments. This study identifies how schools are expending funds to meet those needs while dealing with enrollment changes. A total of 924 school districts are studied. The changes in average daily attendance from 1993-1994 to 2003-2004 are used to categorize each district as having increasing, stable, or decreasing enrollments. The total dollar amount expended is compared to the total number of students in each district to determine the amount expended per student. The amounts expended for special education career and technology education, bilingual education, and compensatory education are compared to the number of students being served by those programs to determine a dollar amount that can also be compared from the 1993-1994 and 2003-2004 school years. The per-student expenditures for each educational program are compared to the overall per-student expenditures in each enrollment category (increasing, stable, decreasing). The study reveals no clear pattern of change in the comparison of overall spending to individual program spending as district enrollments fluctuated.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Perry, Russ F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

To Determine Whether the Twelve-Year System in Texas is Democratic and Sound from the Standpoint of Finance, Biological Basis, and Psychology

Description: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the twelve-year system in Texas is democratic and sound from the standpoint of finance, biological basis, and psychology. This problem originated through the adoption of the twelve-grade system for Texas schools by the State Department of Education. The administrator is desirous to choose and to organize the plan most profitable for the child. From this study it is hoped that an adequate educational program can be established.
Date: 1941
Creator: McCarroll, Manuel Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of Poverty on Comparable Improvement Ranking for Elementary Campuses in Texas

Description: The problem was to determine how comparable is comparable improvement for campuses in Texas. An alternative strategy for determining comparable improvement was developed using 2000 comparable improvement data provided by the Texas Education Agency for 2,403 elementary campuses. Comparable improvement is a measure that shows how student performance has changed from one year to the next and then compares that growth to 40 schools that are demographically most similar to the target school. Instead of using the most dominant characteristic as in the current process, the percent of students in poverty was the initial sorting characteristic. The impact of sorting by poverty was reviewed in four areas: 1.) the impact on quartile placement, 2.) the TLI average growth for the comparison group, 3.) the award eligibility, and 4.) the changes in comparison group composition. No practical significant difference was found for research questions 1 and 3, however, a practical significant difference was found in group average TLI growth for math and in the comparison group composition. Overall, the alternative process had the greatest impact on campuses with 40-80% poverty. Three possible factors may have influenced the results. First, the middle poverty campuses had the most change in comparison group as found in question 4. Second, the interaction between the middle poverty campuses and the alternative process could have been fueled by the removal of the 1,295 campuses with poverty as the dominant characteristic in current system. Third, the high correlation between poverty and ethnicity may have limited any impact of the alternative process.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Holland, Vicki Gay
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessment and Analysis of Per Pupil Expenditures: a Study Testing a Micro-Financial Model in Equity and Student Outcome Determination

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine district level financial data to assess equity across districts, to compare equity benchmarks established in the literature using selected functions from the state's financial database, and to determine the predictive value of those functions to the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) tests of 1997.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Holsomback, James Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries

State Participation in Funding Capital Projects and Improvements in Texas Public Schools

Description: The impact of four basic capital project funding models for state participation was determined for the school districts in Texas. A review of the historical background for funding of capital projects and improvements by states was followed by a review of the historical background of state support for funding capital projects in the State of Texas. Additionally, the current funding models and methods of determining need were reviewed for all of the states. This historical review revealed that facility funding, like aid for maintenance and operation, has evolved with all the states at different stages.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Hawkins, Jimmy R. (Jimmy Ray)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Economic Effects of the Tax Relief Amendment of 1978 and Subsequent Finance Legislation on the Public School Districts of Texas with an Average Daily Attendance of 500 Pupils or Less

Description: The primary purpose of the study was to determine if the funding and revenue conditions which existed prior to the passage of the Tax Relief Amendment of 1978 continued after the enactment of public school finance legislation by the Sixty-Sixth and Sixty-Seventh Texas Legislatures. Analyses of four research questions were used to accomplish the purpose of the study.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Brewer, David R. (David Ray)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Funding Changes on Selected Education Service Centers Considerations for Programming and Staffing for Continued Effectiveness in Equlizaing Educational Opportunities

