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Coupling Through Tortuous Path Narrow Slot Apertures into Complex Cavitivies

Description: A hybrid FEM/MoM model has been implemented to compute the coupling of fields into a cavity through narrow slot apertures having depth. The model utilizes the slot model of Warne and Chen [23]-[29] which takes into account the depth of the slot, wall losses, and inhomogeneous dielectrics in the slot region. The cavity interior is modeled with the mixed-order, covariant-projection hexahedral elements of Crowley [32]. Results are given showing the accuracy and generality of the method for modeling geometrically complex slot-cavity combinations.
Date: July 26, 1999
Creator: Jedlicka, Russell P.; Castillo, Steven P. & Warne, Larry K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Femtosecond laser materials processing

Description: Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.
Date: August 5, 1998
Creator: Stuart, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functional Materials for Microsystems: Smart Self-Assembled Photochromic Films: Final Report

Description: This project set out to scientifically-tailor ''smart'' interfacial films and 3-D composite nanostructures to exhibit photochromic responses to specific, highly-localized chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, and to integrate them into optical microsystems. The project involved the design of functionalized chromophoric self-assembled materials that possessed intense and environmentally-sensitive optical properties (absorbance, fluorescence) enabling their use as detectors of specific stimuli and transducers when interfaced with optical probes. The conjugated polymer polydiacetylene (PDA) proved to be the most promising material in many respects, although it had some drawbacks concerning reversibility. Throughout his work we used multi-task scanning probes (AFM, NSOM), offering simultaneous optical and interfacial force capabilities, to actuate and characterize the PDA with localized and specific interactions for detailed characterization of physical mechanisms and parameters. In addition to forming high quality mono-, bi-, and tri-layers of PDA via Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, we were successful in using the diacetylene monomer precursor as a surfactant that directed the self-assembly of an ordered, mesostructured inorganic host matrix. Remarkably, the diacetylene was polymerized in the matrix, thus providing a PDA-silica composite. The inorganic matrix serves as a perm-selective barrier to chemical and biological agents and provides structural support for improved material durability in microsystems. Our original goal was to use the composite films as a direct interface with microscale devices as optical elements (e.g., intracavity mirrors, diffraction gratings), taking advantage of the very high sensitivity of device performance to real-time dielectric changes in the films. However, our optical physics colleagues (M. Crawford and S. Kemme) were unsuccessful in these efforts, mainly due to the poor optical quality of the composite films.
Date: November 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intricate Mechanisms-on-a Chip Enabled by 5-Level Surface Micromachining

Description: Surface micromachining generally offers more design freedom than related technologies, and it is the technology of choice for most microelectromechanical applications that require multi-level structures. However, the design flexibility that surface micromachining offers is not without limitations. In addition to determining how to fabricate devices in a planar world, the designer also needs to consider issues such as film quality, thickness, residual stress, topography propagation, stringers, processing limitations, and concerns about surface adhesion [1]. Only a few years ago, these were the types of issues that limited design complexity. As the technology improved, the number of mechanical layers available to the designer became the dominant constraint on system functionality. In response, we developed a 5-level polysilicon fabrication technology [2] that offers an unprecedented level of microelectromechanical complexity with simultaneous increases in system yield and robustness. This paper outlines the application that was the driving force behind this work and describes the first devices specifically designed for and fabricated in this technology. The 5-level fabrication technology developed to support this program is known as SUMMiT-V. Four mechanical layers of polysilicon referred to as polyl, poly2, poly3, and poly4 are fabricated above a polyO electrical interconnect and ground plane layer [2,4]. PolyO is 0.3 pm thick, polyl is 1.0 pm, poly 2 is 1.5 pm, and both poly3 and poly4 are 2.25 pm. All films except polyl and poly2 are separated by 2-pm thick depositions of sacrificial oxide. A 0.5-m sacrificial oxide between polyl and poly2 typically defines the clearance between close mating parts such as hubs and hinges. This entire stack is built on a single crystal substrate with a dielectric foundation of 0.8 pm of nitride over 0.63 m of oxide. Seventeen drawing layer are combined to generate the 14 photolithographic masks used to pattern these films during a 240-step ...
Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Allen, J.J.; McWhorter, P.J.; Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; Smith, J.H. & Sniegowski, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

Description: The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Domeier, Linda & Hunter, Marion
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrostriction in Field-Structured Composites: Basis for a Fast Artificial Muscle?

