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Direct contact heat exchanger performance

Description: Although the final performance result of a DCHE is the cost of the net electricity produced, the best performance cannot be achieved without optimizing the components of the system as well as the whole system. Thus collection and analysis of data on the internal performance of the column assists in optimizing the operation of the particular column as well as in suggesting ways for improving the operation and design of future columns.
Date: March 12, 1981
Creator: Wahl, E. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Session 5: Heat Cycle Research, Multi-Year Program (Excerpt for DOE Program Review Meeting, October 11-13, 1983)

Description: The current binary Heat Cycle Research Program (HCRF) is part of an overall long range program that was defined in 1980, and consists of the following basic elements: (1) conduct analytical and experimental studies aimed at identifying means to increase performance of organic Rankine power cycle and remove restrictions which limit performance; (2) obtain detailed thermal performance data of direct contact heat exchangers and the effect of this mode of heat transfer on the remainder of the system or components; and (3) utilize the HCRF to conduct component tests in support of this and other investigations.
Date: December 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct contact heat exchanger 10 kW power loop

Description: The extraction of thermal energy for electric power generation from moderate (350 F) temperature geothermal brines, such as those found in East Mesa, California, appears feasible. In exploiting these moderate temperature resources, the use of a direct-contact process in a conventional Rankine cycle with a turbine-generator seems like a very promising configuration. While the direct contact approach, in which the brine and hydrocarbon working fluid come into physical contact, has initial economic advantages (e.g., lower capital cost of heat exchanger equipment), it also has some potential operating disadvantages such as CO{sub 2} buildup, turbine scaling and erosion, and hydrocarbon loss. In order t o identify and evaluate these problem areas, a 10 kW Power Loop was set up and run at East Mesa, California, under DOE funding. This report includes the results and conclusions of Test Series 1 and 2 performed between December 1976 and July 1978, as well as the Executive Summary of the total testing effort. It has been reprinted directly from copy provided by Barber-Nichols Engineering Co.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design study for the HCRF direct contact heat exchanger modification

Description: The conceptual design of sieve trays for modifying the HCRF direct contact heat exchanger was developed as follows. The models of the prior work, EG&G subcontract No. K-7752, were extended and modified so the predicted heat transfer coincided with the experimental data of the 60 KW Raft River tests conducted by EG&G. Using these models, a hole diameter of 0.25 inches and a hole velocity of 1.3 ft/sec or greater was selected to accomplish the required heat transfer while minimizing mass transferred to the geothermal fluid. Using the above information, a conceptual design for a sieve tray column was developed. It was determined that the column should operate as a working fluid filled, working fluid dispersed column. This is accomplished by level control of the geothermal fluid below the bottom tray. The dimensions and configuration of the trays and downcomers, and the number of holes and their diameters is summarized in Wahl Company drawings 84144001 and 84144003 submitted with this report. The performance of this design is expected to be 12,000 lbs/hr of geothermal fluid for single component fluids and 11,800 to 12,000 lbs/hr for mixed fluids at a working fluid flow rate of 71% of the geothermal fluid flow rate. The flow rate limit of the geothermal fluid will vary from 9800 to 13,000 lbs/hr as the ratio varies from 83% to 62%.
Date: June 1, 1984
Creator: Wahl, E. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manual for the thermal and hydraulic design of direct contact spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

Description: This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for us in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included. 23 refs., 8 figs.
Date: June 1, 1985
Creator: Jacobs, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct contact heat exchange interfacial phenomena for liquid metal reactors : Part I - heat transfer.

