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Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon coast

Description: This study was conducted to determine whether a low-powered sound source could be effective at deterring gray whales from areas that may prove harmful to them. With increased interest in the development of marine renewal energy along the Oregon coast the concern that such development may pose a collision or entanglement risk for gray whales. A successful acoustic deterrent could act as a mitigation tool to prevent harm to whales from such risks. In this study, an acoustic device was moored on the seafloor in the pathway of migrating gray whales off Yaquina Head on the central Oregon coast. Shore-based observers tracked whales with a theodolite (surveyor’s tool) to accurately locate whales as they passed the headland. Individual locations of different whales/whale groups as well as tracklines of the same whale/whale groups were obtained and compared between times with the acoustic device was transmitting and when it was off. Observations were conducted on 51 d between January 1 and April 15, 2012. A total of 143 individual whale locations were collected for a total of 243 whales, as well as 57 tracklines for a total of 142 whales. Inclement weather and equipment problems resulted in very small sample sizes, especially during experimental periods, when the device was transmitting. Because of this, the results of this study were inconclusive. We feel that another season of field testing is warranted to successfully test the effectiveness of the deterrent, but recommend increasing the zone of influence to 3 km to ensure the collection of adequate sample sizes. Steps have been taken to acquire the necessary federal research permit modification to authorize the increased zone of influence and to modify the acoustic device for the increased power. With these changes we are confident we will be able to determine whether the deterrent is effective ...
Date: December 31, 2012
Creator: Lagerquist, Barbara; Winsor, Martha & Mate, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States

Description: The bipartisan commission was tasked by Congress to "examine and make recommendations with respect to the long-term strategic posture of the United States." Chaired by former Secretary of Defense William J. Perry, Congress created the Commission as part of the National Defense Authorization Act of 2008. The final report, consisting of over one hundred findings and recommendations, was delivered to Congress and the White House on May 6, 2009.
Date: 2008
Creator: National Assessment of Vocational Education
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First strike stability at low weapon levels

Description: Proportional force reductions could reduce stability by giving the side with fewer vulnerable significant benefit in preemption by allowing the use of his full force in damage limitation at intermediate force levels. That benefit would be reduced if both sides shifted towards larger fractions of survivable forces.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Canavan, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons in U.S. National Security Policy: Past, Present, and Prospects

Description: This report highlights the differences between the construct of tailored deterrence and the more general concept of strategic deterrence that guided U.S. nuclear policy during the Cold War. It then identifies a number of issues that Congress might address when it reviews these differences, including the question of whether detailed and tailored attack plans are more likely to enhance deterrence or more likely to lead to the early use of nuclear weapons, and the question of whether tailored deterrence provides any guidance about the future size and structure of U.S. nuclear forces.
Date: December 30, 2008
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New technology for NATO: implementing Follow-On Forces Attack

Description: The report briefly reviews what Follow-On Forces Attack (FOFA) is and how it fits into NATO strategy, but is primarily concerned with the outstanding technical issues, how our Allies view FOFA, how the Soviets might respond to it, and how the various technical developments might be brought together into “packages” of systems to support specific operational concepts.
Date: June 1987
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technologies for NATO's follow-on forces attack concept: a special report of OTA's assessment on improving NATO's defense response

Description: This report is an unclassified version of OTA’s Special Report, Technologies for NATO’s Followon Forces Attack Concept. It contains primarily the executive summary of the classified report, as well as the chapter on delivery systems and munitions, with classified material removed.
Date: July 1986
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons in U.S. National Security Policy: Past, Present, and Prospects

Description: This report highlights the differences between the construct of tailored deterrence and the more general concept of strategic deterrence that guided U.S. nuclear policy during the Cold War. It then identifies issues that Congress might address when it reviews these differences.
Date: January 21, 2010
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability at low symmetric force levels

Description: At low force levels stability indices depend primarily on the number of vulnerable missiles and the number of weapons on them. The index reduces to a product of the number of vulnerable missiles and the differences between normalized second and first strikes by vulnerable weapons. As the number of weapons per vulnerable missile decreases, the index rapidly approaches stability. Further reductions in vulnerable and survivable missiles and weapons do not affect stability, although they do reduce first and second strikes. Modest weapon reconstitution degrades stability significantly.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Canavan, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