Description: The electrostriction of composites consisting of dielectric particles embedded in a gel or elastomer is discussed. It is shown that when these particles are organized by a uniaxial field before gelation, the resulting field-structured composites are expected to exhibit enhanced electrostriction in a uniform field applied along the same axis as the structuring field. The associated stresses might be large enough to form the basis of a polymer-based fast artificial muscle.
Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Anderson, R.A. & Martin, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breakdown During High-Field Bias-Temperature Stress

Description: Measurements of dielectric breakdown during high-field electrical stress are typically performed at or near room temperature via constant voltage or current stress methods. In this summary they explore whether useful information might also be obtained by performing current measurements during a temperature ramp at high electric field.
Date: August 5, 1999
Creator: Fleetwood, D.M.; Krisch, K.S. & Sexton, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lead zirconate titanate on base metal foils: An approach for embedded high-K passive components

Description: An approach for embedding high-K dielectric thin films into polymer packages has been developed. Pb{sub 0.85}La{sub 0.15}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 0.96}O{sub 3} thin films were prepared by chemical solution deposition on 50 {micro}m thick Ni-coated Cu foils. Sputter deposited Ni top electrodes completed the all base-metal capacitor stack. After high temperature N{sub 2} crystallization anneals, the PLZT composition showed reduction resistance while the base-metal foils remained flexible. Capacitance density and Loss tangent values range between 300 and 400 nF/cm{sup 2} and 0.01 and 0.02 from 1 to 1,000 kHz respectively. These properties represent a 2 to 3 order of magnitude improvement over available embedded capacitor technologies for polymeric packages.
Date: January 26, 2000
Creator: Maria, J.-P.; Cheek, K.; Streiffer, S. K.; Kim, S.-H.; Dunn, G. & Kingon, A. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Applications Perspective of Nanodielectrics

Description: The field of nanodielectrics has had a significant impact on voltage endurance characteristics of electrical insulation. Improved time-to-breakdown behavior, resulting in reduced aging of insulation, and enhanced thermal stability are of considerable importance in industrial applications. This chapter discusses several specific aspects of nanodielectrics and their role in the future of electrical insulation and dielectric sciences.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Tuncer, Enis & Sauers, Isidor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Backscattering from Tunnels

Description: Low-frequency electromagnetic scattering from one or more tunnels in a lossy dielectric half-space is considered. The tunnel radii are assumed small compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic field in the surrounding medium; a tunnel can thus be modeled as a thin scatterer, described by an equivalent impedance per unit length. We examine the normalized backscattering width for cases in which the air-ground interface is either smooth or rough.
Date: January 16, 2007
Creator: Casey, K & Pao, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tunable ionic-conductivity of collapsed Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS).

Description: This proposal focuses on the synthesis and characterization of ''tunable'' perovskite ceramics with resulting controlled strength and temperature of dielectric constants and/or with ionic conductivity. Traditional methods of synthesis involve high temperature oxide mixing and baking. We developed a new methodology of synthesis involving the (1) low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of metastable porous phases with ''tuned'' stoichiometry, and element types, and then (2) low temperature heat treatment to build exact stoichiometry perovskites, with the desired vacancy concentrations. This flexible pathway can lead to compositions and structures not attainable by conventional methods. During the course of this program, a series of Na-Nb perovskites were synthesized by calcining and collapsing microporous Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieve (SOMS) phases. These materials were studied by various characterization techniques and conductivity measurements to better delineate stability and stoichiometry/bulk conductivity relationships. The conductivity can be altered by changing the concentration and type of the substituting framework cation(s) or by ion exchange of sodium. To date, the Na{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} shows the best conductivity.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J. & Axness, Marlene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optically induced surface flashover switching for the dielectric wall accelerator

