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An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

Description: There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Moskowitz, P. D.; Viren, J. & Fthenakis, V. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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(Technical and engineering support for the Office of Industrial Programs)

Description: As of April 19, 1991, technical, operational and analytic support and assistance to the offices and divisions of the Office of Renewable Energy, under contract DE-AC01-86CE30844 was completed. The overall work effort, initiated February 20, 1986, was characterized by timely, comprehensive, high quality, professional responsiveness to a broad range of renewable energy program operational support requirements. These are no instances of failure to respond, nor unacceptable response, during the fiv… more
Date: January 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

Description: This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as… more
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Shining On: A primer on solar radiation data

Description: This document is a primer on solar radiation data. General uses of solar energy are presented. The manner in which solar radiation data is used to aid engineers in optimizing the use of solar thermal conversion and photovoltaic conversion is discussed. Methods for acquiring and assimilating the solar radiation data are illustrated. This would include the design and use of pyranometers and pyrheliometers. Seasonal and geographical variations in solar flux reaching the earth are evaluated. Other … more
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Dunlap, M.A.; Cook, G. (eds.); Marion, B.; Riordan, C. & Renne, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

NREL PV AR D 11th review meeting, May 13--15, 1992, Denver Marriott City Center, Denver, Colorado

Description: This is a collection of abstracts from papers presented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) research and development review meeting held May 1992. Subject areas covered include solar cell and solar module manufacturing and development, materials, polycrystalline thin films, applications, amorphous silicon, solar cell performance and testing, crystalline silicon and other photovoltaic and safety perspectives. (GHH)
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

Description: This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied … more
Date: July 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Recent developments in thermoacoustically-driven low-frequency projectors

Description: Thermoacoustic engines are a recent class of devices that can efficiently convert heat to acoustic energy without moving parts or intervening mechanisms. These engines have a natural potential for powering low-frequency sonar projectors with high reliability and efficiencies that cannot be matched by conventional technologies. A recent design study has produced thermoacoustic projector configurations that can execute standard projector performance requirements such as FM sweep and velocity magn… more
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ward, W.C. & Merrigan, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Renewable energy and utility regulation

Description: This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect… more
Date: April 10, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

Description: This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and meta… more
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Chu, T.L. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Neutral beamline with improved ion-energy recovery

Description: A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutralizer exit region. The ions… more
Date: April 13, 1981
Creator: Kim, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Review and summary of Solar Thermal Conversion Program planning assistance

Description: The Solar Thermal Conversion Program comprises a major part of the national solar energy program which must be continuously reviewed and modified where necessary. Modifications are typically required to reflect technical achievements and uncertainties which arise from within the program or from other technical programs, changes in budgets available for supporting the program as well as internal program funding priorities, changing goals such as through acceleration or stretch-out of the program… more
Date: June 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Direct Conversion Technology

Description: The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the … more
Date: July 1, 1992
Creator: Back, L.H.; Fabris, G. & Ryan, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electricity generation and storage for residences using Li/I/sub 2/ electrochemical engines to augment photovoltaics

Description: Electrochemical engines use electrochemical cell reactions and a temperature gradient to convert heat directly to electric power. Such engines can both generate electricity and store electric energy. Application of such engines as used with solar photovoltaic conversion is discussed. Specifically, it is shown that such engines could both store electric energy generated in daytime for nighttime use, and generate electric power from gas or other fossil heat in bad weather. If the photovoltaics re… more
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Elliott, G.R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Directory of Solar Energy Research Activities in the United States: First Edition, May 1980. [1220 projects]

Description: Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomas… more
Date: May 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Neutronic design studies for an unattended, low power reactor

Description: The Los Alamos National Laboratory is involved in the design and demonstrations of a small, long-lived nuclear heat and electric power source for potential applications at remote sites where alternate fossil energy systems would not be cost effective. This paper describes the neutronic design analysis that was performed to arrive at two conceptual designs, one using thermoelectric conversion, the other using an organic Rankine cycle. To meet the design objectives and constraints a number of sco… more
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Palmer, R. G. & Durkee Jr., J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion

Description: To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type cesium plasma. The analysis t… more
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Lawless, J.L. Jr. & Lam, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Uniform flux dish concentrators for photovoltaic application

Description: Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have designed a unique and innovative molded dish concentrator capable of producing a uniform flux profile on a flat target plane. Concentration levels of 100--200 suns, which are uniform over an area of several square inches, can be directly achieved for collection apertures of a reasonable size ({approximately}1.5-m diameter). Such performance would be immediately applicable to photovoltaic (PV) use. Economic concerns have shown t… more
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Jorgensen, G & Wendelin, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

Description: We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are ne… more
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A. & Wheatley, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Power system requirements and selection for the space exploration initiative

Description: The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) seeks to reestablish a US program of manned and unmanned space exploration. The President has called for a program which includes a space station element, a manned habitation of the moon, and a human exploration of Mars. The NASA Synthesis Group has developed four significantly different architectures for the SEI program. One key element of a space exploration effort is the power required to support the missions. The Power Speciality Team of the Synthesis … more
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Biringer, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Bartine, D.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Buden, D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Foreman, J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)) & Harrison, S. (Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, DC (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy technologies at Sandia National Laboratories: Past, Present, Future

Description: We at Sandia first became involved with developing energy technology when the nation initiated its push toward energy independence in the early 1970s. That involvement continues to be strong. In shaping Sandia's energy programs for the 1990s, we will build on our track record from the 70s and 80s, a record outlined in this publication. It contains reprints of three issues of Sandia's Lab News that were devoted to our non-nuclear energy programs. Together, they summarize the history, current act… more
Date: August 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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