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An Improved Continuous-Indicating Dew-Point Meter

Description: Note presenting the development of a continuous-indicating dew-point meter that automatically maintains a mirror surface at the dew point. The instrument was found to have an average accuracy of 1 degrees Fahrenheit over the range of 75 to -45 degrees. The accuracy of the instrument is uncertain at temperatures below 32 degrees Fahrenheit by the difference in vapor-solid and vapor-liquid equilibrium temperatures.
Date: February 1947
Creator: Friswold, Frank A.; Lewis, Ralph D. & Wheeler, R. Clyde, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) Handbook

Description: The Atqasuk meteorology station (AMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point, and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH) probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Ritsche, MT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Barrow (METTWR4H) Handbook

Description: The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights (2m, 10m, 20m and 40m) on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at the base of the tower. Additionally, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer and an Ultrasonic wind speed sensor are located near the 2m level for comparison purposes.
Date: April 1, 2008
Creator: Ritsche, MT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Temperature and Composition on the Mercury Vapor Pressure in the Uranium-Mercury System

Description: The vapor pressure of mercury is lowered by increased concentration of uranium. By dew-point measurements, the vapor pressure at 175 deg C was found to vary between 2 and 8 mm Hg, and at 375 deg C, between 300 and 1100 mm Hg, depending upon composition. Plots of the log of mercury vapor pressure as a function of the reciprocal of absolute temperature gave a family of straight lines. Each line corresponded to one of the compositions: UHg/sub 2/, UHg/sub 3/ , UHg/sub 4/, and a saturated solution of UHg/sub 4/ in mercury. No mutual solubility of the intermetallics was indicated. (auth)
Date: June 11, 1959
Creator: Forsberg, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Gas Analysis for Diagnostics and Surveillance (EGADS): Contamination-free sampling and analysis

Description: Providing uncontaminated weapon internal atmosphere samples and measuring their dew points is of paramount importance for enhanced surveillance and accelerated aging. The authors are developing and integrating four types of gas sampling systems for use throughout the weapons complex. They are utilizing tools to extract time/age information from the gas analysis of weapon internal atmospheres.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Maestas, L.M.; Guilinger, T.R. & Kelly, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Magnus` form approximation of saturation vapor pressure

Description: Relative humidity is usually measured in aerological observations and dew point depression is usually reported in upper-air reports. These variables must frequently be converted to other moisture variables in meteorological analysis. If relative humidity is converted to vapor pressure, most humidity variables can then be determined. Elliott and Gaffen reviewed the practices and procedures of the US radiosonde system. In their paper, a comparison of the relative errors was made between the saturation vapor pressure formulations of Tetens (1930), Goff-Gratch (1946), Wexler (1976), and Buck (1981). In this paper, the authors will expand the analysis of Elliott and Gaffen by deriving several new saturation vapor pressure formulas, and reviewing the various errors in these formulations. They will show that two of the new formulations of vapor pressure over water and ice are superior to existing formulas. Upper air temperature data are found to vary from about +50 C to {minus}80 C. This large variation requires a saturation vapor pressure equation to be accurate over a large temperature range. While the errors introduced by the use of relatively inaccurate conversion equations are smaller than the errors due to the instruments, dewpoint coding errors, and dewpoint conversion algorithms (Elliott and Gaffen, 1993); they introduce additional systematic errors in humidity data. The most precise formulation of vapor pressure over a plane surface of water was given by Wexler (1976). The relative errors of Tetens` (1930) formula and one due to Buck (1981) (Buck`s equation is recommended in the Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 3, 1991) are shown. The relative errors in this table are the predicted value minus the Wexler value divided by the Wexler value.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Alduchov, O. A. & Eskridge, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-1996

Description: Surface synoptic weather reports for the entire globe, gathered from various available data sets, were processed, edited, and rewritten to provide a single data set of individual observations of clouds, spanning the 44 years 1952-1995 for ship data and the 26 years 1971-1996 for land station data. In addition to the cloud portion of the synoptic report, each edited report also includes the associated pressure, present weather, wind, air temperature, and dew point (and sea surface temperature over oceans).
Date: August 1, 1999
Creator: Hahn, C.J. & Warren, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological database for the United States

Description: A meteorological database has been developed to aid in the prediction of indoor radon concentrations in the United States. The database contains predicted typical monthly meteorological statistics at the county level derived from hourly meteorological data from 208 (234 for precipitation) geographically distinct monitoring stations. Interpolation and extrapolation techniques were used to predict statistics for counties not containing a meteorological monitoring site. The LBNL database includes statistics for meteorological variables including dry-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, hours of precipitation, precipitation, and derived infiltration degree-days. The database consists of individual files of derived statistics for each weather variable and is potentially useful for indoor radon modeling as well as for other purposes. Each file contains data values for all 12 months and an aggregation of the 12 months up to a yearly statistic for all county centroids. A test was conducted to assess the quality of interpolated values. Examples showing the use of the database for mapping infiltration degree-days and an application of the database to a statistical correlation analysis attempting to find meteorological factors influencing indoor radon levels in the United States is discussed.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Apte, M.G.; Nero, A.V. & Revzan, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chilled Mirror Dew Point Hygrometer (CM) Handbook

