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Recent Results from a Folded Waveguide ICRF Antenna Development Project

Description: Preliminary high power tests have been performed on a folded waveguide (FWG) ICRF launcher with a curved coupling faceplate installed. Two alternative faceplate configurations have been built and tested at low power and will be tested at high power in the near future. The new designs include a dipole plate which provides a 0-<font face="symbol">p</font> launch spectrum and a more transparent, flexible monopole face plate configuration. This FWG design is a 12 vane, 57 MHz design with a 0.31 m square cross section. The FWG can be installed with either fast wave or ion-Bernstein wave polarization and can also be retracted behind a vacuum isolation valve. A 1 x 4 FWG array optimized for fast wave current drive on DIII-D has been conceptualized.
Date: April 12, 1999
Creator: Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.C.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.; Fadnek, A.; Ryan, P.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A271 ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE IN DIII-D: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak in which the measured off-axis electron cyclotron current drive has been compared systematically to theory over a broad range of parameters have shown that the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D provides an excellent model of the relevant current drive physics. This physics understanding has been critical in optimizing the application of ECCD to high performance discharges, supporting such applications as suppression of neoclassical tearing modes and control and sustainment of the current profile.
Date: July 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create visualizations and perform analysis of their simulation ...
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Sanderson, Allen R. & Johnson, Christopher R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Models for the DIII-D Boundary Plasma

Description: Development of the comprehensive codes used to study the boundary region of the DIII-D tokamak has been done in parallel with improvement of the diagnostics of this important region of the plasma. These codes have been used to interpret the diagnostic data and assist in design of improved divertor configurations. The development of codes used for analysis on DIII-D is described briefly. Model validation by comparing with the extensive DIII-D boundary region diagnostic data is also discussed.
Date: May 25, 2005
Creator: Porter, G D; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Stangeby, P C & Wolf, N S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toroidally Asymmetric Distributions of Hydrocarbon (CD) Emission and Chemical Sputtering Sources in DIII-D

Description: Measurements in DIII-D show that the carbon chemical sputtering sources along the inner divertor and center post are toroidally periodic and highest at the upstream tile edge. Imaging with a tangentially viewing camera and visible spectroscopy were used to monitor the emission from molecular hydrocarbons (CH/CD) at 430.8 nm and deuterium neutrals in attached and partially detached divertors of low-confinement mode plasmas. In contrast to the toroidally periodic CD distribution, emission from deuterium neutrals was observed to be toroidally symmetric along the inner strike zone. The toroidal distribution of the measured tile surface temperature in the inner divertor correlates with that of the CD emission, suggesting larger parallel particle and heat fluxes to the upstream tile edge, either due to toroidal tile gaps or height steps between adjacent tiles.
Date: May 16, 2006
Creator: Groth, M; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Lasnier, C J; McLean, A G & Watkins, J G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stochastic Transport Modeling of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in DIII-D

Description: Three-dimensional two-fluid simulations of heat transport due to resonant magnetic perturbations of tokamaks have been computed by coupling the TRIP3D field line tracing code to the E3D edge transport code. The predicted electron temperature contours follow the new separatrix represented by the perturbed invariant manifold structure of the X-point in qualitative agreement with X-point TV observations. However, preliminary modeling predicts that the resulting stochastic heat transport is greater than that measured in low-collisionality ELM suppression experiments in DIII-D H-mode plasmas. While improved determination of transport coefficients is definitely required, possible explanations include plasma screening of resonant perturbations, invalid treatment of the edge as a fluid, or insufficient understanding of stochastic heat transport.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Joseph, I; Moyer, R A; Evans, T E; Schaffer, M J; Runov, A M; Schneider, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OEDGE Modeling of the DIII-D H-Mode 13CH4 Puffing Experiment

Description: Use of carbon in tokamaks leads to a serious tritium retention issue due to co-deposition. To further investigate the processes involved, a detached ELMy H-mode (6.5 MW NBI) experiment was performed on DIII-D in which {sup 13}CH{sub 4} was puffed into the main vessel through the toroidally symmetric pumping plenum at the top of lower single-null discharges. Subsequently, the {sup 13}C content of tiles taken from the vessel wall was measured. The interpretive OEDGE code was used to model the results. The {sup 13}C deposition pattern could be reproduced, in general shape and magnitude, by assuming in the code the existence of a parallel flow and a radial pinch in the scrape-off layer. Parallel flows of Mach {approx} 0.3 toward the inner divertor and a radial pinch {approx}10 to 20 m/s (+ R-direction) were found to yield {sup 13}C deposition comparable to the experiment.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Elder, J D; McLean, A G; Stangeby, P C; Allen, S L; Boedo, J C; Bray, B D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of Asymmetric Magnetic Perturbations in Tokamaks