De-alerting of U.S. nuclear forces: a critical appraisal

Description: Since the end of the Cold War, there have been pressures by disarmament advocates to move more quickly to draw down, toward zero, the number of nuclear weapons in U.S. and Russian arsenals. They criticize the process of negotiating arms control agreements as being too slow, and point out that treaty implementation is hampered by the necessity of ratification by the U.S. Senate and Russian Duma. One method of moving more rapidly toward nuclear abolition suggested by some analysts is de-alerting of nuclear-weapon delivery systems. De-alerting is defined as taking steps that increase significantly the time required to launch a given delivery vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead. Although there is little inclination by the U.S. Government to de-alert its nuclear forces at present, some academic literature and press stories continue to advocate such steps. This paper offers a critique of de-alerting proposals together with an assessment of the dangers of accidental, unauthorized, or unintended use of nuclear weapons. It concludes that de-alerting nuclear forces would be extremely de-stabilizing, principally because it would increase the value to an opponent of launching a first strike.
Date: August 21, 1998
Creator: Bailey, K. C. & Barish, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Military Power: Future Needs, Future Choices

Description: This background paper outlines some of the issues of importance for making choices about the future nature and role of U.S. armed forces, and suggests how these choices will affect defense base requirements. The final report of the assessment, to be delivered in the spring of 1992, will address specific policy options arising from the strategic choices and tactical decisions discussed here.
Date: October 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Primer on U.S. Strategic Nuclear Policy

Description: This primer presents a succinct summary of the evolution of U.S. nuclear deterrence policy from the initial development of nuclear weapons until the present day. This is not a definitive history but an introduction to deterrence policy for those with limited background in this area. The concept of deterrence is discussed in several ways--in a general description of deterrence theory, in an historical review of nuclear policy evolution, in a discussion of the future of deterrence, in historical examples of deterrence successes and failures, and in a review of significant contributors to the study of nuclear policy. The intent is to present an authoritative, unclassified account. To accomplish this, to the extent possible, primary source documents were located and utilized if they were available and declassified. These included unclassified Presidential nuclear policy guidance from the Presidential libraries, official JCS histories and State Department Foreign Relations histories. The writings of noted nuclear strategists and historians were also valuable resources for this primer on U.S. strategic nuclear policy.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: KUNSMAN, DAVID M. & LAWSON, DOUGLAS B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Juvenile Substance Abuse and Criminal Career Continuity

Description: The issue of juvenile drug abuse and criminal career continuity has become a nationwide concern in the last 3 decades. Social scientists and policymakers alike are concerned with the plausible relationship between juvenile drug abuse and adult crimes of high seriousness. This study represents an effort to examine the connection between juvenile drug abuse and criminal career continuity. This study has been conducted to examine the life course of the individual. The data came from Lyle Shannon's longitudinal study of the relationship between juvenile delinquency and adult crime in three birth cohorts from the city of Racine, Wisconsin The traditional social control approach toward reducing the likelihood of criminal career continuity is deterrence. The deterrence model asserts that people engage in certain kinds of behavior only after rational calculation of the costs versus the benefits. People who obey the law strive for the rewards of conformity and try to avoid the costs of criminal behavior. The threat of punishment increases the potential costs of breaking the law. Punishment is one sanction inducing such compliance. It must be realized, however, that deterrence does not have a linear effect across all types of offenders. The degree of deterrent effect on future criminal activity is often mitigated by the circumstances unique to an individual. The offender who is involved with drug abuse and the lifestyle that surrounds it best exemplifies this situation. This way of life diminishes the effectiveness of official deterrence techniques to an extent, because drug abuse is a biopsychosocial problem. In this study, the researcher pursued a number of concerns dealing with the question of whether juveniles who are delinquents and drug users are more likely to commit crimes as adults. The focus was on the juvenile recidivist and the juvenile drug user. The results indicate that those juveniles having ...
Date: August 2000
Creator: Langsam, Adam H.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Description: This report provides a basic overview of the island of Guam, including population and location, as well as the strategic significance of Guam for boosting U.S. deterrence and power projection in Asia.
Date: March 29, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Description: This report provides a basic overview of the island of Guam, including population and location, as well as the strategic significance of Guam for boosting U.S. deterrence and power projection in Asia.
Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Description: This report provides a basic overview of the island of Guam, including population and location, as well as the strategic significance of Guam for boosting U.S. deterrence and power projection in Asia.
Date: February 18, 2011
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Description: Report that provides a basic overview of the island of Guam, including population and location, as well as the strategic significance of Guam for boosting U.S. deterrence and power projection in Asia.
Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

