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Canning depleted uranium : production test 313-110-M, final report

Description: From summary: "Uranium billets deficient in U235 were subjected to the normal successive steps in the slug fabrication process; viz., rolling, machining, and canning. No unusual behavior was observed at any point in the process, thus indicating that the depleted metal from the standpoint of mechanical properties can be considered equivalent to normal uranium."
Date: March 27, 1951
Creator: Jones, T. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of Compression Testing of U-10Mo

Description: The mechanical properties of depleted uranium plus 10 weight percent molybdenum alloy have been evaluated by high temperature compression testing.
Date: October 31, 2012
Creator: Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A. & Burkes, Douglas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electroformation of Uranium Hemispherical Shells

Description: This effort was directed at developing an electrochemical process for forming uniform and dendrite-free deposits of uranium from molten salts. This process is to be used for the electroformation of free-standing hemispherical shells of uranium for nuclear applications.
Date: November 1989
Creator: Marshall, S. L.; Redey, L.; Vandegrift, G. F. & Vissers, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

Description: In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.
Date: October 19, 2004
Creator: Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the Special Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide Demonstrating the Before and After Impacts on the DOE Order 435.1 Performance Objective and the Peak Dose

Description: This report summarizes the special analysis (SA) of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 1) demonstrating the before and after impacts of the waste stream to the DOE Order 435.1 performance objective at the disposal facility, and the peak dose. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requested this SA and asked the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to run the SA deterministically and assume that all the model conditions remain the same regardless of the length of time to the peak dose. Although the NDEP accepts that DOE Order 435.1 requires a compliance period of 1,000 years, it also requested to know what year, if any, the specific DOE performance objectives will be exceeded. Given the NDEP’s requested model conditions, the SA demonstrates the Rn-222 peak dose will occur in about 2 million years and will exceed the performance objective in about 6,000 years. The 0.25 mSv y-1 all-pathway performance objective was not exceeded for the resident scenario after reaching the 4 million year peak dose.
Date: January 15, 2011
Creator: Shott, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide

Description: This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste stream’s sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.
Date: October 13, 2010
Creator: National Security Technologies, LLC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

Description: The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Hightower, J.R. & Trabalka, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock induced multi-mode damage in depleted uranium

Description: Recent dynamic damage studies on depleted uranium samples have revealed mixed mode failure mechanisms leading to incipient cracking as well as ductile failure processes. Results show that delamination of inclusions upon compression may provide nucleation sites for damage initiation in the form of crack tip production. However, under tension the material propagates cracks in a mixed shear localization and mode-I ductile tearing and cracking. Cracks tips appear to link up through regions of severe, shear dominated plastic flow. Shock recovery experiments were conducted on a 50 mm single stage light gas gun. Serial metallographic sectioning was conducted on the recovered samples to characterize the bulk response of the sample. Experiments show delaminated inclusions due to uniaxial compression without damage propagation. Further results show the propagation of the damage through tensile loading to the incipient state, illustrating ductile processes coupled with mixed mode-I tensile ductile tearing, shear localization, and mode-I cracking in depleted uranium.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Koller, Darcie D; Cerreta, Ellen K & Gray, Ill, George T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A process for reducing the licensing burden for new products containing depleted uranium.

Description: This report is intended to provide guidance on the process for petitioning the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to initiate a rulemaking that could reduce the licensing burden for new products containing depleted uranium (DU), which are being investigated by the DU Uses Research and Development (R&D) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The focus is on requirements of the NRC rulemaking process applicable to establishing new exemptions or general licenses for products and devices containing source material. NRC policies and guidance regarding such requirements are described, including a 1965 policy statement on approval of new exemptions for products containing radionuclides (''Federal Register'', Volume 30, page 3462 [30 FR 3462]; March 16, 1965) and Regulatory Guide 6.7, which addresses the contents of environmental reports that support rulemaking petitions seeking exemptions for radionuclide-containing products. Methodologies for calculating radiological and nonradiological impacts on human health (i.e., risks) associated with distributing, using, and disposing of DU-containing products are presented. Also, methodologies for completing assessments of the potential effects of accidents involving new DU-containing products and of product misuse are described. The report recommends that the U.S. Department of Energy formulate a regulatory plan for deployment of DU-containing products in areas that are not already radiologically controlled. Such a plan is needed because deployment of new DU-containing products may be difficult under existing NRC licensing requirements. To provide a basis for the regulatory plan, it is recommended that detailed assessments of the radiological and nonradiological risks of distributing, using, and disposing of DU-containing products be conducted. Such assessments should be initiated as soon as sufficient data are available from the ongoing DU Uses R&D Program at ORNL to support the analyses.
Date: January 6, 2004
Creator: Ranek, N. L.; Kamboj, S.; Hartmann, H. M. & Avci, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Tank 43H Samples at the Conclusion of Uranyl Carbonate Addition

