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Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995

Description: Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Espinoza, Jacob; Barr, Mary & Smith, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restart Plan for the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner [SD Coversheet has Incorrect Document Number]

Description: Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.
Date: July 26, 1999
Creator: SUTTER, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

Description: Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: SUTTER, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

Description: Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: SUTTER, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

Description: Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: SUTTER, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal denitration and mineralization of waste constituents

Description: In order to produce a quality grout from LLW using hydraulic cements, proper conditioning of the waste is essential for complete cement curing. Several technologies were investigated as options for conditions. Since the LLW is dilute, removal of all, or most, of the water will significantly reduce the final waste volume. Neutralization of the LLW is also desirable since acidic liquids to not allow cement to cure properly. The nitrate compounds are very soluble and easily leached from solid waste forms; therefore, denitration is desirable. Thermal and chemical denitration technologies have the advantages of water removal, neutralization, and denitration. The inclusion of additives during thermal treatment were investigated as a method of forming insoluable waste conditions.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Nenni, J.A. & Boardman, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CSER 95-005: PFP vertical denitration calciner

Description: The Vertical Denitrating Calciner system will stabilize certain unique solutions containing fissile salts by removing the water and nitrate ion to produce a more easily stored powder. This end is achieved by high-firing the solution in the calciner. The resultant calcine is distinguished by particles which are larger and denser than those produced by the more conventional oxalate precipitation process. This criticality safety evaluation report examines criticality safety for the denitration system, installed in glovebox 188-1 at PFP. The examination shows that, due to the incorporation of standard criticality safety design techniques, the glovebox can be maintained subcritical with minimal reliance on administrative controls. The examination also shows that, ignoring the necessary administrative controls can make a criticality possible in glovebox 188-1. Section 3.0 of this report lists the necessary administrative controls.
Date: May 31, 1995
Creator: Geiger, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

Description: Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan for the Prototype vertical Denitration Calciner has been developed for this process.
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: SUTTER, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

Description: Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: SUTTER, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DENITRATION OF PUREX WASTES WITH SUGAR

Description: A process was developed for the destruction of HNO/sub 3/ in Purex-type waste solutions using sugar. Polyhydroxy compounds such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and crude syrups such as black strap molasses rapidly and controllably decompose HNO/sub 3/ in aqueous solutions at temperatures above approximately 85 deg C. The number of moles of HNO/sub 3/ destroyed per mole of sugar fed is a function of the temperature of reaction and the moles of dissolved multivalent metal cations (such as iron and chromium). The efficiency of HNO/sub 3/ destruction does not vary with acid concentration over the range of 0.5 to 8 M. However, destruction of acid does vary with iron concentration. Approximately 12 to 20 moles of HNO/sub 3/ are destroyed per mole of sucrose fed as the iron concentration increases from 0 to 1 M. Products of the denitration reaction are all gaseous, consisting of oxides of carbon and nitrogen. The process was successfully tested in the high level hot cells, the cold pilot plant denitration unit, and in the Purex plant. (P.C.H.)
Date: April 1, 1963
Creator: Bray, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan for radioactive testing of a vertical direct denitration calciner

Description: A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and come of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.
Date: July 17, 1996
Creator: Fisher, F.D., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Location assessment for the liquid pretreatment process

Description: Some of the Pu bearing solutions at PFP have chemical species that are not compatible with the vertical calcination process.These elements (Na, K, etc.) need to be removed prior to processing in the calciner. The proposed means of removing the contaminates are ion exchange and EIChrom resin (EIChrom is a trademark of EIChrom Industries, Inc.). This limited assessment study evaluated possible locations for the liquid pretreatment process and selected glovebox HC-7C as the best location for this process in the PFP.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Durnil, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

Description: Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which closely resemble the organic sulfur and nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation. Diels-Alder reactions involving such compounds have been extensively studied and characterized in liquids. However, there is very little understanding of such reactions in SCF`s. We are developing an approach which will allow optimum design of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation processes.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Eckert, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FORMALDEHYDE TREATMENT OF PUREX RADIOACTIVE WASTES

Description: Continuous denitration of Purex acid waste (PAW) with formaldehyde was successfully demonstrated in a fullscale plant prototype unit in the Hanford Purex plant. The reaction is smooth and is easily and safely controlled. Because severe foaming can occur in the reaction vessel, the use of an antifoam agent is required to attain acceptable plant processing rates. Extensive laboratory and pilot plant work, proper equipment design, and satisfactory oper ating procedures were the bases for developing adequate safeguards that assure complete control of the reaction at all times. During operation, the formaldehyde and the preheated PAW stream (with 50 to 100 parts antifoam per million parts PAW) are added continuously to the reactor which is maintained at 95 deg C. From an initial feed concentration of approximately 6.1M, the free acid is reduced to 0.5 to 1.0M in the treated waste. About 2.5 moles of free acid are destroyed per mole of formaldehyde added to the unit for a 60% reaction efficiency. A decontamination factor of 10/sup 4/ from feed to recovered acid is typical, which means that the ratio of radioactivity to HNO/sub 3/ in the recovered acid is reduced by a factor of 10,000 when compared to the same ratio in the high activity waste (PAW). Formaldehyde denitration of the Purex acid wastes reduces the chemical costs of waste treatment and storage. In addition, the process increases the storage capacity of underground tanks because of less salts in the waste, increases the flexibility of waste treatment equipment, and improves the quality of feed for fission product recovery. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1963
Creator: Forsman, R.C. & Oberg, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Salt waste volume reduction by sodium removal