Description: Fast, low jitter command triggered switching is key to the successful implementation of the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA). We are studying a UV induced vacuum surface flashover switch for this purpose. We present our initial data using a Nd:YAG laser incident onto a high gradient insulator surface at 1{omega}, 2{omega}, and 4{omega}. Best 1{sigma} jitter was <1 ns with no degradation of the switch after 500 shots.
Date: April 27, 1995
Creator: Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.; Carder, B.; Norton, M.; Trimble, D. & Elizondo, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing and characterization of high porosity aerogel films

Description: Aerogels are highly porous solids having unique morphology among materials because both the pores and particles making up the material have sizes less than wavelengths of visible light. Such a unique morphology modifies the normal molecular transport mechanisms within the material, resulting in exceptional thermal, acoustical, mechanical, and electrical properties. For example, aerogels have the lowest measured thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for any solid material. Special methods are required to make aerogel films with high porosity. In this paper, we discuss the special conditions needed to fabricate aerogel films having porosities greater than 75% and we describe methods of processing inorganic aerogel films having controllable thicknesses in the range 0.5 to 200 micrometers. We report methods and results of characterizing the films including thickness, refractive index, density (porosity), and dielectric constant. We also discuss results of metallization and patterning on the aerogel films for applications involving microminiature electronics and thermal detectors.
Date: November 22, 1994
Creator: Hrubesh, L.W. & Poco, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Poynting vectors and electric field distributions in simple dielectric gratings

Description: The authors discuss, with illustrations drawn from the simple example of a dielectric grating under total internal reflection illumination, the use of electric field, energy density and Poynting vector as tools for understanding phenomena associated with dielectric gratings. The electric field has greatest direct observational interest, and exhibits patterns of nodes and antinodes that are both expected and intuitive. The energy density, though not directly linked with photoelectric response, has readily understood global patterns. The Poynting vector has more elaborate structure, involving patterns of curls, but the patterns are sensitive to small changes in illumination angle or groove depth. Plots of Poynting vectors may not be as useful for dielectric structures as they are for metals.
Date: February 7, 1996
Creator: Shore, B. W.; Feit, M. D. & Li, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

Description: Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Barbee, T.W. Jr. & Johnson, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Cryogenically Microwave Lossy Ceramics with Adjustable Properties

Description: At cryogenic temperatures (below 20 K), most of the existing lossy materials become non-lossy, requiring the development of a new materials effective in these conditions. Results of an effort to develop a cryogenically lossy materials based on the AlN matrix are presented in the paper. Hot pressing with a wide range of possible lossy second phases was tried, followed by complex permitivity measurements. A promising second phase was selected, produced and evaluated under cryogenic conditions at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The developed material system allows the dielectric permitivity to be varied depending on the application requirements.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Mikijeli, Biljana & Campisi, Isidoro
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wave propagation in ordered, disordered, and nonlinear photonic band gap materials

Description: Photonic band gap materials are artificial dielectric structures that give the promise of molding and controlling the flow of optical light the same way semiconductors mold and control the electric current flow. In this dissertation the author studied two areas of photonic band gap materials. The first area is focused on the properties of one-dimensional PBG materials doped with Kerr-type nonlinear material, while, the second area is focused on the mechanisms responsible for the gap formation as well as other properties of two-dimensional PBG materials. He first studied, in Chapter 2, the general adequacy of an approximate structure model in which the nonlinearity is assumed to be concentrated in equally-spaced very thin layers, or 6-functions, while the rest of the space is linear. This model had been used before, but its range of validity and the physical reasons for its limitations were not quite clear yet. He performed an extensive examination of many aspects of the model's nonlinear response and comparison against more realistic models with finite-width nonlinear layers, and found that the d-function model is quite adequate, capturing the essential features in the transmission characteristics. The author found one exception, coming from the deficiency of processing a rigid bottom band edge, i.e. the upper edge of the gaps is always independent of the refraction index contrast. This causes the model to miss-predict that there are no soliton solutions for a positive Kerr-coefficient, something known to be untrue.
Date: December 10, 1999
Creator: Lidorikis, Elefterios
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department