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Effect of various errors on the Spin Tune and Stable Spin Axis

Description: Even though RHIC has two full Siberian snakes in each ring, there are various perturbations to the ideal case including orbit errors at the snakes, experiment solenoids, injection bumps, and interlaced horizontal-vertical bumps at the hydrogen jet polarimeter. These errors can cause depolarization by shifting the spin tune and tilting the stable spin direction away from vertical. Tilting of the stable spin axis can enhance horizontal depolarizing resonances. This paper presents preliminary results for some of these error scenarios, as well as their impact on the stable spin directions at STAR and PHENIX.
Date: October 6, 2008
Creator: MacKay,W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Various Errors on the Spin Tune and Stable Spin Axis

Description: Even though RHIC has two full Siberian snakes in each ring, there are various perturbations to the ideal case including orbit errors at the snakes, experiment solenoids, injection bumps, and interlaced horizontal-vertical bumps at the hydrogen jet polarimeter. These errors can cause depolarization by shifting the spin tune and tilting the stable spin direction away from vertical. Tilting of the stable spin axis can enhance horizontal depolarizing resonances. This paper presents preliminary results for some of these error scenarios, as well as their impact on the stable spin directions at STAR and PHENIX.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: MacKay,W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop Summary -- Accelerator Issues

Description: As we enter the high energy regime covered by RHIC and HERA, depolarization effects become strong, so that depolarization resonances begin to overlap. As a result, the ''good old days'' of the ZGS and AGS--when techniques for dealing with isolated resonances were sufficient--are now in the past, and a new generation of spin dynamics questions have to be addressed and new techniques have to be developed. Exciting results were presented at this workshop ranging from the recent rapid R&D advances on polarized H- sources to deeper understanding of the subtle spin dynamics involving Siberian snakes. This summary is an attempt to give some of the highlights.
Date: June 22, 1999
Creator: Chao, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin Tracking Studies for Beam Polarization Preservation in theNLC Main Damping Rings

Description: We report results from studies of spin dynamics in the NLC Main Damping. Our studies have been based on spin tracking particles through the lattice under a range of conditions. We find that there are a number of spin resonances close to the nominal operating energy of 1.98 GeV; however, the effects of the resonances are weak, and the widths are narrow. We do not expect that any significant depolarization of the beam will occur during the store time.
Date: July 26, 2004
Creator: Wolski, Andrzej & Bates, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The RHIC Optically-Pumped Polarized H Ion Source.

Description: The depolarization factors in the multi-step spin-transfer polarization technique and basic limitations on maximum polarization in the OPPIS (Optically-Pumped Polarized H{sup -} Ion Source) are discussed. Detailed studies of polarization losses in the RHIC OPPIS and the source parameters optimization resulted in the OPPIS polarization increase to 86-90%. This contributed to increasing polarization in the AGS and RHIC to 65-70%.
Date: September 10, 2007
Creator: Zelenski,A.; Zelenski, A.; Kokhanovski, S.; Kponou, A.; Ritter, J. & Zubets, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TOWARDS 100% POLARIZATION IN THE OPTICALLY-PUMPED POLARIZED ION SOURCE.

Description: The depolarization factors in the multi-step spin-transfer polarization technique and basic limitations on maximum polarization in the OPPIS (Optically-Pumped Polarized H{sup -} Ion Source) are discussed. Detailed studies of polarization losses in the RHIC OPPIS and the source parameters optimization resulted in the OPPIS polarization increase to 86-90%. This contributed to increasing polarization in the AGS and RHIC to 65-70%.
Date: June 25, 2007
Creator: ZELENSKI,A.; ALESSI, J.; KOKHANOVSKI, S.; KPONOU, A.; RITTER, B.J. & ZUBETS, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product Technical Report

Description: Lidar backscattered signal is a useful tool for identifying vertical cloud structure in the atmosphere in optically thin clouds. Cloud boundaries derived from lidar signals are a necessary input for popular ARM data products, such as the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product. An operational cloud boundary algorithm (Wang and Sassen 2001) has been implemented for use with the ARM Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems. In addition to retrieving cloud boundaries above 500 m, the value-added product (VAP) named Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask (MPLCMASK) applies lidar-specific corrections (i.e., range-square, background, deadtime, and overlap) as described in Campbell et al. (2002) to the measured backscattered lidar. Depolarization ratio is computed using the methodology developed by Flynn et al. (2007) for polarization-capable MPL systems. The cloud boundaries output from MPLCMASK will be the primary lidar cloud mask for input to the ARSCL product and will be applied to all MPL systems, including historical data sets.
Date: July 25, 2011
Creator: Sivaraman, C & Comstock, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELECTRON POLARIZATION IN THE MEDIUM-ENERGY ELECTRON-ION COLLIDER AT JLAB

