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Return on investment (ROI) proposal preparation guide

Description: The ROI Proposal Preparation Guide is a tool to assist Hanford waste generators in preparing ROI proposal forms for submittal to RL. The guide describes the requirements for submitting an ROI proposal and provides examples of completed ROI forms. The intent is to assist waste generators in identifying projects that meet the criteria, provide information necessary complete the ROI forms with all of the required information, and submit a proposal that is eligible to receive funding.
Date: January 21, 1997
Creator: Renner, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minnesota Agripower Project, Task IV research report

Description: Economic analysis is being conducted by the Department of Applied Economics in support of Minnesota Alfalfa Producer`s development of alfalfa as a dedicated biomass feedstock for energy production. University Researchers have assisted in the development and implementation of inventory control systems and procedures. This report lists the tasks for which researchers are currently finalizing economic analysis. The tasks encompass three main areas: (1) optimization of feedstock transportation system, (2) analysis of market potential for new alfalfa products, and (3) total systems analysis.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Fruin, J. & Tiffany, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

Description: This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Kay, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-scale hybrid poplar production economics: 1995 Alexandria, Minnesota establishment cost and management

Description: The purpose of this project was to track and monitor costs of planting, maintaining, and monitoring large scale commercial plantings of hybrid poplar in Minnesota. These costs assists potential growers and purchasers of this resource to determine the ways in which supply and demand may be secured through developing markets.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Downing, M.; Langseth, D.; Stoffel, R. & Kroll, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slag characterization and removal using pulse detonation for coal gasification

Description: This report is a preliminary economic analysis of the Sherburne Co. plant North State Power. This analysis is made with the cooperation of Joe Brojberg (senior analysis engineer of NSP) and Steve Bension (Slag and ash specialist, President of Microbeam Technologies Incorporated (MTI) of North Dakota) and Paul Johnson of Diamond Power Speciality.
Date: June 25, 1997
Creator: Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Biney, P.O. & Zhou, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic analysis of efficient distribution transformer trends

Description: This report outlines an approach that will account for uncertainty in the development of evaluation factors used to identify transformer designs with the lowest total owning cost (TOC). The TOC methodology is described and the most highly variable parameters are discussed. The model is developed to account for uncertainties as well as statistical distributions for the important parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The TOC methodology is applied to data provided by two utilities in order to test its validity.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Downing, D. J.; McConnell, B. W.; Barnes, P. R.; Hadley, S. W. & Van Dyke, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities

Description: In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Hill, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

Description: PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.
Date: December 1, 2013
Creator: Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW & Pratt, Richard M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Impact in the U.S. of Deepwater Projects: A Survey of Five Projects

Description: This survey report discusses deepwater projects centered in the Gulf Coast. Their study is interested in vendors or contractors supplying the equipment used on the deck and process in extracting oil. The authors are also interested in the socioeconomic effects of the oil extracting on local communities.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Stiff, John J. & Singelmann, Joachim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An applied study using systems engineering methods to prioritize green systems options

Description: For many years, there have been questions about the effectiveness of applying different green solutions. If you're building a home and wish to use green technologies, where do you start? While all technologies sound promising, which will perform the best over time? All this has to be considered within the cost and schedule of the project. The amount of information available on the topic can be overwhelming. We seek to examine if Systems Engineering methods can be used to help people choose and prioritize technologies that fit within their project and budget. Several methods are used to gain perspective into how to select the green technologies, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Kepner-Tregoe. In our study, subjects applied these methods to analyze cost, schedule, and trade-offs. Results will document whether the experimental approach is applicable to defining system priorities for green technologies.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Lee, Sonya M & Macdonald, John M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

Description: A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.
Date: December 1, 2006
Creator: Shropshire, David; Williams, Kent; Smith, J.D. & Boore, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process/economic strategy for upgrading shale oil

Description: A prime difficulty with the production of transportation fuels from Western US shale oil is the high heteroatom content, especially nitrogen. Nitrogen containing molecules are known to have high market value for non-fuel uses. Selective extraction of nitrogen-containing molecules from shale oil recovers these potentially valuable components while upgrading the remaining shale oil for refining to transportation fuels. A thermodynamically logical separation process sequence consisting of primarily distillation and liquid-liquid extraction has been shown effective in selective isolation of polar heteroatom-containing molecules. The polar fraction may be processed for the production of chemical intermediates and specialty chemicals of high value. Projected material balances show an overall product split of 80% refinery feed and 20% polar products. Based on product values and composition, a preliminary economic analysis yields 30% internal rate of return. A summary of the economic strategy, process results and promising products will be presented.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Devineni, P.A.V.; Cogswell, D.E. & Wiser, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States country report for IEA integrated bioenergy systems activity

