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TWRS privatization: Phase I monitoring well engineering study and decommissioning plan

Description: This engineering study evaluates all well owners and users, the status or intended use of each well, regulatory programs, and any future well needs or special purpose use for wells within the TWRS Privatization Phase I demonstration area. Based on the evaluation, the study recommends retaining 11 of the 21 total wells within the demonstration area and decommissioning four wells prior to construction activities per the Well Decommissioning Plan (WHC-SD-EN-AP-161, Rev. 0, Appendix I). Six wells were previously decommissioned.
Date: September 11, 1996
Creator: Williams, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intense high-frequency gyrotron-based microwave beams for material processing

Description: Microwave processing of materials has traditionally utilized frequencies in the 0.915 and 2.45 GHz regions. Microwave power sources are readily available at these frequencies but the relatively long wavelengths can present challenges in uniformly heating materials. An additional difficulty is the poor coupling of ceramic based materials to the microwave energy. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists, working in conjunction with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), have assembled a high-frequency demonstration processing facility utilizing gyrotron based RF sources. The facility is primarily intended to demonstrate the unique features available at frequencies as high as 84 GHz. The authors can readily provide quasi-optical, 37 GHz beams at continuous wave (CW) power levels in the 10 kW range. They have also provided beams at 84 GHz at 10 kW CW power levels. They are presently preparing a facility to demonstrate the sintering of ceramics at 30 GHz. This paper presents an overview of the present demonstration processing facility and describes some of the features they have available now and will have available in the near future.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Hardek, T.W.; Cooke, W.D.; Katz, J.D.; Perry, W.L. & Rees, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue

Description: At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J. & Pomykala, J.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LEDA and APT beam diagnostics instrumentation

Description: A 20-MeV 100-mA-cw proton-accelerator, Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), is presently being developed, fabricated, and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The beam diagnostic instrumentation for LEDA and the final 1700-GeV Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) are classified into two categories: operation and characterization instrumentation. The operational instrumentation does not intercept or minimally-intercepts the beam and are sufficiently prompt and robust to provide accurate information to the operators and commissioners during full-current cw beam operation. The characterization instrumentation, primarily utilized during commissioning project-phases, operates under more traditional 100-mA-peak and approximately 0.1-mA-average beam-current conditions. This paper will review some of the LEDA and APT operational beam diagnostic instrumentation.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F. & Hodapp, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

Description: This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calderon Cokemaking Process/Demonstration Project.

Description: This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using Calderon`s proprietary technology for: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in high driving blast furnaces; and (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions. The activities of the past quarter were entirely focused on the rehabilitation of Calderon`s Process Development Unit (PDU-1) in Alliance, Ohio to conduct a series of tests under steady state using coal from Bethlehem Steel and U.S. Steel in order to demonstrate the above.
Date: September 24, 1997
Creator: Calderon, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

Description: A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L. & Machamer, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report

Description: This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SECOND GENERATION PFBC SYSTEMS R AND D - PHASE 2 AND 3

Description: When DOE funds were exhausted in March 1995, all Phase 2 activities were placed on hold. In February 1996 a detailed cost estimate was submitted to the DOE for completing the two remaining Phase 2 Multi Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) topping combustor test campaigns; in August 1996 release was received from FETC to proceed with the two campaigns to: (1) test the MASB at proposed demonstration plant full to minimum load operating conditions; (2) identify the lower oxygen limit of the MASB; (3) demonstrate natural gas to carbonizer fuel gas switching; and (4) demonstrate operation with ''low temperature'' compressor discharge air rather than high temperature ({approx}1600 F) vitiated air.
Date: August 5, 1999
Creator: Robertson, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

Description: The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the original project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Lokhandwala, Kaaeid
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Final report, September 1987--September 1996

Description: Char, the major co-product of mild coal gasification, represents about 70 percent of the total product yield. The only viable use for the char is in the production of formed coke. Early work to develop formed coke used char from a pilot plant sized mild gasification unit (MGU), which was based on commercial units of the COALITE plant in England. Formed coke was made at a bench-scale production level using MGU chars from different coals. An evolutionary formed coke development process over a two-year period resulted in formed coke production at bench-scale levels that met metallurgical industries` specifications. In an ASTM D5341 reactivity test by a certified lab, the coke tested CRI 30.4 and CSR 67.0 which is excellent. The standard is CRI < 32 and CSR > 55. In 1991, a continuous 1000 pounds per hour coal feed mild coal gasification pilot plant (CMGU) was completed. The gasification unit is a heated unique screw conveyor designed to continuously process plastic coal, vent volatiles generated by pyrolysis of coal, and convert the plastic coal to free flowing char. The screw reactor auxiliary components are basic solids materials handling equipment. The screw reactor will convert coal to char and volatile co-products at a rate greater than 1000 pounds per hour of coal feed. Formed coke from CMGU char is comparable to that from the MGU char. In pilot-plant test runs, up to 20 tons of foundry coke were produced. Three formed coke tests at commercial foundries were successful. In all of the cupola tests, the iron temperature and composition data indicated that the formed coke performed satisfactorily. No negative change in the way the cupola performed was noticed. The last 20-ton test was 100 percent CTC/DOE coke. With conventional coke in this cupola charging rates were 10 charges per hour. The ...
Date: December 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and demonstration of a wood-fired gas turbine system