Description: A key feature of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is high polarization (over 80%) of the electron beam at all collision points for the particle physics program. The equilibrium electron polarization is arranged to be vertical in the arcs of the figure-8 collider ring of the MEIC and anti-parallel to the arc dipole magnetic fields, in order to take advantage of the preservation of polarization by the Sokolov-Ternov (S-T) effect. Longitudinal polarization is achieved at collision points by utilizing energy-independent universal spin rotators each of which consists of a set of solenoids and dipoles placed at the end of an arc. The equilibrium beam polarization and its lifetime depend on competition between the S-T effect and radiative depolarization. The latter must be suppressed by spin matching. This paper reports on investigations of polarization in the MEIC electron collider ring and a preliminary estimate of beam polarization from calculations using the code SLICK.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Fanglei Lin, Yaroslav Derbenev, Vasiliy Morozov, Yuhong Zhang, Desmond Barber
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature response of 129Xe depolarization transfer and its application for ultra-sensitive NMR detection

Description: Temporary trapping of atomic xenon in functionalized cryptophane cages makes the high sensitivity of hyperpolarized (hp) 129Xe available for highly specific NMR detection of biomolecules like proteins in solution. Here, we study the signal transfer onto a reservoir of unbound hp xenon by gating the residence time of the nuclei in the cage through the temperature-dependent exchange rate. Temperature changes were detectable immediately as an altered reservoir signal and yielded a sensitivity of 0.6 K. The temperature response is adjustable with lower concentrations of caged xenon providing more sensitivity at higher temperatures and allows ultra-sensitive detection of such molecular cages at 310 K. Functionalized cryptophane could be detected at concentrations as low as 10nM which corresponds to a 4000-fold sensitivity enhancement compared to conventional detection. This sensitivity makes hp-NMR capable of detecting such constructs in concentrations far belowthe detection limit by UV-visible light absorbance.
Date: March 20, 2008
Creator: Schroeder, Leif; Schroder, Leif; Meldrum, Tyler; Smith, Monica; Lowery, Thomas J.; Wemmer, David E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION IN AGS AND RHIC.

Description: As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species including polarized proton beams. The acceleration of polarized beams in both the injector and the collider rings is complicated by numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Partial and full Siberian snakes have made it possible to overcome the depolarization and beam polarizations of up to 65% have been reached at 100 GeV in RHIC.
Date: September 10, 2007
Creator: ROSER,T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible Depolarization Mechanism due to Low Beta Squeeze

Description: Simulations reveal a potential depolarization mechanism during low beta squeeze. This depolarization appears to be driven by a spin tune modulation caused by spin precession through the strong low beta quads due to the vertical fields. The modulation of the spin tune introduces an additional snake resonance condition at {nu}{sub s0} {+-} n{nu}{sub x} - {nu}{sub z}l = integer which while the same numerology as the well known sextupole resonance, can operate in the absence of sextupole elements.
Date: April 1, 2008
Creator: Ranjbar,V.; Luccio, A. & Bai, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear Spin Acceptance in Electron Storage Rings

Description: It is shown that the degree of polarization of a beam in electron storage rings can be limited by nonlinear effects. The strength of a nonlinear effect depends on theamplitude of the particles. Particles performing synchrotron and betatron oscillations with high amplitudes can contribute over proportionally to depolarization. As aresult, the emittance of a beam is not allowed to exceed certain boundaries, otherwise the beam will become more and more depolarized. This limit is called nonlinearspin acceptance.
Date: July 1, 1988
Creator: Kewisch, Jorg & Rossmanith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ON THE FEASIBILITY OF A SPIN DECOHERENCE MEASUREMENT.

Description: In this paper, I study the feasibility of making a turn-by-turn spin measurement to extract the spin tune from a polarized beam injected perpendicular to the stable spin direction. For the ideal case of a zero-emittance beam with no spin-tune spread, there would be no spin decoherence, and a measurement of the spin tune could easily be made by collecting turn-indexed polarization data over several million turns. However, in a real beam there is a momentum spread which provides a spin-tune spread. With a coasting beam the tune spread can cause decoherence of the spins resulting in a fast depolarization of the beam in as few as a thousand turns. With synchrotron oscillations the decoherence time can be greatly increased, so that a measurement becomes feasible with summation of the turn-by-turn data from a reasonable number of bunches ({approx}< 100). Three cases of 1, 2, and 2 1/2, Siberian snakes are considered. By using spin tune measurements for both the single and double snake cases, we could vastly improve the calibration of the optimum settings for the RHIC snakes.
Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: MACKAY, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED PROTONS IN THE AGS WITH TWO HELICAL PARTIAL SNAKES.

