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Gold Dredging in the United States

Description: Report discussing the development of gold dredging in the United States, the essential features of present-day dredges, the facts that determine whether a placer deposit can be profitably dredged, and the approved methods of prospecting placer ground and of operating dredges. Intended for designers and builders of dredges, mining engineers, and persons who may contemplate investing capital in placer-mining ventures.
Date: May 1918
Creator: Janin, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The History and Development of Gold Dredging in Montana: with a Chapter on Placer-Mining Methods and Operating Costs

Description: From Introduction: "Although the purpose of this paper is to describe gold dredging in Montana, a brief mention of some early appliances used in New Zealand, Australia, and California may serve as a world-connecting link in our consideration of the development of gold dredging."
Date: 1916
Creator: Jennings, Hennen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Practices in California Gold Dredging

Description: From Introduction Purpose of Report: "The importance of safety work in connection with the operations of gold dredges assumed such proportions at one time that the State of California deemed it necessary to issue a special bulletin on this subject."
Date: 1932
Creator: Ash, S. H. (Simon Harry), b. 1889
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Dredged River Sediments in 10 Upland Disposal Sites of Alabama

Description: Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Mines, Tuscaloosa Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under interagency Agreement No. 14-09-0078-1510, conducted a comprehensive sampling program of 10 upland disposal sites along the Alabama, Black Warrior, and Tombigbee River systems in Alabama. Samples from each site were characterized according to particle size, chemical analysis, mineralogical content, and potential end use. Additionally, samples were subjected to the Toxic Characteristic Leachate Procedure to determine the presence of potentially harmful heavy metals. Based on the results of these studies, each sample was determined to have properties amenable for use as aggregate in general-purpose portland cement concretes and certain asphalt concrete applications.
Date: 1995
Creator: Smith, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Density and Flow-Velocity Measurement Technology for Dredging Applications - Proof of Concept Study

Description: This technical letter report provides the results of all PNNL managed activities on this project, and contains a description of the data acquisition configuration and testing protocols, results and conclusions from this work. This technical letter report constitutes the final deliverable to be submitted to the client for this proof-of-concept study.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Greenwood, Margaret S.; Tucker, Brian J. & Diaz, Aaron A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic Considerations Associated with Dredging Spring Ponds in Wisconsin

Description: From purpose and scope: This report describes the hydrology of selected spring ponds and the effect that dredging has had on the ponds and their surrounding areas. The report emphasizes the water budgets for the ponds, discusses the hydrologic system which contains the ponds, and briefly describes water quality in the study area.
Date: June 1977
Creator: Rose, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trends in Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Hudson River Water Five Years after Elimination of Point Sources

Description: From purpose and scope: The main purpose of this monitoring was to gather several years of data on PCB concentrations preparatory to removal of contaminated sediments by dredging, which was originally scheduled for the early 1980's. Plans for dredging and disposal of sediments are currently being reevaluated. This report examines the contribution and transport of PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) from various reaches of the Hudson River and the changes in PCB concentration since 1977, when discharge was terminated.
Date: 1983
Creator: Schroeder, Roy A. & Barnes, Charles R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund Expenditures

Description: In 1986, the Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT) was enacted to fund U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (USACE or the Corps) activities related to the routine operation and maintenance (O&M) of harbors, namely the dredging of harbor channels to their authorized depths and widths. Economic and equity issues related to HMT expenditures and collections are the main focus of this report. Before analyzing these issues, the report reviews the legislative history of the tax and legal challenges to it, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative funding mechanisms, and describes the commercial context of current dredging activity. The last section identifies legislation related to harbor maintenance funding.
Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund Expenditures

Description: This report reviews the legislative history of the Harbor Maintenance Tax (HMT) and legal challenges to it, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative funding mechanisms, and describes the commercial context of current dredging activity.
Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Archaeological Damage from Offshore Dredging: Recommendations for Pre-Operational Surveys and Mitigation During Dredging to Avoid Adverse Impacts: Technical Summary

