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Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from October 1st, 2003 through December 31st, 2003. It covers: technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period.
Date: January 1, 2004
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from April 1st, 2003 through June 30th, 2003. It covers; technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. It covers: technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period.
Date: August 5, 2005
Creator: Scandrol, Roy O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

Description: The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Benson, Steven A.; Crocker, Charlene R.; Galbreath, Kevin C.; Gunderson, Jay R.; Holmes, Michael J.; Laumb, Jason D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from July 1st, 2003 through September 30th, 2003. It covers; technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period.
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2005. It covers: technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period. Plant startup is still continuing. Testing of admixtures to enhance extrusion and SDA wetting is continuing. Efforts are underway to improve plant availability.
Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from July 1st, 2004 through September 30th, 2004. It covers: technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period. Plant startup, including equipment and system debugging, is underway. Minor adjustments to the SDA feed system, pug mill, and extruder were completed. Testing of admixtures to prevent the wetted SDA from sticking is continuing. The power plant is implementing a lime optimization program to reduce the calcium hydroxide values in the ash.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from January 1st, 2003 through March 31st, 2003. It covers; technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

Description: This quarterly report covers the period from October 1st, 2004 through December 31st, 2004. It covers: technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period. Plant startup is still continuing. Testing of admixtures to enhance extrusion and SDA wetting is continuing. Green extrudates and embedding material were loaded into the curing vessel on October 14th. The whole plant was integrated on December 16th. Efforts are underway to improve plant availability.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project

Description: CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Connell, Daniel P. & Locke, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Addendum to Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project: Additiona NH3, NOx, and CO Testing Results

Description: On March 28-30 and May 1-4, 2007, CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-MW Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The testing in March and May demonstrated that the multi-pollutant control system attained its performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, acid gas (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF) removal efficiency, and mercury removal efficiency. However, the ammonia slip measured between the SCR outlet and air heater inlet was consistently greater than the guarantee of 2 ppmvd {at} 3% O{sub 2}. As a result, additional testing was performed on May 30-June 1 and on June 20-21, 2007, in conjunction with tuning of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system by BPEI, in an effort to achieve the performance target for ammonia slip. This additional testing occurred after the installation of a large particle ash (LPA) screen and removal system just above the SCR reactor and a fresh SCR catalyst layer in mid-May. This report describes the results of the additional tests. During the May 30-June 1 sampling period, CONSOL R&D and Clean Air Engineering (CAE) each measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet, downstream of the in-duct SCR reactor. In addition, CONSOL R&D ...
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Connell, Daniel P. & Locke, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INTEGRATED SYSTEM TO CONTROL PRIMARY PM 2.5 FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Description: One of the major tasks of this project is to design and fabricate an Advanced ElectroCore field prototype system. The system is designed to handle 5,000 acfm of exhaust gas from a coal-fired power plant. The system consists of the Advanced ElectroCore module, a water-cooled precharger and a dry scrubber. The system is shown in Figure 1. LSR has completed the design drawings for the ElectroCore module and the water-cooled precharger. The design drawings for the dry scrubber are nearly complete. Merrick Environmental Technology, Inc. has completed most of the fabrication drawings for the ElectroCore module and for the water-cooled precharger. From the original schedule, the design task (Task 2) should have been completed by 15 July 2000. It now looks like this task will be finished by mid-October thereby putting the project about two months behind schedule. Much of the delay is due to design changes that will make this field prototype easier to transport and erect. These changes will make the unit much more valuable as an ElectroCore system sales tool at the end of this project.
Date: October 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

Description: This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream ...
Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Zhuang, Ye & Miller, Stanley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

Description: Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Scandrol, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

Description: Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.
Date: December 23, 1994
Creator: Amrhein, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

Description: North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, ...
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Benson, Steven A.; Crocker, Charlene R.; Galbreath, Kevin C.; Gunderson, Jay R.; Holmes, Mike J.; Laumb, Jason D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of mercury control techniques for utility boilers

Description: This paper gives an overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of mercury in flue gas by both dry sorbents and wet scrubbers. The emphasis in the research is on development of a better understanding of the key factors that control the capture of mercury. Future work is expected to utilize that information for the development of new or modified process concepts featuring enhanced mercury capture capabilities.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S. & Wu, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INTEGRATED SYSTEM TO CONTROL PRIMARY PM 2.5 FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Description: Mercury measurements were made by Southern Research Institute and conformed to the Ontario Hydro Method. EPA's current Reference Method 29A is for total mercury, whereas the Ontario Hydro procedure is capable of identifying the composition and species of the total mercury. One of the disadvantages of the Ontario Hydro Method is that it requires several weeks to complete the full analysis due to its extensive laboratory procedures. Mercury measurements were also obtained with a PS Analytical Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) owned by the U.S. EPA and contributed to this project by EPA's fine particulate group in Research Triangle Park. The PSA CEM functions on the principle of atomic fluorescence and is capable of measuring trace concentrations of mercury in water or air. The instrument was setup to monitor elemental and total mercury at the dry scrubber inlet and ElectroCore outlet. Each cycle required about 20 minutes to complete. Thus, the monitoring was not in ''real time'' in a strict sense, but did provide mercury tracking in continual batch processing. Particulate measurements were determined by EPA Method 5 as well as with a P5A continuous monitor. The P5A is on loan to the project through EPA and SRI. Calibration factors for the device were provided by SRI. All particulate data was analyzed and interpreted by LSR Technologies, with technical input from Armstrong Environmental and SRI.
Date: December 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

Description: The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including CONSOL Energy Inc. as prime contractor, AES Greenidge LLC as host site owner, and Babcock Power Environmental Inc. ...
Date: October 18, 2008
Creator: Connell, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

Description: The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control ...
Date: January 12, 2009
Creator: Connell, Daniel P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, February 1996. Final technical report

Description: Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System and the Trace Element Removal test blocks. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with impinger capture solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) was utilized in the TER test configuration this month. The B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit is being installed utilizing the Mini Pilot Flue Gas System. The 1.0 MW Cold- Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.
Date: February 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic studies of dry sorent for medium temperature applications. Final report

Description: The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental nature of sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C) available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focuses on the mechanisms of sorbent- flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first four years of research.
Date: July 12, 1996
Creator: Keener, T.C. & Wang, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1996--March 1996

Description: Summary of activities and key accomplishments are presented for the following tasks: NO{sub x} subsystem; SO{sub 2} particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem; boiler subsystem; balance of plant subsystem; and control and sensors subsystem. Combustion cases completed for the DRB-XCL{reg_sign} burner and the initial DRB-4Z{trademark} configuration were compared with measured furnace exit data and observed flame characteristics from the initial round of Subsystem Testing to baseline the models prior to parametric runs. A series of combustion models have been completed for the DRB-4Z{trademark} to evaluate the distributed introduction of secondary combustion air into the flame and key hardware components planned for the May Subsystem Testing campaign. On the basis of the results compiled during the concept selection process completed in Phase I, the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbers (LIDS) process was selected for further development and evaluation. Through engineering analysis, experimental testing, and numerical modeling, a LIDS process is being developed that is capable of ultra-high SO{sub 2} removal and superior particulate control while addressing the potential issues of air toxic emissions and solid byproduct utilization. The progress of the LIDS activities is discussed in this report.
Date: October 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department