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Safety survey report EBR-II safety survey, ANL-west health protection, industrial safety and fire protection survey

Description: A safety survey covering the disciplines of Reactor Safety, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection was conducted at the ANL-West EBR-II FEF Complex during the period January 10-18, 1972. In addition, the entire ANL-West site was surveyed for Health Protection and Industrial Safety and Fire Protection. The survey was conducted by members of the AEC Chicago Operations Office, a member of RDT-HQ and a member of the RDT-ID site office. Eighteen recommendations resulted from the survey, eleven in the area of Industrial Safety and Fire Protection, five in the area of Reactor Safety and two in the area of Nuclear Criticality Safety.
Date: January 10, 1972
Creator: Dunbar, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time series analysis of nuclear instrumentation in EBR-II

Description: Results of a time series analysis of the scaler count data from the 3 wide range nuclear detectors in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II are presented. One of the channels was replaced, and it was desired to determine if there was any statistically significant change (ie, improvement) in the channel`s response after the replacement. Data were collected from all 3 channels for 16-day periods before and after detector replacement. Time series analysis and statistical tests showed that there was no significant change after the detector replacement. Also, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 channels, either before or after the replacement. Finally, it was determined that errors in the reactivity change inferred from subcritical count monitoring during fuel handling would be on the other of 20-30 cents for single count intervals.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Imel, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planning for closure and deactivation of the EBR-II complex

Description: In January 1994, DOE terminated the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program. Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a detailed plan to put Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a safe condition, including removal of irradiated fueled subassemblies from the plant, transfer of subassemblies, and removal and stabilization of primary and secondary sodium liquid heat transfer metal. The goal of deactivation is to stabilize the EBR-II complex until decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) is implemented, thereby minimizing maintenance and surveillance. Deactivation of a sodium cooled reactor presents unique concerns. Residual sodium in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude concerns with explosive sodium-air reactions. Also, residual sodium on components will effectively solder these items in place, making removal unfeasible. Several special cases reside in the primary system, including primary cold traps, a cesium trap, a cover gas condenser, and systems containing sodium-potassium alloy. The sodium or sodium-potassium alloy in these components must be reacted in place or the components removed. The Sodium Components Maintenance Shop at ANL-W provides the capability for washing primary components, removing residual quantities of sodium while providing some decontamination capacity. Considerations need to be given to component removal necessary for providing access to primary tank internals for D&D activities, removal of hazardous materials, and removal of stored energy sources. ANL-W`s plan for the deactivation of EBR-II addresses these issues, providing for an industrially and radiologically safe complex, requiring minimal surveillance during the interim period between deactivation and D&D. Throughout the deactivation and closure of the EBR-II complex, federal environmental concerns will be addressed, including obtaining the proper permits for facility condition and waste processing and disposal. 2 figs.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; Poland, H.F. & Wells, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deactivation of the EBR-II complex

Description: In January of 1994, the Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to place the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The ultimate goal of the deactivation process is to place the EBR-II complex in a stable condition until a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan can be prepared, thereby minimizing requirements for maintenance and surveillance and maximizing the amount of time for radioactive decay. The final closure state will be achieved in full compliance with federal, state and local environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. The decision to delay the development of a detailed D&D plan has necessitated this current action. The EBR-II is a pool-type reactor. The primary system contains approximately 87,000 gallons of sodium, while the secondary system has 13,000 gallons. In order to properly dispose of the sodium in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), a facility has been built to react the sodium to a dry carbonate powder in a two stage process. Deactivation of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) presents unique concerns. Residual amounts of sodium remaining in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude future concerns with sodium-air reactions that generate explosive mixtures of hydrogen and leave corrosive compounds. Residual amounts of sodium on components will effectively {open_quotes}solder{close_quotes} components in place, making future operation or removal unfeasible.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Michelbacher, J.A.; Earle, O.K. & Henslee, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The EBR-II spent fuel treatment program

Description: Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for demonstrating a high-temperature electrometallurgical process for treating spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-11. Two waste forms will be produced and qualified for geologic disposal of the fission and activation products. Relatively pure uranium will be separated for storage. Following additional development, transuranium elements will be blended into one of the high-level waste streams. The spent fuel treatment program will help assess the viability of electrometallurgical technology as a spent fuel management option.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Lineberry, M.J. & McFarlane, H.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Considerations for advanced reactor design based on EBR-II experience.

