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National Annual Diesel-Fuel Survey, 1950

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on diesel fuel consumption during the 1950 calendar year. Analysis on 266 samples of diesel fuel and their characteristics are presented. This report includes tables, and a map.
Date: November 1950
Creator: Blade, O. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diesel Engines Underground: [Part] 4. Effect on Composition of Exhaust Gas of Variables Influencing Fuel Injection

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over diesel engine operations. As stated in the introduction, "it is the purpose of this report to present such data and to reemphasize the importance of adequate maintenance for diesel engines used underground" (p. 2). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: April 1943
Creator: Holtz, John C.; Berger, L. B.; Elliott, M. A. & Schrenk, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soybean Oil Derivatives for Fuel and Chemical Feedstocks

Description: Plant based sources of hydrocarbons are being considered as alternatives to petrochemicals because of the need to conserve petroleum resources for reasons of national security and climate change. Changes in fuel formulations to include ethanol from corn sugar and methyl esters from soybean oil are examples of this policy in the United States and elsewhere. Replacements for commodity chemicals are also being considered, as this value stream represents much of the profit for the oil industry and one that would be affected by shortages in oil or other fossil fuels. While the discovery of large amounts of natural gas associated with oil shale deposits has abated this concern, research into bio-based feedstock materials continues. In particular, this chapter reviews a literature on the conversion of bio-based extracts to hydrocarbons for fuels and for building block commodity chemicals, with a focus on soybean derived products. Conversion of methyl esters from soybean triglycerides for replacement of diesel fuel is an active area of research; however, the focus of this chapter will not reside with esterification or transesterification, except has a means to provide materials for the production of hydrocarbons for fuels or chemical feedstocks. Methyl ester content in vehicle fuel is limited by a number of factors, including the performance in cold weather, the effect of oxygen content on engine components particularly in the case of older engines, shelf-life, and higher NOx emissions from engines that are not tuned to handle the handle the enhanced pre-ignition conditions of methyl ester combustion [1]. These factors have led to interest in synthesizing a hydrocarbon fuel from methyl esters, one that will maintain the cetane number but will achieve better performance in an automobile: enhanced mixing, injection, and combustion, and reduce downstream issues such as emissions and upstream issues such as fuel preparation and transportation. ...
Date: January 2013
Creator: McFarlane, Joanna
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

Description: A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.
Date: July 6, 2000
Creator: Perez, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Annual Diesel-Fuel Survey, 1951

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the use of diesel fuel in the United States during 1951. 303 samples of diesel fuel are analyzed and recorded. This report includes tables and maps.
Date: October 1951
Creator: Blade, O. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

Description: Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today’s state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include:  A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target  An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system  Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system  Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle – Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine  Emissions and ...
Date: June 3, 2011
Creator: Stanton, Donald W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

Description: Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.
Date: January 2, 2013
Creator: Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report

Description: The goal of this project was to quantify organic aerosol precursor concentrations in an urban environment and to measure suitable organic photoproduct species that can act as tracers of photochemical processing to identify the occurrence and rate of secondary organic aerosol formation. Field measurements were made as part of the ASR field program Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010. What is new in our approach is the measurement for the total concentration of long chain alkanes (>C10) and heavier alkyl substituted aromatics associated with diesel exhaust gas phase organic compound emissions. A method to measure these so called intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) was developed by modifying a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer instrument to perform both volatile organic compound (VOC) and IVOC analysis by thermal desorption from a Tenax adsorbent trap (TD-PTR-MS). Lab and field results show that the TD-PTR-MS technique can measure long chain alkanes associated with diesel engine emissions and thus provide a novel means to measure these compounds to better understand the impact of vehicle emissions on secondary organic aerosol formation.
Date: August 20, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fate of Benzo(a)pyrene in Tissues of Mice Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

Description: Mice were exposed to diesel exhaust for 9 months prior to evaluation for benzo(a)pyrene disposition. On the last day of exposure the mice were instilled intratracheally with tritiated-benzo(a)pyrene ([3H]BP). The mice were sacrificed at intervals of 2, 24, and 168 hours. Disappearance of radioactivity from lungs and liver was rapid and essentially linear with time. In lungs, liver, and testes; [3H]BP metabolites were found mainly as conjugates, a form readily excretable. Clearance of the hydrocarbon from liver and testes in exposed mice was not markedly different from that in nonexposed mice. However, mice exposed to diesel exhaust had delayed [3H]BP clearance from lungs, possibly due to [3H]BP adsorption to diesel smoke particles.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Loudin, Agnes D.
Partner: UNT Libraries


