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Drying ear corn with heated air.

Description: Provides a comparison of drying corn with heated air versus unheated air, the equipment and construction necessary to dry ear corn with heated air, and the benefits of drying corn with this method.
Date: September 1952
Creator: United States. Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering. Division of Farm Buildings and Rural Housing.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drying ear corn with unheated air.

Description: Provides a comparison of drying corn with heated air versus unheated air, the equipment and construction necessary to dry ear corn with unheated air, and the benefits of drying corn with this method.
Date: September 1952
Creator: United States. Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering. Division of Farm Buildings and Rural Housing.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drying Fruits and Vegetables in the Home with Recipes for Cooking

Description: "Fruits and vegetables may be dried in the home by simple processes and stored for future use. Especially when canning is not feasible, or cans and jars are too expensive, drying offers a means of saving large quantities of surplus products which go to waste each year in garden and fruit plots. Drying also affords a way of conserving portions of food which are too small for canning. The drying may be done in the sun, over the kitchen stove, or before an electric fan. Manufacturers have placed driers on the market. Homemade driers are satisfactory.... The principles, methods, and equipment are described in the following pages." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: United States. Department of Agriculture.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

Description: Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.
Date: July 15, 2006
Creator: States, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm and Home Drying of Fruits and Vegetables

Description: "Imperative necessity demands nation-wide conservation of those portions of our food crops which have heretofore been permitted to go to waste. A considerable portion of this wasted food material is made up of perishable fruits and vegetables produced in home gardens and fruit plats in excess of the immediate needs of the producers and in the absence of accessible markets for the surplus. Drying offers a simple, convenient, and economical method for preserving food materials and permits the carrying over of the surplus into periods in which fresh fruits and vegetables are expensive or unobtainable.... Directions for the preparation, drying, and subsequent storage and care of the dried products are given fully for each of the more important fruits and vegetables." -- p. 2
Date: 1918
Creator: Caldwell, Joseph S. (Joseph Stuart)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactivity Studies During Drying and Relocation of Lead-Zinc-Gold Tailings: Phase 1 - Preliminary Evaluation and Laboratory Testing

Description: The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation requested U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) assistance in developing design data for moving lead-zinc-gold tailings from their current location without disrupting the existing chemically stable conditions. This report presents results of USBM work in determining (1) the minimum required time to air dry the tailings to approximately 20 pct moisture under various drying conditions both in the laboratory and in the field, (2) the degree of oxidation or reduction that occurs during drying, (3) the effect of lime or cement addition before drying, and (4) the likely equilibrium conditions of the dried tailings after deposition at the new location. The limited number of tests performed by the USBM in the available time frame established trends in oxidation levels but did not provide absolute statistical validity of data values. All data from drying and oxidation testing are included in appendices to this report.
Date: 1995
Creator: Froisland, L. J. & Lym, P. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forest Products: Molten Film Paper Dryer

Description: With the help of the U.S. Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations Program, industry is developing a revolutionary new process for drying paper that could save as much as nine million barrels of crude oil annually in the United States. Read this informative new fact sheet to learn more about this money-saving invention.
Date: January 29, 1999
Creator: Recca, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

Description: This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.
Date: September 24, 1997
Creator: Irwin, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaporation of Apples

Description: "While the recent tendency in the apple industry has apparently been to centralize fruit evaporation in distinct commercial establishments having considerable capacity and requiring capital to construct and equip, there sill remain large regions in which there is a considerable surplus of fruit that is unsuitable for packing and shipping in almost every crop year.... Encouragement of evaporating, canning, cider making, and other methods of utilization therefore appears desirable, and of these evaporating is the one that is most applicable at present to a wide range of conditions, and therefore of most importance to the average farmer." -- p. 2. Types of evaporators, methods of preparing and drying fruit, and the marketing and packing of apples are discussed.
Date: 1907
Creator: Gould, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

Description: This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.
Date: 1919
Creator: Tiemann, Harry D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drying crude drugs.

Description: Explains the fundamental principles of drying crude vegetable drugs. Provides drawings and instructions for constructing two types of driers.
Date: November 1921
Creator: Russell, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drying forage by forced ventilation.

Description: Discusses different systems of forced-air ventilation as a means of harvesting and drying forage crops.
Date: August 1951
Creator: Davis, Roy B. (Roy Benjamin), 1919-; Schoenleber, Leonard G. & Campbell, Lowell Eugene, 1920-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Evaporation and Drying of Fruits

Description: This bulletin gives methods and instructions for drying and evaporating fruits. Among the methods discussed are drying by kiln, artificial heat, and the sun. Details for market preparation are also provided. Apples, peaches, pears, cherries, prunes, apricots, and berries are fruits which may be dried.
Date: 1917
Creator: Beattie, James H. (James Herbert), b. 1882 & Gould, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF A ENERGY SAVING GRAIN DRYING INVENTION