Description: The long-term success of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) provides several insights into fundamental characteristics and design features of a nuclear generating station that enhance safety, operability, and maintainability. Some of these same characteristics, together with other features, offer the potential for operational lifetimes well beyond the current licensing time frame, and improved reliability that could potentially reduce amortized capital costs as well as overall operation and maintenance costs if incorporated into advanced plant designs. These features and characteristics are described and the associated benefits are discussed.
Date: May 26, 1999
Creator: King, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deployment evaluation methodology for the electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-EM spent nuclear fuel

Description: Part of the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory may require some type of treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The current focus for much of this spent nuclear fuel is the electrometallurgical treatment process under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Potential flowsheets for this treatment process are presented. Deployment of the process for the treatment of the spent nuclear fuel requires evaluation to determine the spent nuclear fuel program need for treatment and compatibility of the spent nuclear fuel with the process. The evaluation of need includes considerations of cost, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule to treat a proposed fuel. A siting evaluation methodology has been developed to account for these variables. A work breakdown structure is proposed to gather life-cycle cost information to allow evaluation of alternative siting strategies on a similar basis. The evaluation methodology, while created specifically for the electrometallurgical evaluation, has been written such that it could be applied to any potential treatment process that is a disposition option for spent nuclear fuel. Future work to complete the evaluation of the process for electrometallurgical treatment is discussed.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Dahl, C.A.; Adams, J.P. & Ramer, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-matrix fuels

Description: The electrometallurgical treatment process described in this paper builds on our experience in treating spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). The work is also to some degree, a spin-off from applying electrometallurgical treatment to spent fuel from the Hanford single pass reactors (SPRs) and fuel and flush salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in treating EBR-II fuel, we recover the actinides from a uranium-zirconium fuel by electrorefining the uranium out of the chopped fuel. With SPR fuel, uranium is electrorefined out of the aluminum cladding. Both of these processes are conducted in a LiCl-KCl molten-salt electrolyte. In the case of the MSRE, which used a fluoride salt-based fuel, uranium in this salt is recovered through a series of electrochemical reductions. Recovering high-purity uranium from an aluminum-matrix fuel is more challenging than treating SPR or EBR-II fuel because the aluminum- matrix fuel is typically -90% (volume basis) aluminum.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Willit, J.L.; Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; McPheeters, C.C. & Laidler, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial cathode processing experiences and results for the treatment of spent fuel

Description: As part of the spent fuel treatment demonstration at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, primarily consisting of a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a batch operation termed ``cathode processing.`` Cathode processing is performed in a retort furnace which enables the production of a stable uranium product that can be isotopically diluted and stored. To date, experiments have been performed with two distillation units; one for prototypical testing and the other for actual spent fuel treatment operations. The results and experiences from these initial experiments with both units will be discussed as well as problems encountered and their resolution.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Westphal, B.R.; Laug, D.V.; Brunsvold, A.R. & Roach, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planning and supervision of reactor defueling using discrete event techniques

Description: New fuel handling and conditioning activities for the defueling of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II are being performed at Argonne National Laboratory. Research is being conducted to investigate the use of discrete event simulation, analysis, and optimization techniques to plan, supervise, and perform these activities in such a way that productivity can be improved. The central idea is to characterize this defueling operation as a collection of interconnected serving cells, and then apply operational research techniques to identify appropriate planning schedules for given scenarios. In addition, a supervisory system is being developed to provide personnel with on-line information on the progress of fueling tasks and to suggest courses of action to accommodate changing operational conditions. This paper provides an introduction to the research in progress at ANL. In particular, it briefly describes the fuel handling configuration for reactor defueling at ANL, presenting the flow of material from the reactor grid to the interim storage location, and the expected contributions of this work. As an example of the studies being conducted for planning and supervision of fuel handling activities at ANL, an application of discrete event simulation techniques to evaluate different fuel cask transfer strategies is given at the end of the paper.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Garcia, H.E.; Imel, G.R. & Houshyar, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of uranium and uranium-zirconium deposits produced in electrorefining of spent nuclear fuel