Description: Tank 43H serves as the feed Tank to the 2H evaporator. In the months of July and August 2001, about 21,000 gallons of a depleted uranyl carbonate solution were added to Tank 43H and agitated with two Flygt mixers. The depleted uranium addition served to decrease the U-235 enrichment in the Tank 43H supernate so that the supernate could be evaporated with no risk of accumulating enriched uranium.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Oji, L.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

Description: Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Lessing, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depleted uranium oxides and silicates as spent nuclear fuel waste package fill materials

Description: A new repository waste package (WP) concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being investigated that uses depleted uranium (DU) to improve performance and reduce the uncertainties of geological disposal of SNF. The WP would be filled with SNF and then filled with depleted uranium (DU) ({approximately}0.2 wt % {sup 235}U) dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or DU silicate-glass beads. Fission products and actinides can not escape the SNF UO{sub 2} crystals until the UO{sub 2} dissolves or is transformed into other chemical species. After WP failure, the DU fill material slows dissolution by three mechanisms: (1) saturation of AT groundwater with DU and suppression of SNF dissolution, (2) maintenance of chemically reducing conditions in the WP that minimize SNF solubility by sacrificial oxidation of DU from the +4 valence state, and (3) evolution of DU to lower-density hydrated uranium silicates. The fill expansion seals the WP from water flow. The DU also isotopically exchanges with SNF uranium as the SNF degrades to reduce long-term nuclear-criticality concerns.
Date: September 10, 1996
Creator: Forsberg, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

Description: A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J. & Brown, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Processing To Support {sup 99}Mo Production at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: As part of the Isotope Production Program at Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL/NM), procedures are being finalized for the production of {sup 99}Mo from the irradiation of {sup 235}U-coated stainless steel targets at the Technical Area (TA) V reactor and hot cell facilities. Methods have been identified and tested for the management of the non-product (waste) material as the final step in the production process. These methods were developed utilizing the waste material from a series of cold and hot tests, beginning with depleted uranium powder and culminating with a test involving an irradiated {sup 235}U target with an initial fission product inventory of approximately 18,000 Ci at the end of the irradiation cycle.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Longley, Susan; Carson, Susan & McDonald, Marion
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

Description: This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.
Date: August 27, 1997
Creator: McCormick, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spall wave-profile and shock-recovery experiments on depleted uranium

Description: Depleted Uranium of two different purity levels has been studied to determine spall strength under shock wave loading. A high purity material with approximately 30 ppm of carbon impurities was shock compressed to two different stress levels, 37 and 53 kbar. The second material studied was uranium with about 300 ppm of carbon impurities. This material was shock loaded to three different final stress level, 37, 53, and 81 kbar. Two experimental techniques were used in this work. First, time-resolved free surface particle velocity measurements were done using a VISAR velocity interferometer. The second experimental technique used was soft recovery of samples after shock loading. These two experimental techniques will be briefly described here and VISAR results will be shown. Results of the spall recovery experiments and subsequent metallurgical analyses are described in another paper in these proceedings.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Hixson, R.S.; Vorthman, J.E.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R. & Tonks, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assay of potentially contaminated propellant