Description: The CM systems have been developed for the ARM Program to act as a moisture standard traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are three CM systems that are each fully portable, self-contained, and require only 110 V AC power. The systems include a CM sensor, air sampling and filtration system, a secondary reference (Rotronic HP043 temperature and relative humidity sensor) to detect system malfunctions, a data acquisition system, and data storage for more than one month of 1-minute data. The CM sensor directly measures dew point temperature at 1 m, air temperature at 2 m, and relative humidity at 2 m. These measurements are intended to represent self-standing data streams that can be used independently or in combinations.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Ritsche, MT
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

Description: The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.
Date: January 30, 2006
Creator: Ritsche, M. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

D-Zero Instrument Air System Humidity Transmitter Evaluation

Description: This report shows the findings that resulted in the purchase of the optimum dew point hygrometer for use in the D-Zero instrument air system (see diagram 2 on page 9). The hygrometer will monitor the air syste m to insure that the dew point level does not go above the normal operating output of the driers (this precise value will be determined during initial system start-up). The following criteria was used in the evaluation: (1) Long term durability; (2) Minimum calibration; (3) Indicate a dew point level down to -40 C accurately; (4) Designed to work in a low humidity region; (5) Minimum maintenance; (6) Fast response time; and (7) Lowest cost provided all other criteria is met.
Date: July 15, 1988
Creator: Serges, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: Blythe, Gary M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report presents a detailed analysis of the development of miscibility during gas cycling in condensates and the formation of condensate banks at the leading edge of the displacement front. Dispersion-free, semi-analytical one-dimensional (1D) calculations are presented for enhanced condensate recovery by gas injection. The semi-analytical approach allows investigation of the possible formation of condensate banks (often at saturations that exceed the residual liquid saturation) and also allows fast screening of optimal injection gas compositions. We describe construction of the semi-analytical solutions, a process which differs in some ways from related displacements for oil systems. We use an analysis of key equilibrium tie lines that are part of the displacement composition path to demonstrate that the mechanism controlling the development of miscibility in gas condensates may vary from first-contact miscible drives to pure vaporizing and combined vaporizing/condensing drives. Depending on the compositions of the condensate and the injected gas, multicontact miscibility can develop at the dew point pressure, or below the dew point pressure of the reservoir fluid mixture. Finally, we discuss the possible impact on performance prediction of the formation of a mobile condensate bank at the displacement front in near-miscible gas cycling/injection schemes.
Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is an atmospheric numerical model developed by scientists at Colorado State University and the ASTER Division of Mission Research Corporation for simulating and forecasting meteorological phenomena. RAMS v3a and v4.3 are being used by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as an operational tool for weather forecast and emergency response for the Savannah River Site (SRS). ATmospheric, Meteorological, and Environmental Technologies (ATMET) is now the proprietor of RAMS. The latest upgrade (v6.0) was officially released on January 11, 2006. ATG plans to eventually replace the RAMS v3a and v4.3 with the RAMS v6.0 for operational site forecasting if the newest version provides a significant improvement in the numerical forecast. A study to compare the three model (v3a, v4.3 and v6.0) results with respect to surface stations observations was conducted and is the subject of this report. Two cases were selected for simulation by these three RAMS models. One simulation started at 0 Z on April 3, 2007 and represents a warm weather case (high temperature of 26 C and low temperature of 16 C) at SRS, while the other simulation started at 0 Z on April 7, 2007 and represents a cold weather case (high temperature of 9 C and low temperature of -1 C) at SRS. The wind speeds, wind directions, temperatures and the dew point temperatures predicted by the three RAMS models were interpolated to 46 surface observation locations. The interpolated results were compared with the observation data. Statistically, the differences between the three model results were very small. For the present configurations, the predictions from RAMS v6.0 are no better than the older models with the exception of wind direction. The proposed path forward would be to fine tune the RAMS v6.0 model input parameters to improve the predictions. This should ...
Date: August 30, 2007
Creator: Chen, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

Description: Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four ...
Date: May 29, 2004
Creator: Baxter, VAND.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

Description: This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.
Date: October 1, 2012
Creator: Woods, J. & Kozubal, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of an Integrated Laboratory Scale Test for Hydrogen Production via High Temperature Electrolysis