Description: Experiments on direct-contact heat exchange between molten metal and water for steam production were conducted. These experiments involved the injection of water into molten lead-bismuth eutectic for heat transfer measurements in a 1-D geometry. Based on the initial results of the experiments, the effects of the water flow rate and the molten metal superheat (temperature difference between molten metal and saturated water) on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient were discussed.
Date: February 26, 2002
Creator: Cho, D.H.; Page, R.J.; Hurtault, D.; Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability analysis of direct contact heat exchangers subject to system perturbations. Final report, Task 2

Description: This report includes a project summary, copies of two papers resulting from the work and the Ph.D. Dissertation of Dr. Mehdi Golafshani entitled, ''Stability of a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger''. Specifically, the work deals with the operational stability of a spray column type heat exchanger subject to disturbances typical of those which can occur for geothermal applications. A computer program was developed to solve the one-dimensional transient two-phase flow problem and it was applied to the design of a spray column. The operation and design of the East Mesa 500kW/sub e/ direct contactor was assessed. It is shown that the heat transfer is governed by the internal resistance of the dispersed phase. In fact, the performance is well-represented by diffusion of heat within the drops. 5 refs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Jacobs, H.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Session 2: Review of the 500 KW Direct Contact Geothermal Plant at East Mesa

Description: The concept of a binary power cycle utilizing direct contact heat exchangers was first proposed by Jacobs and Boehm in 1973 for use with geothermal brines. This concept was proposed primarily to overcome difficulties associated with the fouling and scaling nature of many moderate temperature brines. However, thermodynamic analyses and subsequent economic analyses clearly pointed to possible economic advantages over conventional binary cycles even with non-fouling, non-scaling brines. For a direct contact binary power plant to be economically attractive it is necessary that a small pinch point be obtainable so that a maximum amount of power can be obtained per unit mass flow of geothermal brine. Since the working fluid comes in direct contact with the brine it must be immiscible with the brine, low in cost and, if part of it goes into solution in the brine, easily recoverable. In addition, noncondensible gases from the brine must be controlled to limit their effect on condenser pressure. The 500 kWe DCHX test facility installed at East Mesa was designed to evaluate techniques to provide economical operation. The choice of the East Mesa test site as a first location to evaluate the DCHX system placed additional requirements on the system. The brine at East Mesa was at low pressure, requiring the use of downhole pumps. The selection of isobutane as a working fluid required increasing the pressure of the brine. The high amount of dissolved CO{sub 2} in the brine required that it be preflashed to prevent the carryover of CO{sub 2} gas through the turbine and into the condenser which would adversely affect the system performance. All of these problems have been met by the system designer and operator, Barber-Nichols Engineering. Further, problems with isobutane turbine design, supposed state-of-the-art, were encountered and resolved.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Nichols, Kenneth E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent progress in magma energy extraction

Description: Ongoing research in the area of Magma Energy Extraction is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of an open, direct-contact heat exchanger in a crustal magma body. The energy extraction rate has a direct influence on the economic viability of the concept. An open heat exchanger, in which fluid is circulated through the interconnecting fissures and fractures in the solidified region around drilling tubing, offers the promise of very high rates of heat transfer. This paper discusses recent research in five areas: (1) fundamental mechanisms of solidifying and thermally fracturing magma; (2) convective heat transfer in the internally fractured solidified magma; (3) convective flow in the molten magma and heat transfer from the magma to the cooled heat exchanger protruding into it; (4) numerical simulation of the overall energy extraction process; and (5) the thermodynamics of energy conversion in a magma power plant at the surface. The studies show that an open heat exchanger can be formed by solidifying magma around a cooled borehole and that the resulting mass will be extensively fractured by thermally-induced stresses. Numerical models indicate that high quality thermal energy can be delivered at the wellhead at nominal rates from 25 to 30 MW electric. It is shown that optimum well circulation rates can be found that depend on the heat transfer characteristics of the magma heat exchanger and the thermodynamic power conversion efficiencies of the surface plant.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Ortega, A.; Dunn, J.C.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P. & Hickox, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct contact condensation of immiscible fluids in packed beds