Description: Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult: the depolarizing resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions and are not feasible in the AGS since straight sections are too short. Recently, two helical partial snakes with double pitch design have been built and installed in the AGS. With careful setup of optics at injection and along the ramp, this combination can eliminate the intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances encountered during acceleration. This paper presents the accelerator setup and preliminary results.
Date: June 26, 2006
Creator: HUANG, H.; AHRENS, L.A.; BAI, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BROWN, K.; COURANT, E.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First polarized proton collision at a beam energy of 250 GeV in RHIC

Description: After providing collisions of polarized protons at a beam energy of 100 GeV since 2001, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL had its first opportunity to collide polarized protons at its maximum beam energy of 250 GeV in the 2009 polarized proton operations. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes [1] in each ring, RHIC preserves polarization during acceleration from injection to 100 GeV with precise control of the betatron tunes and vertical orbit distortions. However, the strong intrinsic spin resonances beyond 100 GeV are more than two times stronger than those below 100 GeV, requiring much tighter tolerances on vertical orbit distortions and betatron tunes. With the currently achieved orbit correction and tune control, average polarizations of {approx_equal} 42% at top energy and average polarizations of {approx_equal} 55% at injection energy were achieved. Polarization measurements as a function of beam energy also indicated aU polarization losses occurred around three strong intrinsic resonances at 136 GeV, 199.3 GeV and 220.8 GeV Peak luminosity of 122 x 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was also demonstrated. This paper presents the performance of the first RHIC 250 GeV operation and discusses the depolarization issues encountered during the run.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Bai,M.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Alessi, J. & al., et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin Echo and Interference in Synchrotrons

Description: Spin dynamics in crossing a single depolarization resonance is a well-studied subject. One well-known example is that of Froissart and Stora in 1960. More is needed to complete the understanding, particularly of the transient effects, when crossing a single resonance, but question arises what happens if we cross two resonances or cross a single resonance twice. When a resonance is crossed twice, the particle's spin dynamics encounters two additional phenomena. First, the two crossings will interfere with each other, leading to an interference effect. Second, there will be a spin echo effect. We discuss these two effects in this report. Two proposals to test these effects experimentally are made at the end.
Date: November 30, 2006
Creator: Chao, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized proton acceleration program at the AGS and RHIC

Description: Presented is an overview of the program for acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS and their injection into the RHIC collider. The problem of depolarizing resonances in strong focusing circulator accelerators is discussed. The intrinsic resonances are jumped over by the fast tune jump, and a partial Siberian Snake is used to compensate for over forty imperfection resonances in the AGS. Two sets of full Siberian Snake and spin rotators will be employed in RHIC.
Date: June 1995
Creator: Lee, Y. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overcoming weak intrinsic depolarizing resonances with energy-jump

Description: In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+{nu}{sub y}, 12+{nu}{sub y} and 36+{nu}{sub y}, which is believed to be partially due to the coupling resonances. To overcome the coupling resonance, an energy-jump was generated by rapidly changing the beam circumference using the powerful AGS rf system. It clearly demonstrates that the novel energy-jump method can successfully overcome coupling resonances and weak intrinsic resonances.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. & Alessi, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THOUGHTS AND ''FACTS'' FROM THE AGS POLARIZED PROTON RUNS DURING THE 1980S.

Description: This workshop's focus is on considering ways for improving the proton beam polarization that the AGS delivers to the RHIC. This talk attempts to review the first decade of AGS polarization--the 1980's; to briefly describe some aspects of the machine situation, the depolarization avoidance strategies employed and the success achieved in AGS from the perspective of one of those involved.
Date: November 6, 2002
Creator: AHRENS,L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized proton experiment in the AGS with a partial snake

Description: In three polarized proton runs at the AGS it was recently shown that the imperfection depolarizing resonances in the AGS can be overcome with a 5% partial snake and the intrinsic depolarizing resonances could be jumped with the pulsed tune-jump quadrupoles even in the presence of the partial snake. For the first time polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. No polarization was lost due to the imperfection resonances and the depolarization from most intrinsic resonances was avoided with the tune-jump quadrupoles. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+{nu}{sub y}, 12+{nu}{sub y} and 36+{nu}{sub y}, which is believed to be partially due to coupling resonances. A novel energy-jump method and other new schemes to overcome the coupling and intrinsic resonances are discussed.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. & Alessi, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of the D{sub onon} and K{sub onno} observables in np elastic scattering between 0.80 and 1.10 GeV

Description: We present results of the rescattering observables D{sub onon}(np) and K{sub onno}(np) measurements at eight energies between 0.80 and 1. 10 GeV. The SATURNE II polarized beam of free neutrons obtained from the break-up of polarized deuterons was scattered on the polarized Saclay frozen-spin proton target. Part of the data was obtained with a CH{sub 2} target where only the polarization transfer parameter K{sub onno} was determined. The present results are the first existing measurements of these observables above 0.80 GeV. They provide an important contribution to any future theoretical or phenomenological analysis.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Ball, J.; Chesny, P. & Combet, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polarized neutrons in RHIC

Description: There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. This paper discusses techniques for accelerating polarized {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons.
Date: April 20, 1998
Creator: Courant, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department