Description: This paper describes efforts to model hybrid poplar and switchgrass production costs and supply curves. Estimates of the full economic cost of producing switchgrass bales and hybrid poplar chips in six US regions are presented. Average production costs vary by region and yield, ranging from $US 25 to $62/dry ton for switchgrass bales and $US 30 to $86/dry ton for poplar chips. Biomass prices are generally lower for switchgrass than for hybrid poplar, and are higher in the Lake States and Corn Belt than for other regions. Estimated national biomass supply curves are also presented. Assuming average US yields of 5 dry ton/acre/year, approximately 300 million dry tons of switchgrass could be supplied nationally at farm-gate prices of less than $30/dry ton. Approximately 250 million dry tons of woody crops can be potentially supplied nationally at farm-gate prices of less than $40/dry ton. This is enough biomass to produce 24 to 33 billion gallons of ethanol at a feedstock price of $0.36 to $0.63/gal (depending on conversion efficiency), or 600 billion kWh at a price of $0.04 to $0.05/kWh.
Date: September 22, 1995
Creator: Walsh, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model documentation report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System

Description: This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 1997 (AEO 97). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code. This document serves three purposes. First it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS MAM used for the AEO 1997 production runs for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Base case and perturbation scenarios

Description: This report describes fourteen energy factors that could affect electricity markets in the future (demand, process, source mix, etc.). These fourteen factors are believed to have the most influence on the State� s energy environment. A base case, or most probable, characterization is given for each of these fourteen factors over a twenty year time horizon. The base case characterization is derived from quantitative and qualitative information provided by State of California government agencies, where possible. Federal government databases are nsed where needed to supplement the California data. It is envisioned that a initial selection of issue areas will be based upon an evaluation of them under base case conditions. For most of the fourteen factors, the report identities possible perturbations from base case values or assumptions that may be used to construct additional scenarios. Only those perturbations that are plausible and would have a significant effect on energy markets are included in the table. The fourteen factors and potential perturbations of the factors are listed in Table 1.1. These perturbations can be combined to generate internally consist.ent. combinations of perturbations relative to the base case. For example, a low natural gas price perturbation should be combined with a high natural gas demand perturbation. The factor perturbations are based upon alternative quantitative forecasts provided by other institutions (the Department of Energy - Energy Information Administration in some cases), changes in assumptions that drive the quantitative forecasts, or changes in assumptions about the structure of the California energy markets. The perturbations are intended to be used for a qualitative reexamination of issue areas after an initial evaluation under the base case. The perturbation information would be used as a �tiebreaker;� to make decisions regarding those issue areas that were marginally accepted or rejected under the base case. Hf a quantitative scoring ...
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Edmunds, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

From monopoly to markets: Milestones along the road. Occasional paper {number_sign}25

Description: This report analyzes developments in the electric utility industry using the tools of transaction cost economics. During the last thirty years, the tools of economic analysis have been substantially expanded--notably, Oliver Williamson, building on the insights of Coase and others, has made significant contributions through his work in developing the new institutional economics, of which transaction cost economics reasoning plays a major role. Because of the relevance of the new institutional economics to public utilities and public utility regulation, the theoretical insights of the new institutional economics have been applied to many aspects of public utility industry structure, governance, and regulation. The contributions of Joskow and Schmalensee are most notable, but many other economists have made theoretical and empirical contributions. These insights are very applicable to the issues that policymakers and regulators are likely to address as electric restructuring progresses. The goal of this report is to synthesize the theoretical work on the new institutional economics with the recent developments in the electric utility industry--most notably, the rapid trend toward competition in electric generation, both in the US and abroad. Transaction-cost-economics reasoning provides an analytical structure for understanding the implications of asset specificity, asymmetric and imperfect information, reputation effects, ex ante contracting costs, ex post contract maladaption issues, and issues that arise because contracts are incomplete. The insights that transaction cost economics can provide are very timely to the debates currently going on with respect to electric restructuring issues.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Olson, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results and conclusions test capabilities task group summary report