Description: The project goal is to develop the world's best grain dryer, where best is defined in terms of energy efficiency, grain quality protection, and minimal environmental impact. A technique was developed to recapture enthalpy from a continuous flow drying system and to carry that energy back into the grain kernels. Process design assures that the recaptured energy is used to provide latent heat for evaporation of moisture from the kernels. Maximum kernel temperatures are tightly controlled by the design and can be selected through the system controls. The drying system process has been simulated, the mechanical design for a prototype was completed, and the prototype has been fabricated and installed. Simulation results show energy use that is a fraction of that required by the most efficient heat assisted grain dryer systems available at this time. Unfortunately, project time has expired, funding has been exhausted, and the system has yet to be fully run in order to validate the process design. Additional development work is required to run tests with the prototype, improve the simulation model, optimize the process and mechanical design, and bring this energy saving system to market.
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: SHIVVERS, STEVE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Moisture studies of a self-drying roof: Tests in the large scale climate simulator and results from thermal and hygric models

Description: Simultaneous experiments on the moisture behavior of six low-slope roof systems were performed in a climate simulator. The systems comprised a self-drying design over a conventional metal deck, a self-drying design over a significantly more permeable slotted metal deck and four others over conventional metal decks: a system typical of US construction with a liquid water permeable vapor retarder, a system typical of European construction with a liquid water permeable vapor retarder, a top-ventilated system with a polyethylene vapor retarder, and an impermeable control system with a polyethylene vapor retarder. Total weight of each test panel was measured and recorded continuously, along with temperatures and heat fluxes, to compare the behavior of the various systems. The authors imposed steady-state temperatures from hot summer to cold winter conditions to obtain the R-values of the construction dry insulations in each panel. Temperature cycles typical of hot summer days and mild winter days were then imposed above the construction dry assemblies to obtain baseline diurnal performance. The authors applied a one-dimensional thermal and hygric model. The solid and slotted deck were assumed to differ only in water vapor permeance. A model was not attempted for the top-ventilated system. The 1-D model predicted very well the slow rates of wetting in the winter cycles and both the slow then fast rates of drying in the summer cycles before and after water addition, except it overpredicted the drying rate for the US construction with a liquid water permeable vapor retarder.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Desjarlais, A.O.; Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W. & Atchley, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The minimum pore size obtainable in a silica gel during drying

Description: The pore size r{sub p} in a gel is determined by the extent of shrinkage of the gel network during drying. Shrinkage is driven by the collapse of the gel network in response to the capillary pressure P{sub c} exerted by the pore fluid. The extent of shrinkage depends on the balance between the capillary pressure P{sub c} in the pore fluid and the bulk modulus K{sub p} of the gel. The hydraulic pore radius, r{sub H} = 2V{sub p}/S{sub a}, where V{sub p} is the pore volume and S{sub a} is the apparent N{sub 2} BET surface area, is often used to characterize the pore size of a gel. A series of acid catalyzed silica gels dried in pore fluids with different {gamma}{sub lv}, showed that there is a limit to the minimum apparent r{sub H} obtainable in a gel, and when the volume fraction of porosity {phi} {le} 0.37, r{sub H} becomes constant and {approximately}0.8 nm. In contrast, experimental data show that the true pore size r{sub p} of gels continues to decrease when {phi} {le} 0.37. Analysis of their adsorption isotherms show that while r{sub H} apparently stays constant: (a) the BET C constant continues to increase, (b) the width and average of their pore size distributions continue to decrease, and (c) as shrinkage continues the gels eventually become non-porous to N{sub 2} at 77K but are still porous to CO{sub 2} at 273K. This paper reviews these results and addresses micropore formation in silica gels with the goal of determining how P{sub c} influences the final r{sub p}, and why r{sub p} and r{sub H} diverge when {phi} {le} 0.37.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Wallace, S.; Brinker, C. J. & Smith, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films

Description: Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Prakash, S.S.; Brinker, C.J. & Hurd, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hanford spent nuclear metal fuel multi-canister overpack and vacuum drying {ampersand} hot conditioning process

Description: Nuclear production reactors operated at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site from 1944 until 1988 to produce plutonium. Most of the irradiated fuel from these reactors was processed onsite to separate and recover the plutonium. When the processing facilities were closed in 1992, about 1,900 metric tons of unprocessed irradiated fuel remained in storage. Additional fuel was irradiated for research purposes or was shipped to the Hanford Site from offsite reactor facilities for storage or recovery of nuclear materials. The fuel inventory now in storage at the Hanford Site is predominantly N Reactor irradiated fuel, a metallic uranium alloy that is coextruded into zircaloy-2 cladding. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has rommitted to an accelerated schedule for removing spent nuclear fuel from the Hanford Site K Basins to a new interim storage facility in the 200 Area. Under the current proposed accelerated schedule, retrieval of spent nuclear fuel stored in the K East and West Basins must begin by December 1997 and be completed by December 1999. A key part of this action is retrieving fuel canisters from the water-filled K Basin storage pools and transferring them into multi@ister overpacks (MCOS) that will be used to handle and process the fuel, then store it after conditioning. The Westinghouse Hanford Company has developed an integrated process to deal with the K Basin spent fuel inventory. The process consists of cleaning the fuel, packaging it into MCOS, vacuum drying it at the K Basins, then transporting it to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) for staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage. This presentation dekribes the MCO function, design, and life-cycle, including an overview of the vacuum drying and hot conditioning processes.
Date: May 15, 1996
Creator: Irwin, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department