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[Falling Rain]

Description: Photograph of water droplets. In the image, the fast moving droplets look like multiple flying saucers against a black backdrop. Narrative by Junebug Clark: One image out of a series of test images on how to capture Jack Daniel's Whiskey being Charcoal-Mellowed "drop by drop." Photo by: Joe Clark, HBSS. Signed by: Joe Clark, HBSS Clark PhotoFile: 7312
Date: October 19, 1956
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Impingement of water droplets on wedges and diamond airfoils at supersonic speeds

Description: "An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves" (p. 1).
Date: July 1953
Creator: Serafini, John S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Camera for Photographing Cloud Droplets in Natural Suspension in the Atmosphere

Description: "A camera designed for use in flight has been developed by the NACA Lewis laboratory to photograph cloud droplets in their natural suspension in the atmosphere. A magnification of 32 times is employed to distinguish for measurement purposes all sizes of droplets greater than 5 microns in diameter. Photographs can be taken at flight speeds up to 150 miles per hour at 5-second intervals, A field area of 0.025 square inch is photographed on 7-inch-width roll film accommodating 40 exposures on an 18-foot length" (p. 1).
Date: June 29, 1951
Creator: McCullough, Stuart & Perkins, Porter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Icing Properties of Noncyclonic Winter Stratus Clouds

Description: Note presenting measurements of the vertical distribution of liquid water concentration and drop size in winter stratus clouds in the absence of significant cyclonic or frontal activity. The observations indicate that the clouds are formed by turbulent mixing of the lower layers of the atmosphere, resulting in a region of constant specific humidity and adiabatic lapse rates. Calculations based on the observations were used to construct a graph that gives the liquid water concentration in terms of the temperature at the cloud base and the height above the base.
Date: September 1947
Creator: Lewis, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Water Droplets on a Rectangular Half Body in a Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow Field

Description: "Trajectories of water droplets moving in the ideal two-dimensional flow field ahead of a body of rectangular cross section and infinite extent in the downstream direction have been calculated by means of a differential analyzer. Data on collection efficiency and distribution of water impingement are presented" (p. 1).
Date: February 1956
Creator: Lewis, William & Brun, Rinaldo J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Cloud Droplets on Aerodynamic Bodies as Affected by Compressibility of Air Flow Around the Body

Description: Note presenting the computation of the trajectories of water droplets in a compressible-air flow field around a cylinder using a mechanical analog. The results of the calculations at approximately the flight critical Mach number were compared with calculations of trajectories in an incompressible flow field. Results regarding the extension of cylinder results to airfoils are provided.
Date: March 1953
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J.; Serafini, John S. & Gallagher, Helen M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Oil-Stream Photomicrographic Aeroscope for Obtaining Cloud Liquid-Water Content and Droplet Size Distributions in Flight

Description: "An airborne cloud aeroscope by which droplet size, size distribution, and liquid-water content of clouds can be determined has been developed and tested in flight and in wind tunnels with water sprays. In this aeroscope the cloud droplets are continuously captured in a stream of oil, which Is then photographed by a photomicrographic camera. The droplet size and size distribution can be determined directly from the photographs" (p. 1).
Date: January 1956
Creator: Hacker, Paul T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maximum Evaporation Rates of Water Droplets Approaching Obstacles in the Atmosphere Under Icing Conditions

Description: "When a closed body or a duct envelope moves through the atmosphere, air pressure and temperature rises occur ahead of the body or, under ram conditions, within the duct. If cloud water droplets are encountered, droplet evaporation will result because of the air-temperature rise and the relative velocity between the droplet and stagnating air. It is shown that the solution of the steady-state psychrometric equation provides evaporation rates which are the maximum possible when droplets are entrained in air moving along stagnation lines under such conditions" (p. 1).
Date: October 1953
Creator: Lowell, Herman H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photomicrographic Investigation of Spontaneous Freezing Temperatures of Supercooled Water Droplets