Description: An experimental study of a film type direct contact heat exchanger using immiscible fluids is made. Laboratory experiments were conducted on a R-113-water system using both 2.5 cm Berl saddles and 3.2 cm spheres as packing, in a 14.6 cm diameter column. The configuration was counter flow, with the vapor phase entering at the base of the column, and condensing on the laminar water film that coated the packing surface. Packing height, water temperature and both water and vapor flow rates were varied in obtaining heat transfer data. These and other packed bed heat transfer data published in the literature were reduced and correlated to yield a relationship between the Stanton number and the important vessel operating parameters.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Thomas, K.D.; Jacobs, H.R. & Boehm, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison between a spray column and a sieve tray column operating as liquid-liquid heat exchangers

Description: The performance of a spray column and a sieve tray column was compared as a liquid-liquid heat exchanger. In carrying out these studies a 15.2 cm (6.0 in.) diameter column, 183 cm (6.0 ft) tall was utilized. The performance of the spray column as a heat exchanger was shown to correlate with the model of Letan-Kehat which has as a basis that the heat transfer is dominated by the wakeshedding characteristics of the drops over much of the column length. This model defines several hydrodynamic zones along the column of which the wake formation zone at the bottom appears to have the most efficient heat transfer. The column was also operated with four perforated plates spaced two column diameters apart in order to take advantage of the wake formation zone heat transfer. The plates induce coalescence of the dispersed phase and reformation of the drops, and thus cause a repetition of the wake formation zone. It is shown that the overall volumetric heat transfer coefficient in a perforated plate column is increased by a minimum of eleven percent over that in a spray column. A hydrodynamic model that predicts the performance of a perforated plate column is suggested.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Keller, A.; Jacobs, H.R. & Boehm, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GLEF direct-contact heat-exchanger program. Final report

Description: A number of flash-binary cycles for the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Area have been evaluated leading to the identification of the optimum one. The brine coming from the well is separated in a flash tank producing a liquid and a vapor stream. The liquid is used in a direct contact preheater to bring the working fluid (isopentane) to the saturation point. The isopentane is then vaporized in a shell and tube heat exchanger by use of the flashed steam. The isopentane vapor is expanded in a turbine driving the generator, condensed in a surface condenser and finally returned to the preheater by the main feed pump. A review of the theoretical correlations available for the design of direct contact heat exchangers has been carried out as well as the design and fabrication of a test facility to evaluate the performance of direct contact heat exchangers under various conditions and to verify the cycle analysis. The results of the test data support the assumptions made in the system analysis and in particular, the terminal temperature differences established in the heat balance have been achieved. The column length calculation procedure has been tested and found satisfactory under the test conditions.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Della Vida, P.L.; Franz, F.J. & Weinreich, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GLEF direct-contact heat-exchanger program

Description: A number of flash-binary cycles for the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Area have been evaluated leading to the identification of the optimum one. The brine coming from the well is separated in a flash tank producing a liquid and a vapor stream. The liquid is used in a direct contact preheater to bring the working fluid (isopentane) to the saturation point. The isopentane is then vaporized in a shell and tube heat exchangers by use of the flashed steam. The isopentane vapor is expanded in a turbine driving the generator, condensed in a surface condenser and finally returned to the preheater by the main feed pump. A review of the theoretical correlations available for the design of direct contact heat exchangers has been carried out as well as the design and fabrication of a test facility to evaluate the performance of direct contact heat exchangers under various conditions and to verify the cycle analysis. The results of the test data support the assumptions made in the system analysis and in particular, the terminal temperature differences established in the heat balance have been achieved. The column length calculation procedure has been tested and found satisfactory under the test conditions.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Della Vida, P.L.; Franz, F.J. & Weinreich, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Phase II, August 1976--June 1977

Description: The analytical and experimental studies completed under this project have explored several aspects of geothermal binary power cycles and column type direct contact heat exchangers between geothermal brine and isobutane. A major improvement of the heat exchanger was developed by the combination of the preheater and boiler into a single continuous column. At East Mesa, this new direct contact heat exchanger was tested on geothermal brine in order to correlate the experimental heat transfer data with the theoretical model for use in designing larger plants. Experiments also involved a small radial inflow turbine to produce electricity which marked the first generation of electricity from geothermal brine using a binary cycle. In analytical studies, a comparison of the relationship between column diameter and droplet size was made for both Minard--Johnson and Sakiadis--Johnson model. The Letan--Kehat model for relating column height and temperature profile was analyzed and compared with experimental data. It appears that the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical models. A detailed design of a 250 Kw pilot plant incorporating the direct contact heat exchanger was completed. This design with estimated costs for it and a 500 Kw pilot plant is incorporated.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Suratt, W.B. & Lee, C.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