Description: An investigation of the dredging practices of various countries, the impact of dredging on cultural artifacts/resources, and recommendations for mitigation of adverse impacts on cultural resources when dredging in the Gulf of Mexico.
Date: February 2004
Creator: Michel, Jacqueline; Watts, Gordon P.; Bairn, Rob & Kenny, Tim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model Study of Galveston Harbor Entrance, Texas: Hydraulic Model Investigation

Description: Report discussing the results of a series of tests in Galveston Bay to: "(a) develop plans for relocation and stabilization of the jetty channel on an alignment and at a depth suitable fro the safe passage of supertankers; (b) determine means for protecting the north jetty from the undermining action of tidal currents; (c) determine the shoaling characteristics of the relocated and deepened jetty (inner bar) channel and develop plans for minimizing shoaling in the relocated channel; and (d) determine the best locations for additional anchorage areas adjacent to the jetty channel or in Bolivar Roads" (p. ix).
Date: February 1969
Creator: Simmons, Henry B. & Boland, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Columbia River Estuary Hybrid Model Studies: Report 1, Verification of Hybrid Modeling of the Columbia River Mouth

Description: From abstract: The Columbia Hybrid Modeling System was applied to the mouth of the Columbia River estuary to evaluate alternatives for reducing navigation channel maintenance dredging.
Date: September 1983
Creator: McAnally, William H., Jr.; Brogdon, Noble J., Jr.; Letter, Joseph V., Jr.; Stewart, J. Phillip & Thomas, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

Description: Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with ...
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P. & Skalski, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

Description: This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.
Date: October 19, 2001
Creator: Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A. & Johnson, P. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dungeness Crab Dredging Entrainment Studies in the Lower Columbia River, 2002 – 2004: Loss Projections, Salinity Model, and Scenario Analysis

Description: Dungeness crab studies conducted in 2002 for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) constituted a major step forward in quantifying crab entrainment through statistical projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) and loss to the fishery (LF) from proposed construction and maintenance dredging in the Columbia River navigation channel (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). These studies also examined the influence of bottom salinity on crab abundance and entrainment rates. Additional sampling was conducted in 2004 to tighten loss projections, further develop the crab salinity model, and apply the model to assess correlations of entrainment rates and projected losses with seasonal salinity changes.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D. & Skalski, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The primary objectives of experiments conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) were to provide information on the secondary release of mercury from contaminated anoxic sediments to an aqueous environment after disturbance/change of in situ physical conditions and to evaluate its migration and partitioning under controlled conditions, including implications of these processes for treatment of contaminated soils. Experimental work included (1) characterization of the mercury-contaminated sediment; (2) field bench-scale dredging simulation; (3) laboratory column study to evaluate a longer-term response to sediment disturbance; (4) mercury volatilization from sediment during controlled drying; (5) resaturation experiments to evaluate the potential for secondary release of residual mercury after disturbance, transport, drying, and resaturation, which simulate a typical scenario during soil excavation and transport to waste disposal facilities; and (6) mercury speciation and potential for methylation during column incubation experiments.
Date: July 16, 2001
Creator: Solc, Jaroslav & Bolles, Bethany A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the United States in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.
Date: June 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from our nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect our environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions.
Date: May 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