Description: The purpose of this study was three-fold: 1. To determine the amount and direction of changes in sources of funding for the Regional Education Service Centers from 1979 to 1984. 2. To determine the percent of change in programming expenditures of the Regional Education Service Centers from 1979 to 1984. 3. To rate the changes in quality of programming as perceived by the superintendents of the local school districts receiving services from 1979 to 1984. A review of the literature and a brief history of the Regional Education Service Centers of Texas were followed by tabular and narrative descriptions of the findings. Deflated data, to account for inflation, were derived by applying Bureau of Labor statistics formulas to dollar amounts supplied by the Regional Education Service Centers. Each of the five Education Service Centers included in the study experienced a decrease in total funds, due chiefly to a cut in federal and state support. Although local contributions increased in four out of five of the Regions during the five-year period, the net result to the Centers was a decrease in funding ranging from 23.2 percent to 51.8 percent. The impact on programming was severe. Of the nine major services on which data was gathered—media services, data processing, counseling/guidance, special education, migrant education, bus driver training, staff development, drug education/crime prevention, and bilingual education— two had been eliminated in all of the Regions included in the study by 19 84, and some of the Regions had discontinued services in other areas as well. Surveys for rating the services of the Education Service Centers were sent to 126 current superintendents who held the same position in 1979. The results indicated that although fewer dollars had been expended and some services had been eliminated, the quality of programming had not diminished from 1979 ...
Date: December 1986
Creator: Brian, Sara Jean Sturges
Partner: UNT Libraries

Academic excellence and instructional expenditures in Texas.

Description: Public school per pupil costs and demands for better performance have increased over the past several decades. While the overall per pupil expenditures have increased, the percent of the educational dollar directed toward instructional activities has remained at approximately 60%. A grass-roots movement known as the "65% Solution" caught national attention by claiming that schools are not efficiently allocating resources into areas that have the greatest link to student achievement, such as instruction. Proponents of the 65% Solution claim that per pupil expenditures can be increased by shifting funds from areas considered non-instructional to areas that directly impact student instruction, such as teachers and instructional materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between district Panel Recommended and Commended Performance TAKS Reading/ELA and Math results and three measurements of instructional expenditures, Instructional Staff Percent; TEA Instructional Expenditure Ratio; and the NCES Instructional Expenditure Ratio (65% Solution), in Texas public schools. Data was collected from the 2003-2004 AEIS report. Multiple regression was used to conduct the analyses. In most instances, there was little, if any, relationship between TAKS Reading/ELA and TAKS Math, and the Instructional Staff Percent (ISP), TEA Instructional Expenditure Ratio (TIER), and NCES Instructional Expenditure Ratio (NIER). However, a low to moderate relationship was discovered in the comparison of TAKS Reading/ELA, and the ISP and TIER. This result was the same for both the Panel Recommended and Commended Performance. In every instance, the ISP and TIER showed positive, statistically significant, relationships to TAKS results. The NIER, or 65% Solution, had the lowest correlation and was statistically insignificant in three out of four analyses.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Helvey, Jearl Kenton
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Study of the Cost of Operating the Rural High Schools of Collin County Before and After Gilmer-Aikin Legislation

Description: Inasmuch as it has been assumed by the people of the State of Texas that the cost of operating the public school systems has risen since the Gilmer-Aikin Bills have gone into effect, the purpose of this study is to determine just what cost items have increased and to what extent. There are many cost items to be considered in the operation of a public school, and they have varied from year to year since the beginning of public school operation. This study attempts to determine those increased cost items in rural high schools which can be contributed directly to the passage of the Gilmer-Aikin Bills.
Date: August 1950
Creator: Pinkerton, Woodrow W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of School Financing in Selected Districts of Wise County, 1846-1955