Description: "A photomicrographic technique for investigating seupercooled water droplets has been devised and. used. to determine the spontaneous freezing temperatures of seupercooled water droplets of the size ordinarily found. in the atmosphere. The freezing temperatures of 4527 droplets ranging from 8.75 to 1000 microns in diameter supported on a platinum surface and 571 droplets supported on copper were obtained. The average spontaneous freezing temperature decreased with decrease in the size of the droplets" (p. 1).
Date: July 1950
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G. & Hacker, Paul T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Water Droplets]

Description: Photograph of two water droplets set against a black background. In the image, the water droplets are moving in a way that makes them appear to be flying saucers.
Date: October 19, 1956
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Water Droplets]

Description: Photograph of four water droplets falling against a black background, and moving in a way that makes them appear to be flying saucers.
Date: October 1956
Creator: Clark, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Impingement of Water Droplets on a Cylinder in an Incompressible Flow Field and Evaluation of Rotating Multicylinder Method for Measurement of Droplet-Size Distribution, Volume-Median Droplet-Size, and Liquid-Water Content in Clouds

Description: Note presenting an evaluation of the rotating method for the measurement of droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content in clouds, which showed that small uncertainties in basic data eliminate the distinction between cloud droplet-size distributions and are a source of large errors in the determination of the droplet size. Matching curves for obtaining droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content from flight data were computed from the results of the droplet-trajectory calculations.
Date: March 1953
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J. & Mergler, Harry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions relevant to the experiments, and (3) to ...
Date: January 10, 2007
Creator: Knio, Joseph Katz and Omar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Spreading of Charged Micro-Droplets

Description: This article considers the analysis of the Betelu-Fontelos model of the spreading of a charged microdroplet on a at dielectric surface whose spreading is driven by surface tension and electrostatic repulsion.
Date: January 20, 2015
Creator: Iaia, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Concerning the Velocity of Evaporation of Small Droplets in a Gas Atmosphere

Description: "The evaporation velocity of liquid droplets under various conditions is theoretically calculated and a number of factors are investigated which are neglected in carrying out the fundamental equation of Maxwell. It is shown that the effect of these factors at the small drop sizes and the small weight concentrations ordinarily occurring in fog can be calculated by simple corrections. The evaporation process can be regarded as quasi-stationary in most cases" (p. 1).
Date: August 1947
Creator: Fuchs, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Enabling Technologies to Visualize the Plant Lipidome

Description: Improvements in mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies for characterizing the plant lipidome through quantitative and qualitative approaches such as shotgun lipidomics have substantially enhanced our understanding of the structural diversity and functional complexity of plant lipids. However, most of these approaches require chemical extractions that result in the loss of the original spatial context and cellular compartmentation for these compounds. To address this current limitation, several technologies were developed to visualize lipids in situ with detailed chemical information. A subcellular visualization approach, direct organelle MS, was developed for directly sampling and analyzing the triacylglycerol contents within purified lipid droplets (LDs) at the level of a single LD. Sampling of single LDs demonstrated seed lipid droplet-to-droplet variability in triacylglycerol (TAG) composition suggesting that there may be substantial variation in the intracellular packaging process for neutral lipids in plant tissues. A cellular and tissue visualization approach, MS imaging, was implemented and enhanced for visualizing the lipid distributions in oilseeds. In mature cotton seed embryos distributions of storage lipids (TAGs) and their phosphatidylcholine (PCs) precursors were distribution heterogeneous between the cotyledons and embryonic axis raising new questions about extent and regulation of oilseed heterogeneity. Extension of this methodology provides an avenue for understanding metabolism in cellular (perhaps even subcellular) context with substantial metabolic engineering implications. To visualize metabolite distributions, a free and customizable application, Metabolite Imager, was developed providing several tools for spatially-based chemical data analysis. These tools collectively enable new forms of visualizing the plant lipidome and should prove valuable toward addressing additional unanswered biological questions.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Horn, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Asymmetrical polarization of spherical colloidal particle double layer in electrical fields