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is researching the feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis for high-efficiency carbon-free hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Typical temperatures for high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) are between 800º-900ºC, consistent with anticipated coolant outlet temperatures of advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. An Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test is underway to study issues such as thermal management, multiple-stack electrical configuration, pre-heating of process gases, and heat recuperation that will be crucial in any large-scale implementation of HTE. The current ILS design includes three electrolysis modules in a single hot zone. Of special design significance is preheating of the inlet streams by superheaters to 830°C before entering the hot zone. The ILS system is assembled on a 10’ x 16’ skid that includes electronics, power supplies, air compressor, pumps, superheaters, , hot zone, condensers, and dew-point sensor vessels. The ILS support system consists of three independent, parallel supplies of electrical power, sweep gas streams, and feedstock gas mixtures of hydrogen and steam to the electrolysis modules. Each electrolysis module has its own support and instrumentation system, allowing for independent testing under different operating conditions. The hot zone is an insulated enclosure utilizing electrical heating panels to maintain operating conditions. The target hydrogen production rate for the ILS is 5000 Nl/hr.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Housley, G.K.; Condie, K.G.; O'Brien, J.E. & Stoots, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

Description: The objective of this project was to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions was conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute partially supported the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. During the course of this project, MTR has sold thirteen commercial units related to the field test technology. Revenue generated from new business is already more than four times the research dollars invested in this process by DOE. The process is ready for broader commercialization and the expectation is to pursue the commercialization plans developed during this project, including collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.
Date: March 30, 2007
Creator: Lokhandwala, Kaaeid
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime ...
Date: October 20, 2009
Creator: Smith, C. & Brigmon, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Data and Steps for Processing the 1997-2001 SRS Meteorological Database

Description: Every five years since the mid-1970s DOE has requested an update on the meteorological conditions at SRS in order to provide dose calculations for accident or routine release scenarios for onsite and offsite populations. The meteorological database includes wind speed, wind direction, temperature, dew point, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensities. The two most recent databases prior to the current one were completed in 1998 for the time period 1992-96 (Weber, 1998) and one for 1987-91 (Parker, et. al., 1992). The current database covers the period 1997-2001. The advantage of updating the database every five years is that meteorological observations are steadily growing more complete and less subject to errors with the implementation of better electronic data archiving software and hardware, and improved data quality assurance procedures. Also, changes in the region's climate may be manifest.
Date: June 17, 2003
Creator: Weber, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of preliminary analysis of data from dew-point hygrometer profiles during the ARM 1996 WVIOP

Description: Unique commercial light-weight chilled-mirror dew-point sensors were flown on tethered balloons during the Water Vapor Intensive Operation Period (WVIOP) in September 1996. Comparisons were made between in situ and remote sensing instruments that detect water vapor. We obtained a special waiver to fly the sensors up to 1 km both day and night from the FAA. Preliminary comparisons with tower mounted, surface-based temperature/relative humidity probes, rawinsonde, air-borne chilled-mirror dew point, and Raman lidar profiles are included. Profiles during nocturnal boundary layer wind jet occurrences are presented as special cases along with balloon-borne nephelometer light scattering profile comparisons.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Porch, W.; Fernandez, A. & Spurgeon, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dew point, internal gas pressure, and chemical composition of the gas within the free volume of DWPF canistered waste forms

Description: The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) produced 55 canistered waste forms containing simulated waste glass during the four Waste Qualification campaigns of the DWPF Startup Test Program. Testing of the gas within the free volume of these canisters for dew point, internal gas pressure, and chemical composition was performed as part of a continuing effort to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications. Results are presented for six glass-filled canisters. The dew points within the canisters met the acceptance criterion of < 20{degrees}C for all six canisters. Factors influencing the magnitude of the dew point are presented. The chemical composition of the free volume gas was indistinguishable from air for all six canisters. Hence, no foreign materials were present in the gas phase of these canisters. The internal gas pressures within the sealed canisters were < 1 atm at 25{degrees}C for all six canisters which readily met the acceptance criterion of an internal gas pressure of less than 1.5 atm at 25{degrees}C. These results provided the evidence required to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Harbour, J.R.; Herman, D.T.; Crump, S.; Miller, T.J. & McIntosh, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological monitoring at the Savannah River Site in 1995

Description: The meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has traditionally provided weather information for a variety of needs such as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of an accidental release of an atmospheric contaminant or applications which require a longer term data base representative of the local climatology. These applications include dosimetric and air quality calculations, engineering analyses, environmental characterizations, and risk assessments. In today`s shrinking budgetary climate, new initiatives for the SRS meteorological monitoring program are developing. These new initiatives and an overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the SRS are presented.
Date: March 6, 1996
Creator: Parker, M.J. & Addis, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department