Description: Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

500 kW direct contact pilot plant for East Mesa

Description: A 500 kW powerplant utilizing a direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX) between the geothermal brine and the isobutane working fluid is nearing completion at the East Mesa Component Test Facility. The primary purpose of the plant is to evaluate the performance potential of the direct contact system in a size much larger than the small exploratory units that have been tested to date. Thermodynamic performance of DCHX binary power systems has been demonstrated in small 10 kW research test rigs (Refs. 1, 2, and 3), however, characteristics that affect the economics and practicality of long term operation need to be evaluated. Three factors influencing plant performance and cost are: (1) the control of noncondensables that contaminate the power cycle condenser, (2) the equipment required to limit working fluid losses, and (3) the control of scaling or performance robbing deposits in critical components. These factors are not unrelated and control of one often impacts control of the other two. Operating data and research with the 500 kW pilot plant should demonstrate a solution to all three of these factors and provide design guidelines for larger plants.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Nichols, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final phase testing and evaluation of the 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

Description: The testing performed during the last phase of the geothermal direct contact heat exchanger program utilizing the 500 kW pilot plant provided more insight into the capabilities and limits of the direct contact approach and showed that more work needs to be done to understand the inner workings of a large direct contact heat exchanger if they are to be modeled analytically. Testing of the column demonstrated that the performance was excellent and that the sizing criteria is conservative. The system operated smoothly and was readily controlled over a wide range of operating conditions. Performance evaluation showed pinch differentials of 4/sup 0/F or less and better than predicted heat transfer capability. Testing during this final phase was directed towards establishing the limits of the column to transfer heat. The working column height was shortened progressively to approximately 16 feet from a design length of 28 feet. The short column performed as well as a full length column and there are indications that the column could have been shortened even more without affecting its ability to transfer heat. The column's ability to perform as well with shortened lengths indicates that the heat transfer coefficients and criteria derived from the small scale tests are very conservative.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Nichols, K. & Werner, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discussion of enhancement in condensers

Description: A brief discussion of Professor Ralph L. Webb's paper, The Use of Enhanced Surface Geometries in Condensers, is given with emphasis on the importance of overall cost optimization in the application of heat transfer enhancement. A review of ORNL condensation experiments with enhanced surfaces is presented. The work has centered on optimizing the design variables associated with fluted surfaces on vertical tubes and comparing the tube performance with available enhanced tubes either for vertical or horizontal operation. Data with seven fluids including a hydrocarbon, fluorocarbons, and ammonia condensing on up to 30 different tubes have been obtained. The primary conclusion from this work is that fluted tubes can provide an enhancement in condensation coefficient of a factor of 6 over smooth vertical tubes and a factor of 2 over enhanced commercial tubes either operating vertically or horizontally. These data, together with field test data, have formed the basis for designing a prototype condenser for the 500 kWe East Mesa, California, direct-contact geothermal demonstration plant.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Michel, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental testing of a direct contact heat exchanger for geothermal brine. Final report, July 1, 1978-February 1, 1979

Description: A series of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX) experiments were conducted at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site during the period July 1, 1978 to February 1, 1979. The purpose of these tests was to provide additional data necessary to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the DCHX binary cycle loop components that may be used to extract energy from geothermal brines. Isobutane and Isopentane were tested as secondary working fluids. The analytical and experimental efforts were directed at the problems of working fluid loss in the effluent brine, carryover of water vapor with the vaporized secondary fluid and the free CO/sub 2/ content of the feed brine. The tests aimed at evaluating the heat transfer performance of various type tubes installed in vertical shell-and-tube secondary fluid condensers. Data was collected while operating a low temperature isopentane cycle with brine preflashed to 210 to 212/sup 0/F; the objective being to gain insight to waste heat recovery applications such as the Arkansas Power and Light project. Possible alternatives for isobutane recovery from the spent brine were investigated. A system was designed and the economic aspects studied.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Urbanek, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