Description: This paper describes the metallurgical characterization of deposits produced in molten salt electrorefining of uranium and uranium - 10.% zirconium alloy. The techniques of characterization are described with emphasis on considerations given to the radioactive and pyrophoric nature of the samples. The morphologies observed and their implications for deposit performance are also presented - samples from pure uranium deposits were comprised of chains of uranium crystals with a characteristic rhomboidal shape, while morphologies of samples from deposits containing zirconium showed more polycrystalline features. Zirconium was found to be present as a second, zirconium metal phase at or very near the uranium-zirconium dendrite surfaces. Higher collection efficiencies and total deposit weights were observed for the uranium-zirconium deposits; this performance increase is likely a result of better mechanical properties exhibited by the uranium-zirconium dendrite morphology. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Totemeier, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent advances during the treatment of spent EBR-II fuel

Description: Several recent advances have been achieved for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. In anticipation of production operations at Argonne National Laboratory-West, development of both electrorefining and metal processing has been ongoing in the post-demonstration phase in order to further optimize the process. These development activities show considerable promise. This paper discusses the results of recent experiments as well as plans for future investigations.
Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: Westphal, B. R.; Mariani, R. D.; Vaden, D. E.; Sherman, S. R.; Li, S. X. & Keiser, D. D., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive robust control of the EBR-II reactor

Description: Simulation results are presented for an adaptive H{sub {infinity}} controller, a fixed H{sub {infinity}} controller, and a classical controller. The controllers are applied to a simulation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II primary system. The controllers are tested for the best robustness and performance by step-changing the demanded reactor power and by varying the combined uncertainty in initial reactor power and control rod worth. The adaptive H{sub {infinity}} controller shows the fastest settling time, fastest rise time and smallest peak overshoot when compared to the fixed H{sub {infinity}} and classical controllers. This makes for a superior and more robust controller.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Power, M. A. & Edwards, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplified modeling of the EBR-II control rods

Description: Simplified models of EBR-II control and safety rods have been developed for core modeling under various operational and shutdown conditions. A parametric study was performed on normal worth, high worth, and safety rod type control rods. A summary of worth changes due to individual modeling approximations is tabulated. Worth effects due to structural modeling simplification are negligible. Fuel region homogenization and burnup compression contributes more than any other factor. Reference case C/E values (ratio of calculated worth from detailed model to measured worth) of 1.072 and 1.142 for safety and normal worth rods indicate acceptable errors when the approximations are used. Fuel burnup effect illustrates rod worth sensitivity to the modeling approximation. Aggregate effects are calculated under a reduced mesh.
Date: June 25, 1995
Creator: Angelo, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core-loading diagrams for EBR-II runs 51-67 (August 1971--December 1973). EBR-II Project

Description: The core-loading diagrams for EBR-II runs 51 through 67, which were made in EBR-II between August 1971 and December 1973 are presented. During those runs, the reactor accumulated 25,679 MWd of operation. (The reactor had been operated for an additional 46,863 MWd in runs 1-50, made between August 1964 and August 1971.) The loading diagrams appear in numerical, and thus chronological, order. Locations of experiments are highlighted in each diagram through the use of a black background behind the identifying numbers of the experiments. The center of the core is identified in each diagram by a circle, and the core sectors are identified by the letters A through F around the perimeter of the core diagram. A table at the end of the report summarizes the pertinent information for every EBR-II run through run 67. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Case, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor Development Program Progress Report, April 1962

Description: Research and development of water-cooled reactors are reported including work on EBWR and BORAX-V. Work on liquid metal cooled reactors is also reported in sections on general research and development, EBR-I and II, aud FARET. Other work is reported on genenal nuclear technology and advanced systems development. (J.R.D.)
Date: May 15, 1962
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department