Description: This annotated briefing documents an economic analysis of Sandia`s system-level test facilities maintained and operated by the Design, Evaluation, and Test Technology Center 9700. The study was divided into four primary sub-tasks: (1) Estimation of the future system-level test workload, (2) Development of a consistent economic model to estimate the cost of maintaining and operating the test facilities, (3) Determination of the availability of viable alternative test sites, and (4) Assessment of the potential savings through reduction of excess capacity under various facility-closure scenarios. The analysis indicated that potential savings from closing all facilities could approach $6 million per year. However, large uncertainties in these savings remove any sound economic arguments for such closure: it is possible that testing at alternative sites could cost more than maintaining the current set of system-level test facilities. Finally, a number of programmatic risks incurred by facility closure were identified. Consideration of facility closure requires a careful weighing of any projected economic benefit against these programmatic risks. This summary report covers the briefing given to upper management. A more detailed discussion of the data and analyses is given in the full report, available for internal use from the technical library.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Bomber, T.; Pierce, K.; Easterling, R. & Rogers, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A manual for the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

Description: This manual is a guide for analyzing the economics of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE) technologies and projects. It is intended (1) to help analysts determine the appropriate approach or type of analysis and the appropriate level of detail and (2) to assist EE analysts in completing consistent analyses using standard assumptions and bases, when appropriate. Included are analytical techniques that are commonly required for the economic analysis of EE technologies and projects. The manual consists of six sections: Introduction, Fundamentals, Selection Criteria Guide, Economic Measures, Special Considerations for Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems, and References. A glossary and eight appendices are also included. Each section has a brief introductory statement, a presentation of necessary formulae, a discussion, and when appropriate, examples and descriptions of data and data availability. The objective of an economic analysis is to provide the information needed to make a judgment or a decision. The most complete analysis of an investment in a technology or a project requires the analysis of each year of the life of the investment, taking into account relevant direct costs, indirect and overhead costs, taxes, and returns on investment, plus any externalities, such as environmental impacts, that are relevant to the decision to be made. However, it is important to consider the purpose and scope of a particular analysis at the outset because this will prescribe the course to follow. The perspective of the analysis is important, often dictating the approach to be used. Also, the ultimate use of the results of an analysis will influence the level of detail undertaken. The decision-making criteria of the potential investor must also be considered.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Short, W.; Packey, D.J. & Holt, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

Description: As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Ohnsorg, R. W.; Hollar, W. E., Jr.; Lau, S. K.; Ko, F. K. & Schatz, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic analysis of ethanol production from switchgrass using hybrid thermal/biological processing

Description: The economics of ethanol production from switchgrass using Waterloo fast pyrolysis with a fermentation step is investigated. Standard chemical engineering methods are used to estimate capital investment and operating costs. Order of magnitude method is employed for preliminary approximation of capital investment. The azeotropic ethanol production capacity used in this case study is 189 million liters/year (50 million gallons/year). All cost figures are updated to 1997 US $. Total capital investment is estimated to be $142 million, while the annual operating cost is about $118 million with an ethanol selling price of $0.62/l ($2.35/gal). This compares to $0.58/l ($2.20/gal) for ethanol from popular wood as determined in a previous study of the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process. Conservation of energy, especially, in the separation and purification steps, and generation of steam from lignin to meet energy requirements are evaluated in terms of energy saving costs. Additional steam has to be purchased, at $0.30 million/year, in order to meet the heat energy requirement of the process. Sensitivity analyses of feedstock cost and yield of sugar fermentation on the selling price of ethanol show that feedstock cost is positively related to ethanol selling price, while the yield has a negative relationship with selling price.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: So, K.S.; Brown, R.C. & Scott, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing strategies to address transition costs in a restructuring electricity industry

Description: Restructuring the US electricity industry has become the nation`s central energy issue for the 1990s. Restructuring proposals at the federal and state levels focus on more competitive market structures for generation and the integration of transmission within those structures. The proposed move to more competitive generation markets will expose utility costs that are above those experienced by alternative suppliers. Debate about these above-market, or transition, costs (e.g., their size,who will pay for them and how) has played a prominent role in restructuring proceedings. This paper presents results from a project to systematically assess strategies to address transition costs exposed by restructuring the electricity industry.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Baxter, L.; Hadley, S. & Hirst, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program

Description: This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M. & Vyas, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department