Description: "This study is an effort to follow the development of the tax structure for public education in Wise County, Texas, and to point out the school tax changes which have taken place in this county during the period 1846-1955. Special emphasis is given to the changes during the last twenty years. The study is designed to present in a connected order the changes which have taken place in this area during this time, and to give the effects such changes may have had on the tax structure and the commmunity. Four schools, Decatur, Chico, Alvord, and Greenwood, have been chosen for this study. These schools represent a cross-section of all the schools of Wise County from the largest independent school to one of the few common schools now existing in the county." -- leaf 1.
Date: August 1955
Creator: Watson, James Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Study of School District Expenditures in Texas Since the Enactment of Senate Bill 7

Description: The purposes of this study were to: (a) determine the effects of Senate Bill 7 on expenditures in Texas school districts, (b) compare similarities and differences in expenditures among property-poor, medium-wealth, and wealthy-districts, (c) analyze spending patterns in light of equalization efforts, and (d) provide useful data to researchers in the area of equalization and adequacy.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Odle, B. Neal (Barry Neal)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Alternative Funding Models for Public School Finance in Texas

Description: This study examined different funding methods for financing public education in order to solve the problems associated with large numbers of school districts and great disparities in property wealth without abandonment of property tax as the major revenue source. Using enrollment and State Property Tax Board data for the 1,061 school districts in Texas in 1986-87, four alternative funding plans were studied to compare the equity and fiscal impact of each on public school finance in Texas. The state and local shares of the total cost of education were computed using a combination of three per-pupil expenditure levels and four funding formulas. The per-pupil expenditure levels used were $3,850, $4,200, and $4,580. The formulas used were representative of a full state funding plan, a percentage equalization plan, a power equalization plan, and a foundation school program plan. Since each of the four plans used significantly higher per-pupil expenditure values, all required a greater monetary investment on the part of the state. However, all plans were found to be equalizing in nature if set per-pupil expenditure values were maintained and no local enrichment was permitted. In addition, each of the four plans, as studied, met the fiscal neutrality standard of the 1987 Edqewood v. Kirbv case. The percentage and power equalization plans required less monetary investment on the part of the state than either full state funding or the foundation school program. As a result of the study, it is recommended that the state consider a combination of plans. For example, the state could employ a full state funding model up to the $3,850 per-pupil expenditure level with added permissible local millage being limited and power equalized. In addition, while each of the plans studied reduces inequity, the increased cost of an adequate public school education suggests that the state consider ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Hair, Janet C. (Janet Cantrell)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Equity in Texas Public Education Facilities Funding

Description: The need to establish appropriate, adequate, and decent educational facilities for school children across the nation has been well-established. The ability of school districts in each state to build these facilities has varied widely in the past. Historically, most facilities funding ability for school districts has come from the local community and has been tied to property wealth and the ability of the community to raise significant tax dollars to pay for school buildings. Responding to an expanding need for increased facilities funding and school funding litigation, the state of Texas added facilities funding mechanisms for public school facilities construction in the late 1990s. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the methods of facilities funding were equitable in the state of Texas. In this study, equity values were framed around three equity concepts established in school funding equity literature. These three concepts were (1) horizontal equity defined as the equal treatment of equals, (2) vertical equity defined as the unequal treatment of unequals, and (3) wealth neutrality defined as the absence of a relationship between school district wealth and the equal opportunity of students. The sample comprised 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Well-established equity measures were administered to data including capital outlays, weighted per pupil capital outlays, instructional facilities allotments, and school district wealth. Horizontal equity measures included the McLoone index, the Verstegen index, the federal range ratio, and the coefficient of variation tests. The Odden-Picus Adequacy index (OPAI) was administered to determine levels of vertical equity. Finally, wealth neutrality was determined utilizing the Pearson product-moment correlation test. Findings indicated that there were poor horizontal equity levels both in the top half and bottom half of the distribution of capital outlay spenders. A coefficient of variation test was administered to determine overall ...
Date: May 2007
Creator: Luke, Charles A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of the Recapture Provision of Senate Bill 7 of 1993 Upon the Quality of Schools: an Analysis of Perceptions of Administrators in Both Chapter 41 and Chapter 42 Schools.