Description: The sensitivity of tokamak plasmas to very small deviations from the axisymmetry of the magnetic field |δ→(over)Β/→(over)Β|≈ 10–4 is well known. What was not understood until very recently is the importance of the perturbation to the plasma equilibrium in assessing the effects of externally produced asymmetries in the magnetic field, even far from a stability limit. DIII-D and NSTX experiments find that when the deleterious effects of asymmetries are mitigated, the external asymmetric field was often made stronger and with an increased interaction with the magnetic field of the unperturbed equilibrium fields. This paper explains these counter intuitive results. The explanation using ideal perturbed equilibria has important implications for the control of field errors in all toroidal plasmas.
Date: October 3, 2007
Creator: Jong-kyu Park, Michael J. Schaffer, Jonathan E. Menard, and Allen H. Boozer
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radial Particle Flux in the SOL of DIII-D During ELMing H-Mode

Description: The radial particle flux in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) during ELMing H-mode is examined in DIII-D as a function of density. The global radial particle flux in the outboard far SOL is determined by a window frame technique. Between ELMs the outboard far SOL particle flux increases strongly with density but remains similar to the particle flux across the separatrix as estimated by the pedestal density and temperature gradients. At low density the steep density gradient of the pedestal extends up to 2 cm outside the separatrix. At high density the density gradient flattens just outside the separatrix making this region critical for assessment of the far SOL particle flux. During ELMs the far SOL particle flux becomes localized to the outboard midplane and the assumptions for the window frame analysis break down. Implications for scaling of main chamber wall particle flux and pedestal fueling are explored.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Leonard, A W; Boedo, J A; Groth, M; Lipschultz, B L; Porter, G D; Rudakov, D L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct measurement of divertor exhaust neo enrichment in DIII-D

Description: We report first direct measurements of divertor exhaust gas impurity enrichment, {eta}{sub exh}=(exhaust impurity concentration){divided_by}(core impurity concentration), for both unpumped and D{sub 2} puff-with-divertor-pump conditions. The experiment was performed with neutral beam heated, ELMing H-mode, single-null diverted deuterium plasmas with matched core and exhaust parameters in the DIII-D tokamak. Neon gas impurity was puffed into the divertor. Neon density was measured in the exhaust by a specially modified Penning gauge and in the core by absolute charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. Neon particle accounting indicates that much of the puffed neon entered a temporary unmeasured reservoir, inferred to be the graphite divertor target, which makes direct measurements necessary to calculate divertor enrichments. D{sub 2} puff into the SOL (scrape-off layer) with pumping increased {eta}{sub exh} threefold over either unpumped conditions or D{sub 2} puff directly into the divertor with pumping. These results show that SOL flow plays an important role in divertor exhaust impurity enrichment.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Schaffer, M.J.; Wade, M.R.; Maingi, R.; Monier-Garbet, P.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a tokamak plasma optimized for stability and confinement