Description: Studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in chronological order, which also reflects their logical order of development, captures the main features of stability analysis; relates first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and addresses questions such as whether uncertainty in damage preference or defense deployment can be destabilizing. It illustrates the problems with alternative metrics, latency and reconstitution, and deep unilateral and proportional force reductions.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Canavan, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe

Description: Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Maaranen, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defining the Information Security Posture: An Empirical Examination of Structure, Integration, and Managerial Effectiveness

Description: The discipline of information security management is still in its infancy as evidenced by the lack of empirical scholarly work in this area. Most research within the information security domain focuses on specific technologies and algorithms and how it impacts the principles of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. But, an important area receiving little attention is the antecedents of effective information security management at the organizational level (Stanton, Guzman, Stam & Caldera, 2003). The little empirical research that has been conducted in this area has shown that information security management in many organizations is poor (Baskerville, 1993; Shimeall & McDermott, 1999). Several researchers have identified the need for methods to measure the organization-wide information security posture of organizations (Eloff & Von Solms, 2000; James, 1996). This dissertation attempts to measure the organization-wide information security posture by examining benchmark variables that assess role, planning orientation, and performance structure within the organization. Through this conceptualization of an organization's information security posture, a means is presented to measure overall information security and how it impacts the effective utilization of information security strategies. The presence of the dependent variable, effectiveness, gives academics and practitioners a success measure which can guide more effective decision making in the information security domain. An additional aim of this dissertation is to empirically examine the influence of management practices and decisions on effective use of information security strategies within the organization. The issues of centralization versus decentralization of information security activities will be evaluated along with its impact on information security posture of organizations and the effectiveness of the organization's information security strategies. Data was collected from 119 IT and information security executives. Results show that how the organization structures information security activities is not correlated with more effective utilization of information security strategies. Meanwhile, the organization's information security posture ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Young, Randall Frederick
Partner: UNT Libraries

The role of opacity and transparency in achieving strategic stability in South Asia.

Description: According to international relations theory, deterrence can be used as a tool to achieve stability between potentially hostile nations. India and Pakistan's long history of periodic crises raises the question of how they can achieve deterrence stability. 'Transparency' describes the flow of information between parties and plays a key role in establishing a deterrence relationship. This paper studies the balance needed between opacity and transparency in nuclear topics for the maintenance of deterrence stability between India and Pakistan. States with nuclear weapons are postulated to implement transparency in four categories: potential, capability, intent, and resolve. The study applies these categories to the nuclear components of the ongoing India-Pakistan Composite Dialogue Working Group for Peace and Security including CBMs. To focus our efforts, we defined four scenarios to characterize representative strategic/military/political conditions. The scenarios are combinations of these two sets of opposite poles: competition - cooperation; extremism - moderation (to be understood primarily in a religious/nationalistic sense). We describe each scenario in terms of select focal areas (nuclear doctrine, nuclear command and control, nuclear stockpile, nuclear delivery/defensive systems, and conventional force posture). The scenarios help frame the realm of possibilities, and have been described in terms of expected conditions for the focal areas. We then use the conditions in each scenario to prescribe a range of information-sharing actions that the two countries could take to increase stability. We also highlight the information that should not be shared. These actions can be political (e.g., declarations), procedural (e.g., advance notice of certain military activities), or technologically based (e.g., seismic monitoring of the nuclear test moratorium).
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Rajain, Arpit (New Delhi, India) & Ashraf, Tariq Mahmud (Islamabad, Pakistan)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brief summary concerning strategic withholding (nuclear parsimony)

Description: This memorandum provides a brief summary on thoughts concerning `Strategic Withholding` (or perhaps, `Nuclear Parsimony`). It is chiefly meant to further support the view that there should be other significant doctrines besides `Brute-Force Retaliation`. The basic doctrinal argument is that it may be broadly disadvantageous to fire one`s missiles in equal, or `total` retaliation. It may be better to reply only softly, or not at all. The basic justification rests on an assumption of extended war, and on a logic addressed to what`s best for the surviving population and capability at any given point. In most strategic wargame exercises, it is rarely apparent that this principle is taken into account. The essential point of argument is that an extended war is not so different from peacetime posturing.
Date: June 2, 1971
Creator: Wouters, L. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department