Description: The purpose of this 4-case study was to determine the significance of the effects of the recapture legislation in Texas upon the quality of schools as perceived by administrators in participating school districts, including those surrendering funds (Chapter 41) and those receiving funds (Chapter 42). The recapture provision requires districts above a designated level of property wealth to surrender excess funds to be appropriated to districts with property wealth below a designated level. The study solicited administrators’ perceptions in both district types as to whether the changes in funding have significantly affected the quality of their schools. Using University Scholastic League classifications as a guideline for size, 2 Chapter 41 districts, and 2 Chapter 42 districts, 1 small and 1 large of each type, were selected to participate. Variables included 5 indicators of schools quality that are repeatedly mentioned in literature concerning effective schools: curriculum, climate, leadership, facilities, and safety and security. A review of literature included the historical development of public school finance systems as well as studies of the effects of efforts to equalize funding upon both the financial health and academic performance of schools. A weak link or no link between funding systems and student performance or financial health was indicated. This study supported these conclusions with both Chapter 42 districts; however, there was a discrepancy between the perceptions of administrators in the two Chapter 41 districts, indicating a need for further study. The unique aspects of this study are that it solicited directly the perceptions of acting administrators and that it included administrators in districts receiving funds to determine how those funds are being used and whether they have a significant effect upon school quality.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Warren, Susanne Steele
Partner: UNT Libraries

Resource Allocation Efficiency at the Elementary and Middle School Levels in a Texas School District

Description: In recent years much attention has gone to school efficiency, as determined by assessing student achievement relative to expenditures at the school district level. The present study built on prior work in school efficiency with a focus on the school campus level instead of the district level. Included in the study were 28 elementary and middle school campuses in a selected school district in Texas. The approach taken in the investigation was data envelopment analysis (DEA), which provided scores for efficiency and was intended to provide clarity on efficiency research at the campus level. Past studies using the DEA model have involved business and private institutions, but not public schools. The DEA model calculated and assigned efficiency scores for each campuses. The two variable categories used to determine campus efficiency were student demographics and resource allocation. The total enrollment numbers included the number of White, economically disadvantaged, at-risk, and limited English proficiency students. The resource allocation variables included the total expenditures in instruction, instructional related services, instructional leadership, campus leadership, and student support services. The efficiency scores paired with student achievement scores determined campus efficiency and effectiveness. An effective and efficiency framework was used to represent the data with student achievement on the y-axis and campus efficiency scores on the x-axis. I applied Pearson product moment and regression analyses using the same variables as previous studies. The Pearson product moment assessed the correlation between student demographic variables, function code variables, and campus efficiency. The Pearson product showed a weak positive relationship between the number of White students and the number of LEP students enrolled in the district. The analysis also showed moderate and strong negative relationships between efficiency and instructional leadership and student support services. The regression analysis identified the student demographic and function code variables that affected the level ...
Date: May 2014
Creator: Hamlin, Lance
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Proposed Plan for Equalizing the Financial Burdens of Hill County Public Schools

Description: "This study consists of two phases: (1) as study of existing financial conditions of the public schools of Hill county based on assessed valuations, tax rates, expenses per scholastic, and investments per scholastic in bond and capital outlay, and (2) a proposed plan for equalizing the existing inequalities..the study includes all of the 82 public schools of Hill County,Texas. The study includes 63 common school districts, 4 independent districts under county supervision, 2 rural high schools, and 13 independent districts. These schools range in scholastic population from 27 to 1974."--leaf 1
Date: August 1937
Creator: Savage, Elijah Monroe
Partner: UNT Libraries