Description: Design of an economically attractive tokamak fusion reactor depends on producing steady-state plasma operation with simultaneous high energy density ({beta}) and high energy confinement ({tau}{sub E}); either of these, by itself, is insufficient. In operation of the DIII-D tokamak, both high confinement enhancement (H{equivalent_to} {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub ITER-89P} = 4) and high normalized {beta} ({beta}{sub N}{equivalent_to} {beta}/(I/aB) = 6%-m-T/MA) have been obtained. For the present, these conditions have been produced separately and in transient discharges. The DIII-D advanced tokamak development program is directed toward developing an understanding of the characteristics which lead to high stability and confinement, and to use that understanding to demonstrate stationary, high performance operation through active control of the plasma shape and profiles. The authors have identified some of the features of the operating modes in DIII-D that contribute to better performance. These are control of the plasma shape, control of both bulk plasma rotation and shear in the rotation and Er profiles, and particularly control of the toroidal current profiles. In order to guide their future experiments, they are developing optimized scenarios based on their anticipated plasma control capabilities, particularly using fast wave current drive (on-axis) and electron cyclotron current drive (off-axis). The most highly developed model is the second-stable core VH-mode, which has a reversed magnetic shear safety factor profile [q(O) = 3.9, q{sub min} = 2.6, and q{sub 95} = 6]. This model plasma uses profiles which the authors expect to be realizable. At {beta}{sub N} {>=} 6, it is stable to n=l kink modes and ideal ballooning modes, and is expected to reach H {>=} 3 with VH-mode-like confinement.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Politzer, P. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The scaling of energy transport with dimensionless parameters has been measured in high temperature plasmas with the goals of guiding theory and predicting energy confinement in future fusion devices. Validation of this approach requires demonstration of similarity in plasmas with identical dimensionless parameters but very different physical parameters. Within measurement uncertainties, the heat diffusivities and global energy confinement exhibit similarity in high confinement regimes on the DIII-D and JET tokamaks and in low confinement regimes on the DIII-D and AlcatorC-Mod tokamaks.
Date: August 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A271 STATIONARY HIGH-PERFORMANCE DISCHARGES IN THE DII-D TOKAMAK. Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak under stationary conditions at relatively low plasma current (q{sub 95} &gt; 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain ({beta}{sub N}H{sub 89}/q{sub 95}{sup 2}) has been maintained at values corresponding to ! = 10 operation in a burning plasma for &gt; 6 s or 36{tau}{sub E} and 2{tau}{sub R}. The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q{sub min} &gt; 1. In the absence of sawteeth and fishbones, stable operation has been achieved up to the estimated no-wall {beta} limit. Feedback control of the energy content and particle inventory allow reproducible, stationary operation. The particle inventory is controlled by gas fueling and active pumping; the wall plays only a small role in the particle balance. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption. In addition, the pulse length capability is greatly increased, which is essential for a technology testing phase of a burning plasma experiment where fluence (duty cycle) is important.
Date: November 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Techniques of dimensional analysis have been applied to deuterium and hydrogen plasmas in DIII-D to test the postulate that the edge particle source plays a role in forming the edge H-mode density profile. These experiments show that the pedestal density scale length is typically a factor of two to three larger in hydrogen plasmas than in deuterium plasmas with dimensionally similar ion parameters. These results are in agreement with the postulate [1,2] that the density scale length is primarily determined by the local particle source, rather than by the shape of a hypothetical particle transport barrier. The electron temperature scale length displays a similar trend, albeit with a weaker density dependence. Thus the pedestal pressure gradient scale length is larger in hydrogen. It is also observed that the frequency of a coherent mode, localized within the pedestal, increases with the local density (i.e. inversely with the local density scale length) irrespective of the working gas species. This frequency is a factor of two lower in a hydrogen discharge than in a dimensionally similar deuterium plasma, a result which cannot be explained solely in terms of plasma physics variables.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: MAHDAVI, M.A.; R.J.GROEBNER; LEONARD, A.W.; LUCE, T.C.; McKEE, G.R.; MOYER, R.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: It is known that the toroidal angular momentum and the ion thermal energy are correlated in tokamak discharges heated by neutral beam injection. Here, data from ten years of measurements on DIII-D are considered, for representative discharges from all types and all conditions. The ratio of simple replacement times for momentum and energy is found to order this correlation indicating that these times are approximately equal, across the minor radius. Representative discharges of several types are discussed in more detail, as well as transport analysis results for the momentum and thermal ion diffusivities.
Date: August 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Experiments have been performed where the T{sub e} profile stiffness was tested at several spatial locations by varying the ECH resonance location. Propagation of the pulses was Fourier analyzed and compared to simulations based on several transport models. The plasma appears to be near the critical T{sub e} gradient for ETG modes and marginally stable to ITG modes. However, the local T{sub e} response to a locally applied heat pulse does not indicate a nonlinear, critical gradient model where T{sub e} is clipped when trying to rise above a critical gradient. The response can be simply understood as the plasma integrating the ECH power, producing an increase in T{sub e} which equilibrates to a new local level with an exponential time constant representing the local confinement time.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: DeBOO, J.C.; AUSTIN, M.E.; BRAVENEC, R.V.; KINSEY, J.E; LOHR, J.; LUCE, T.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: OAK A271 PHYSICS OF ELCTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. The measured ECCD efficiency increases as the deposition location is moved towards the inboard midplane or towards smaller minor radius for both co and counter injection. The measured ECCD efficiency also increases with increasing electron density and/or temperature. The experimental ECCD is compared to both the linear theory (Toray-GA) as well as a quasilinear Fokker-Planck model (CQL3D). The experimental ECCD is found to be in better agreement with the more complete Fokker-Planck calculation, especially for cases of high rf power density and/or loop voltage. The narrow width of the measured ECCD profile is consistent with only low levels of radial transport for the current carrying electrons.
Date: September 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Recently a number of major, unanticipated effects have been reported in tokamak edge research raising the question of whether we understand the controlling physics of the edge. This report is on the first part--here focused on the outer divertor--of a systematic study of the simplest possible edge plasma--no ELMs, no detachment, etc.--for a set of 10 repeat, highly-diagnosed, single-null, divertor discharges in DIII-D. For almost the entire, extensive data set so far evaluated, the matches of experiment and model are so close as to imply that the controlling processes at the outer divertor for these simple plasma conditions have probably been correctly identified and quantitatively characterized in the model. The principal anomaly flagged so far relates to measurements of T{sub e} near the target, potentially pointing to a deficiency in our understanding of sheath physics in the tokamak environment.
Date: August 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Updated DIII-D experimental plan for FY-1989