Description: The breakup of injected fuel into spray is of key interest to the design of a fuel efficient, nonpolluting diesel engine. We report preliminary progress on the numerical simulation of diesel fuel injection spray with the front tracking code FronTier. Our simulation design is set to match experiments at ANL, and our present agreement is semi-quantitative. Future efforts will include mesh refinement studies, which will better model the turbulent flow.
Date: June 17, 2003
Creator: GLIMM,J.; LI,X.; KIM,M.N.; OH,W.; MARCHESE,A.; SAMULYAK,R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine facility is under development. Recent experimental results to be discussed are: the effects of injection timing and diluent addition on late-combustion soot burnout, diesel-spray ignition and premixed-burn behavior, a comparison of the combustion characteristics of M85 (a mixture of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline) and DF2 (No.2 diesel reference fuel), and a description of our HCCI experimental program and modeling work.
Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Carling, Robert W. & Singh, Gurpreet
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles. Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.
Date: August 5, 2001
Creator: Durbin, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

Description: Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.
Date: April 8, 2005
Creator: Woodford, J. B. & Fenske, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Lean NOx adsorber systems are one of the primary candidate technologies for the control of NOx from diesel engines to meet the 2007-2010 US emissions regulations, which require a 90% reduction of NOx from the 2004 regulations. Several of the technical challenges facing this technology are regeneration at low exhaust temperatures and the efficient use of diesel fuel to minimize fuel penalty. A diesel processor system has been developed and tested in a single leg NOx adsorber configuration on a diesel engine test stand. During NOx adsorber regeneration, this fuel processor system performs reduces the exhaust O2 level to zero and efficiently processes the diesel fuel to H2 and CO. Combined with a Nox adsorber catalyst, this system has demonstrated NOx reduction above 90%, regeneration of the NOx adsorber H2/CO pulses as short as 1 second and fuel penalties in the 3 to 4% range at 50% load. This fuel processor system can also be used to provide the desulfation cycle required with sulfur containing fuels as well as providing thermal management for PM filter regeneration.
Date: August 24, 2003
Creator: Betta, R; Cizeron, J; Sheridan, D & Davis, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Un-Regulated Emissions from CRT-Equipped Transit Buses

Description: Demonstrate applicability of the CRT TM to both new 4-stroke and older 2-stroke diesel engines Document the emissions reductions available using CRT TM retrofits in conjunction with reduced sulfur diesel fuel Evaluate the durability of CRTs in rigorous New York City bus service Apply new measurement and monitoring technologies for PM and toxic emissions Compare diesel-CRTTM with CNG and diesel-electric hybrid buses
Date: August 20, 2000
Creator: Gibbs, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A number of NO{sub x} control systems are being discussed for potential application to diesel engines. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to compare systems on an equal basis because data are run under different conditions, or reported against different test cycles, or not shown over a range of operating conditions. In addition, the fuel consumption penalty associated with the NO{sub x} control technologies is not always reported. In this paper, we compare two diesel NO{sub x} aftertreatment systems: (1) Plasma-Catalyst (PC): a nonthermal plasma followed by a catalyst; and (2) Active Lean NO{sub x} Catalyst (ALNC): a NO{sub x} catalyst designed to selectively reduce NO{sub x} using hydrocarbon (HC) in the form of diesel fuel. Fuel is added to the exhaust to increase HC above normal diesel levels. These systems will be described in more detail in this report.
Date: August 20, 2000
Creator: Hoard, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Onboard Plasmatron Generation of Hydrogen rich Gas for Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment and Other Applications

Description: Plasmatron reformers can provide attractive means for conversion of diesel fuel into hydrogen rich gas. The hydrogen rich gas can be used for improved NOx trap technology and other aftertreatment applications.
Date: August 25, 2002
Creator: Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Heywood,J. & Rabinovich, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Description: Research focus: - Impact of sulfur on: Catalyst performance; Short term catalyst durability. This presentation summarizes results from fresh catalyst performance evaluations - WVU contracted to conduct DOC and Lean NOx catalyst testing for DECSE DECSE program. (experimental details discussed previously)
Date: August 20, 2000
Creator: Whitacre, Shawn D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Brief Literature Overview of Various Routes to Biorenewable Fuels from Lipids for the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-products (NAABB) Consortium

Description: Renewable methods of producing transportation fuels are currently the focus of numerous large research efforts across the globe. Renewable fuel produced from algal lipids is one aspect of this research that could have profound implications on future transportation fuel requirements. However, technical challenges remain in several areas of algal-lipid-based fuels. These challenges include the identification and development of robust and productive algal species as well as extraction methods to recover the produced lipids. Not the least of these technical challenges is the conversion of the algae lipids to fungible fuels. This brief literature review focuses primarily on state-of-the-art “downstream” applications of producing fuel from fats and lipids, which can be applied to ongoing research with algae-derived lipids.
Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Albrecht, Karl O. & Hallen, Richard T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department