Description: One of the decontamination and decommissioning projects within DOD is demilitarization of an aging stockpile of munitions. A large portion of the stockpile contains depleted uranium (DU) as an armor piercing core and so these munitions must be assayed for the presence of uranium in other components. The assay method must be fast and preferably easy to implement. Presence of DU is indicated by its alpha decay. The alpha particles in turn produce ions in the ambient air. If a significant fraction of these ions can escape the quantity of propellant, the ions can be detected instead of the alpha particles. As a test of the feasibility of detecting alpha emissions from DU somewhere within a cartridge of propellant, the transmission of ions through layers of real propellant was measured. The propellant is in the form of graphite-coated cylindrical pellets. A 105nun cartridge was modified for use as a pellet chamber. A check source served as an ion source. The ion detector consisted of a grid held at 300V coupled to an ammeter. Results confirm that this is a promising technique for testing the propellant for the presence of DU quickly yet with sensitivity.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Koster, J.E.; Williams, H.E. III & Scott, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada

Description: Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roller Coaster. According to field records, a hardened layer of livestock feces ranging from 2.54 centimeters (cm) (1 inch [in.]) to 10.2 cm (4 in.) thick is present in each of the main sheds. IT personnel conducted a field visit on December 3, 1997, and noted that the only visible feces were located within the east shed, the previously fenced area near the east shed, and a small area southwest of the west shed. Other historical records indicate that other areas may still be covered with animal feces, but heavy vegetation now covers it. It is possible that radionuclides are present in this layer, given the history of operations in this area. Chemicals of concern may include plutonium and depleted uranium. Surface soil sampling was conducted on February 18, 1998. An evaluation of historical documentation indicated that plutonium should not be and depleted uranium could not be present at levels significantly above background as the result of test animals being penned at the site. The samples were analyzed for isotopic plutonium using method NAS-NS-3058. The results of the analysis indicated that plutonium levels of the feces and surface soil were not significantly elevated above background.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: ITLV
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A process for treating uranium chips and turnings

Description: Depleted uranium (DU) chips and turnings are generated during machining of uranium metal. Because high surface area uranium is pyrophoric, the turnings are subject to spontaneous ignition in air. The oxidation of uranium to U0{sub 2} and U{sub 3}0{sub 8} is highly exothermic and therefore the reaction may be self-sustaining. A uranium fire or even rapid oxidation and thermal convection currents will cause emission of radioactive uranium oxides. In the presence of water as liquid or vapor, uranium may also oxidize into U0{sub 2} and U{sub 3}0{sub 8}-with generation of hydrogen, a flammable and explosive gas. The heat generated the water reaction may ignite the uranium or hydrogen producing a fire, explosion, or convection current resulting in some uranium oxide becoming airborne. Because the high surface area uranium has the hazardous characteristic of reactivity, it is stored immersed in diesel oil preventing contact with water or air. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and constructed a process to remove the reactivity characteristic by oxidizing uranium metal to an inert product. This inert form can then be landfilled as a low-level waste. The treatment process consists of draining the packing oils, treating with sodium hypochlorite to wet-oxidize the DU to uranyl hydroxide (UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}), using sodium thiosulfate to reduce the (UO{sub 2}(OH)2) to U0{sub 2}, neutralizing with sodium hydroxide, and stabilizing the settled slurry in a cement matrix. The neutralized waste water is consumed at a radioactive waste water treatment facility. Studies done at LANL describe a manageable oxidation rate well within safe bounds.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Dziewinska, K.; Lussiez, G. & Munger, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depleted Uranium in Repositories

Description: For uranium to be useful in most fission nuclear reactors, it must be enriched (i.e. the concentration of the fissile isotope 235U must be increased). Therefore, depleted uranium (DU)-uranium which has less than naturally occurring concentrations of 235U-is a co-product of the enrichment process. Four to six tons of DU exist for every ton of fresh light water reactor fuel. There were 407,006 MgU 407,000 metric tons (t) of DU stored on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites as of July 1993. If this DU were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and emplaced in a near surface disposal facility, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. However, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that near surface disposal of large quantities of DU tails is not appropriate. Thus, there is the possibility that disposition via disposal will be in a deep geological repository. One alternative that may significantly reduce the cost of DU disposition is to use it beneficially. In fact, DOE has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large scale uses of DU and to encourage its reuse. Several beneficial uses, many of which involve applications in the repository per se or in managing the wastes to go into the repository, are discussed in this report.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Haire, M.J. & Croff, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department