Description: This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.
Date: August 30, 2004
Creator: Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Nellis, Gregory F. & Reindl, Douglas T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume V. Component development. Final report

Description: The fundamental inventions which motivate this program are system concepts centered on a novel heat engine cycle and the use of downwell heat exchange. Here, the primary emphasis is on downwell hardware. The only surface equipment included is the surface portion of the instrumentation and control systems. Downwell instrumentation is reported. Downwell conduits and techniques for installing, connecting and sealing them are covered. The downwell turbine-pump unit (TPU) is a critical component since it is relatively inaccessible and operates in a hostile environment. Its development is reported. The TPU for the gravity-head system requires a different type of turbine because of the large flow-rate through it and the small pressure difference across it. The design study for a Francis turbine to meet these requirements is reported. A feature of these systems is use of a downwell heat exchanger. There were extensive studies of tube-bundle configuration, tube-sheet seals, structural integrity, and flow and heat transfer, as well as the research on welded connections and sliding elastomeric seals. Another innovative component in these systems is the enthalpy recovery unit (ERU). This direct-contact heat exchanger compensates for under-cooling in the condenser and superheat in the main turbine exhaust.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Harvey, C.; McBee, W. & Matthews, H.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

Description: A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Murphy, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the Magma Energy Project

Description: The current magma energy project is assessing the engineering feasibility of extracting thermal energy directly from crustal magma bodies. The estimated size of the US resource (50,000 to 500,000 quads) suggests a considerable potential impact on future power generation. In a previous seven-year study, we concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers that would invalidate the magma energy concept. Several concepts for drilling, energy extraction, and materials survivability were successfully demonstrated in Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The present program is addressing the engineering design problems associated with accessing magma bodies and extracting thermal energy for power generation. The normal stages for development of a geothermal resource are being investigated: exploration, drilling and completions, production, and surface power plant design. Current status of the engineering program and future plans are described. 20 refs., 12 figs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Dunn, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger vaporizing pure and mixed-hydrocarbon Rankine-cycle working fluids

Description: Experiments investigating a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger were conducted at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in southeastern Idaho using the 60-kW Mobile Heat Cycle Research Facility operating in the thermal loop mode (without a turbine). Isobutane, propane, and several hydrocarbon mixtures were heated and boiled in the direct-contact column, which is approx. 12 in. in diameter and 19-1/2 ft. high, using the energy from a 280/sup 0/F geothermal resource. Using pure fluids, isobutane or propane, the column operated much as intended, with 17 trays used for preheating and one or two accomplishing the boiling. For the pure fluids, individual tray efficiencies were found to be 70% or higher for preheating, and close to 100% for boiling; column pinch points were projected to be well under 1/sup 0/F with some runs reaching values as low as approx. 0.02/sup 0/F. Maximum geofluid throughputs for the isobutane tests corresponded roughly to the terminal rise velocity of a 1/32 in. working fluid droplet in geofluid. Boiling was found to occur in as many as 12 trays for the mixtures having the highest concentrations of the minor component, with overall efficiencies in the boiling section estimated on the order of 25 or 30%. Preheating tray efficiencies appeared to be fairly independent of working fluid, with pinch points ranging from as low as approx. 0.03/sup 0/F for a 0.95 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture to approx. 2.3/sup 0/F for a 0.85 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture. Column operation was noticeably less stable for the mixtures than for the pure fluids, with maximum throughputs dropping to as low as 40 to 50% of those for the pure fluids.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Mines, G.L.; Demuth, O.J. & Wiggins, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department