Description: A literature searcha nd preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the feasibility of reducing salt waste volumes by the removal of sodium and purifying the sodium as metal for reuse or less restricted storage for use in the long-term storage of Hanford's radioactive salt waste. Included in the experimental part of the study were oxalate precipitation of sodium, preparation of chloride feed for ecletrolysis, denitration experiments, carbon reduction of sodium-cesium compounds, and distillation of sodium metal for decontamination. Eaeh of these steps was found tn be feasible, but mans problems exist. The most favorable process probable includes: evaporation and denitratipn (possibly preceded be a scavenging precipitatioal, reduction with carbon and distillation or sodium metal from the reaction mixture at low pressures, and purification of sodium metal be filtration and distillaton. At alternative to the first step might be oxalate precipitaton of the sodium. Considerable development work remains before at integrated process could be demonstrated. (auth)
Date: September 15, 1973
Creator: Burger, L.L.; Ryan, J.L.; Swanson, J.L. & Bray, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

Description: The prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner (VDC) is installed in glovebox 188 in the Plutonium Process Support Laboratory (PPSL). Safety analysis contained in WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 (FSAR) Rev. 0-L and Addendum to WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021, ''Laboratory Prototype Calciner'' establishes the prototype VDC needs to be shut down if a seismic event of greater than 0.07 g occurs. Shut down is to be automatic upon detection of the seismic event. This requires tie-in of various valves and power for the prototype VDC into the existing Seismic Shutdown System for the Ventilation Supply Fans described in FSAR 5.4.1.2.4. The proposed changes covered by this USQ evaluation include: (1) the physical tie-in modifications, including drawings and Engineering Change Notice (ECN), (2) the work package for accomplishing the modifications, (3) the changes to the System Description Documents, (4) the changes to the Safety Equipment List necessitated by the modifications, and (5) the changes to the failure modes and effects analysis. WHC-SDCP-OSR-010, Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) 3.2.3 has been revised to include the requirement for the existing seismic shutdown system to also shut down the laboratory calciner in the event of detection of a greater than 0.07 g seismic event.
Date: August 13, 1999
Creator: COMPTON, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

Description: A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.
Date: October 5, 1999
Creator: Compton, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental investigation of the thermal/fluid properties of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) product slurry

Description: Recently, a new immobilization technique for LLW, the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process, has been developed. Instead of mixing the liquid waste form directly with the cement to make concrete blocks, the NAC process eliminates the nitrate from the LLW by converting it to ammonia gas. Aluminum particles are used as a reductant to complete this conversion. The final product of the NAC process is gibbsite, which can be further sintered to a ceramic waste form. Experimental tests are conducted to measure the apparent viscosity, the pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient of the pipe flow of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process product slurry. The tests indicate that the NAC product slurry exhibits a typical pseudoplastic fluid behavior. The pressure drop in the pipe flow is a function of the Reynolds number and the slurry temperature. The results also indicate that at a low slurry temperature, the slurry is uniformly heated peripherally. At a high slurry temperature, however, the slurry may be thermally stratified. In a straight pipe, the Nusselt number is reduced as the slurry temperature increases.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Muguercia, I.; Lagos, L.; Yang, G.; Li, W.; Ebadian, M. A.; Mattus, A. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan for non-radioactive testing of vertical calciner for development of direct denitration conversion of Pu-bearing liquors to stable, storage solids

Description: Plutonium-bearing liquors, including ANL scrap liquors, will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those liquors to stable, storable PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. This test plan is to test with non-radioactive stand-in materials to demonstrate adequate performance of the vertical calciner and ancillary equipment.
Date: March 30, 1995
Creator: Fisher, F.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

Description: This invention relates to an improved process of preparing Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSCCO) powders, and more particularly, to a process for preparing BSCCO powders that utilize freeze-drying. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution; grinding the flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the powder to form dry green precursor powders; denitrating the powders; and heating the powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Krishnaraj, P.; Eror, N.G. & Lelovic, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data management implementation plan for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The overall objective of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study is to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project, the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, directly supports the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study. Specific project objectives include (1) installing monitoring and extraction wells, (2) installing a groundwater extraction trench, (3) performing pumping tests of the extraction wells and trench, (4) determining hydraulic gradients, and (5) collecting water quality parameters. The primary purpose of environmental data management is to provide a system for generating and maintaining technically defensible data. To meet current regulatory requirements for the Environmental Restoration Program, complete documentation of the information flow must be established. To do so, each step in the data management process (collection, management, storage, and analysis) must be adequately planned and documented. This document will serve to identify data management procedures, expected data types and flow, and roles and responsibilities for all data management activities associated with this project.
Date: December 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation of UREX effluents to solid oxides by concentration, denitration, and calcination.

Description: A literature survey was conducted on the potential means for converting two aqueous streams from the UREX process to solid oxides. The UREX process is similar to the PUREX solvent-extractions process and is designed to separate U, Tc, and I from the transuranics and other fission products contained in spent fuel. It was determined that converting these waste streams to oxides is technically feasible by a combination of evaporation, denitration, and calcination.
Date: December 20, 2000
Creator: Vandegrift, G.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department