Description: The program proposed here is designed to support and build toward the long-term plan put forward during 1987 for the DIII-D facility. This plan has as its ultimate goal developing sufficient understanding and predictive capability to enable the demonstration of a high beta plasma with non-inductively driven toroidal current. The early stages of this plan call for the optimization of the plasma configuration for good confinement at high beta while simultaneously developing the need rf power systems for current drive, profile control, and heating.
Date: August 1, 1989
Creator: Luxon, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DIII-D experimental plan for FY-1989

Description: This document summarizes the Experimental Plan for the DIII-D tokamak facility for the fiscal year 1989. The long-range DIII-D 5 yr plan is directed ultimately at the goal of achieving good confinement at high beta in a plasma with non-inductively driven current. This is important to the design of a steady-state reactor. This program may be thought of as occurring in two phases. In the first phase of the program we axe separately investigating high beta plasma confinement in inductively-driven plasmas, and non-inductive current drive. In the second phase we will combine these two elements to investigate high beta plasma confinement with non-inductive current drive. The FY 89 plan continues the first phase of the DIII-D experimental effort that contains a strong focus on beta and confinement in non-circular plasma configurations and in the divertor configuration in particular. Important work also continues in the development of rf heating systems for heating, profile control, and current drive. This research is coupled to theoretical efforts at General Atomics. The FY 89 research program outlined herein is diverse and multifaceted. However, it is also characterized by a greater synthesis of techniques toward a common goal. An example is the application of ECH for sawtooth suppression that would improve the low q confinement and allow higher {beta} to be obtained. We believe this research program will provide a solid foundation for the continued development of the tokamak toward high beta steady-state reactor application. The DIII-D FY 89 research program will provide results that will help resolve many CIT and ITER Physics R&D issues. In addition, DIII-D confinement studies will be an important input to the newly formed National Transport Task Force.
Date: November 1, 1988
Creator: Luxon, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation

Description: A new code demonstrates the stabilization of MHD ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation. A shifted-circle model is used to elucidate the physics and numerically reconstructed equilibria are used to analyze DIII-D discharges. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (d{Omega}/dq where {Omega} is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and, in the shifted circle model, direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is a fraction of the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub A} = V{sub A}/qR. Shear stabilization is also demonstrated for an equilibrium reconstruction of a DIII-D VH-mode.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.W.; Lao, L.L. & Taylor, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reciprocating and fixed probe measurements of n{sub e} and T{sub e} in the DIII-D divertor

Description: This paper describes divertor density and temperature measurements using both a new reciprocating Langmuir probe (XPT-RCP) which plunges vertically above the divertor floor up to the X-point height and swept, single, Langmuir probes fixed horizontally across the divertor floor. These types of measurements are important for testing models of the SOL and divertor which then are used to design plasma facing components in reactor size tokamaks. This paper presents an overview of the new divertor probe measurements and how they compare with the new divertor Thomson scattering system. The fast time response of the probe measurements allows detailed study of ELMs.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Watkins, J.G.; Moyer, R.A.; Cuthbertson, J.W.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Hill, D.N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast wave antenna array feed circuits tolerant of time-varying loading for DIII-D

Description: Three different transmission line configurations for operating a four-element antenna array with a single rf power source are compared. The goal of this study is to obtain a system that presents a matched load to the generator despite variation of the loading of the array elements due to changing plasma conditions.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Pinsker, R.I.; Moeller, C.P. & Phelps, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department