Description: Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Burch, T. L. & Sherwood, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report for the Arroyo Las Positas Maintenance Impact Study, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: In 2000, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Environmental Protection Department, in coordination with Plant Engineering (PE), began dredging sections of the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP) to alleviate concerns about flooding of sensitive facilities within the mainsite of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In order to reduce potential impacts on the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii), LLNL proposed to dredge sections of the ALP in a ''checkerboard pattern'', resulting in a mosaic of open water habitat and vegetated sections (Figure 1). The Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan (Plan) was coordinated with both state and federal agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), California Department of Fish and Game (CDF&G), San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board (SFRWQCB), and the Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE). Water Discharge Requirements (WDRs) were issued for this project on December 30, 1999 (Order No. 99-086) by the SFRWQCB. Provision 19 of the WDRs outlined a five-year (2000 through 2004) Maintenance Impact Study (MIS) that LLNL began in coordination with dredging work that was conducted as part of the Arroyo Las Positas Management Plan. Provision 20 of these WDRs requires LLNL to submit a final report of the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for this project to the SFRWQCB. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the Maintenance Impact Study for Arroyo Las Positas and meet the requirements of Provision 20. A description of the annual monitoring included in this Maintenance Impact Study is included in the methods section of this report. Initially the Plan called for dredging the entire length of the Arroyo Las Positas (approximately 6,981 linear feet) over a 5-year period to minimize temporal impacts on the California red-legged frog. Dredging occurred in 2000 ({approx}1,300 ft.), 2001 ({approx}800 ft.), and 2002 ({approx}1,200 ft.), which ...
Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: van Hattem, M & Paterson, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts to Dungeness Crab from the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project

Description: The Benson Beach littoral drift restoration project is a demonstration project that will replenish sand on Benson Beach, the public beach north of the North Jetty at the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR), using material dredged from the river during normal maintenance dredging of the navigational channel. A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) proposal involves pumping the material from a sump area on the south side of the jetty to Benson Beach using a cutter suction dredge, also known as a pipeline dredge. If this one-time demonstration project proves feasible and successful, up to a million cubic yards of sediment could be used to replenish the outer coast littoral drift system in successive years by the same process. The primary goal of this study was to assess the potential risk of impacts to Dungeness crab from the proposed Benson Beach littoral drift restoration process of using the cutter suction dredge to move sediment from the proposed sump area on one side of the North Jetty to the beach on the other side of the jetty. Because there are no direct measurements of crab entrainment by pipeline dredge operating outside of the lower Columbia River navigation channel, dredge impacts for the proposed demonstration project were estimated using a modification of the dredge impact model (DIM) of Armstrong et al. (1987). The model estimates adult equivalent loss (AEL) of crabs using crab population density from trawl surveys, dredge project information (gear type, season, location, volume), and an entrainment function relating crab population density to entrainment by the dredge. The input used in applying the DIM to the Benson Beach littoral drift restoration included the specific dredging scenario provided by the Corps, existing data on crab density in previously proposed sump areas, and a series of entrainment functions. A total of ...
Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Pearson, Walter H. & Skalski, J R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Stranding of Juvenile Salmon by Ship Wakes Along the Lower Columbia River Using a Before-and-After Design: Before-Phase Results

Description: Ship wakes produced by deep-draft vessels transiting the lower Columbia River have been observed to cause stranding of juvenile salmon. Proposed deepening of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about the potential impact of the deepening project on juvenile salmon stranding. The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory design and conduct a study to assess stranding impacts that may be associated with channel deepening. The basic study design was a multivariate analysis of covariance of field observations and measurements under a statistical design for a before and after impact comparison. We have summarized field activities and statistical analyses for the ?before? component of the study here. Stranding occurred at all three sampling sites and during all three sampling seasons (Summer 2004, Winter 2005, and Spring 2005), for a total of 46 stranding events during 126 observed vessel passages. The highest occurrence of stranding occurred at Barlow Point, WA, where 53% of the observed events resulted in stranding. Other sites included Sauvie Island, OR (37%) and County Line Park, WA (15%). To develop an appropriate impact assessment model that accounted for relevant covariates, regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between stranding probability and other factors. Nineteen independent variables were considered as potential factors affecting the incidence of juvenile salmon stranding, including tidal stage, tidal height, river flow, current velocity, ship type, ship direction, ship condition (loaded/unloaded), ship speed, ship size, and a proxy variable for ship kinetic energy. In addition to the ambient and ship characteristics listed above, site, season, and fish density were also considered. Although no single factor appears as the primary factor for stranding, statistical analyses of the covariates resulted in the following equations: (1) Stranding Probability {approx} Location + Kinetic Energy Proxy + ...
Date: February 1, 2006
Creator: Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, J R.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Miller, Martin C.; Johnson, Gary E.; Williams, Greg D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department