Description: It has long been accepted that the drastic increase in the viscosity of electrorheological fluids subjected to electric fields is due to interactions between the induced dipole moments of the colloidal particles in the suspensions. Computer simulations of dipole-dipole interactions have produced chain and column formations of particles in the direction of the applied field that agree well with experimental observations. In an aqueous suspension of colloidal particles, however, the polarization of particles is very sensitive to the frequency of the applied electric field, and the dynamics of the particles can differ drastically from the dynamics that would be expected from a simple induced dipole model. In certain frequency regimes, instead of forming chains and columns in the direction of a linear applied field, the particles are dynamically unstable and circulate in bands that tilt at a significant angle relative to the direction of the field. This indicates that the interactions between the particles are no longer symmetrical with respect to the applied electric field. The authors have proposed a phenomenological model to explain the mechanism of this symmetry breaking. They have carried out a computer simulation of colloidal particle dynamics resulting from their model, and the results of the simulation agree well with experimental observations. When a particle is spinning, the diffusion of the ions in the double layer becomes asymmetrical with respect to the electric field, with the ions diffusing faster in the direction of spinning than against it. This causes the induced dipole moment of the particle to be misaligned with respect to the applied field. The authors earlier simulation results show that this misalignment between the polarization of the particle and the applied electric field plays a crucial role in the formation of a band of particles tilted at an angle relative to the direction of ...
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Hu, Y.; Kumar, V. & Fraden, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: THe problem of liquid entrainmment by a gas phase is considered with the purpose of gathering, presentinf, and correlating available information which may be useful for predicting the liquid carry-over in a boiling water reactor at high pressure. Correlations which predict water carryover as a function of pressure, of the height of the vapor dome, and of the vapor mass flow rate are presented and discussed. Because entrainment depends upon the hydrodynamic conditions and upon the expansion of a two-phase bubbling mixture, the transportation 0f vapor through such mixtures is also discussed. Equations which relate the volumetric vapor fraction to the reduced (superficial) vapor velocity in bubbling at high pressures are presented, and some inconsistencies are noted. Experimental data and correlations which predict the location of the liquid-vapor interface in bubbling at high pressures are also givna. Experimental data on water carry-over at high pressures reported in the literature are summarized. The problems of drop formation for bursting bubbles and of drop ballistics are discussed together with some analytical formulations of the entrainment problem. The bibliography may prove useful as a source of additional information on the problems of carry- over, corrosion and on the purity of steam and of water at high pressures. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1960
Creator: Yeh, G. C.K. & Zuber, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of microphysical relationships to discern growth/decay mechanisms of cloud droplets with focus on Z-LWC relationships.

Description: Cloud droplet size distributions hence the key microphysical quantities (e.g., radar reflectivity, droplet concentration, liquid water content, relative dispersion, and mean-volume radius) are determined by different physical mechanisms, including pre-cloud aerosols as CCNs, cloud updraft, and various turbulent entrainment-mixing processes. Therefore, different relationships among these microphysical properties are expected in response to these various mechanisms. The effect of turbulent entrainment-mixing processes is particularly vexing, with different entrainment-mixing processes likely leading to different microphysical relationships. Cloud radar has been widely used to infer the cloud liquid water content (L) from the measurement of radar reflectivity (Z) using a Z-L relationship. Existing Z-L expressions have been often obtained empirically, and differ substantially (Khain et al. 2008). The discrepancy among Z-L relations, which has been hindering the application of cloud radar in measuring cloud properties, likely stems from the different relationships between the relevant microphysical properties caused by different physical processes. This study first analyzes the Z-L relationship theoretically, and identify the key microphysical properties that affect this relationship, and then address the effects of various processes on the Z-L relationship by discerning the characteristics of the relationships between the relative dispersion, droplet concentration, liquid water content, and mean-volume radius calculated from in-situ measurements of cloud droplet size distributions. Effort is also made to further relate the microphysical relationships to physical processes such as turbulent entrainment-mixing.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Liu,Y.; Daum, P.H.; Yum, S.S. & Wang, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

Description: The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department