Description: Power Generating Inc. (PGI) has developed and patented a unique direct-fired gas turbine power system (PGI Power System) that operates on solid wood-based fuels. The PGI Power System is designed to generate from 500 kilowatts to 3.5 megawatts of electrical power and up to 30 million Btu per hour of thermal energy for various industrial and utility applications. The system is expected to operate at thermal efficiency levels greater than 70% through full utilization of both the electrical and thermal energy it generates at a specific host facility. PGI and WRI built a 450-kW prototype system at the Western Research Institute (WRI) facilities in Laramie, Wyoming, to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the PGI Power System. The plant has undergone a brief shakedown, and is presently being operated on white wood. In previous attempts to develop similar systems, the major technical hindrance to long-term operation of a gas turbine power system has been degradation of the hot section in the gas turbine. This problem is overcome in the PGI Power System through its unique design, by closely controlling fuel specifications, and by developing specialized operating procedures. In wood-fired testing conducted to date, no degradation in the engine performance is obvious.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Sethi, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical engineering of a 75-keV proton injector for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator

Description: A dc injector capable of 75-keV, 110-mA proton beam operation is under development for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project at Los Alamos. The injector uses a dc microwave proton source which has demonstrated 98% beam availability while operating at design parameters. A high-voltage isolation transformer is avoided by locating all ion source power supplies and controls at ground potential. The low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) uses two solenoid focusing and two steering magnets for beam matching and centroid control at the RFQ matchpoint. This paper will discuss proton source microwave window design, H{sub 2} gas flow control, vacuum considerations, LEBT design, and an iris for beam current control.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Hansborough, L.D.; Hodgkins, D.J.; Meyer, E.A.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.D.; Stevens, R.R. Jr. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of the LEDA RFQ 6.7-MeV accelerator

Description: The codes PARMTEQM and RFQTRAK simulate the beam transport through the radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator for the low-energy-demonstration accelerator (LEDA). They predict 95% transmission for a matched 110-mA proton beam with a normalized-rms emittance of 0.02 mm mrad. RFQTRAK simulates the effects of arbitrary vane-tip misalignments. This RFQ includes some new features in its design. It consists of four resonantly coupled 2-m-long segments that make up its 8-m length. It has higher vane-gap voltages at the high-energy end than the low-energy end. The entrance end of the RFQ has lower transverse focusing strength to facilitate beam matching. The exit of the RFQ has a transition cell and a radial-matching section. The exit radial-matching section matches the beam into the following accelerator.
Date: October 1997
Creator: Young, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tidd PFBC demonstration project. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

Description: This is the thirty-third technical progress report submitted to the Department of Energy in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant. This report covers the period from April 1, 1995 to June 30, 1995. Major activities during this period include: (1) post-shutdown equipment inspections were accomplished; (2) decommissioning activities were initiated; (3) final report on the first three years of operations was submitted to DOE; and (4) work is proceeding on the final report of Tidd. Major activities for the next period include: (1) submittal of the final report on the fourth year of operation; and (2) submit the decommissioning plan to DOE.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and initial experimental results

Description: The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility has begun its experimental program. This unique facility is designed to address advanced acceleration research which requires very short, intense electron bunches. The facility incorporates two photo-cathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp drive bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity witness pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. The authors discuss commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description and operation of the LEDA beam-position/intensity measurement module

Description: This paper describes the specification, design and preliminary operation of the beam-position/intensity measurement module being built for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) and Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The module, based on the VXI footprint, is divided into three sections: first, the analog front-end which consists of logarithmic amplifiers, anti-alias filters, and digitizers; second, the digital-to-analog section for monitoring signals on the front panel; and third, the DSP, error correction, and VXI-interface section. Beam position is calculated based on the log-ratio transfer function. The module has four, 2-MHz, IF inputs suitable for two-axis position measurements. It has outputs in both digital and analog format for x- and y-position and beam intensity. Real-time error-correction is performed on the four input signals after they are digitized and before calculating the beam position to compensate for drift, offsets, gain non-linearities, and other systematic errors. This paper also describes how the on-line error-correction is implemented digitally and algorithmically.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Rose, C.R. & Stettler, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulations of the LEDA LEBT with H{sup +}, H{sub 2}1+ and e{sup {minus}} particles

Description: The low-energy-beam transport (LEBT) system for the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) transports the beam from the ion-source plasma surface to the LEDA RFQ entrance. The code PARMELA performed these simulations of the beam transport through the LEBT. This code can simultaneously transport three particle types of different charge-to-mass ratio. Electrostatic fields, magnetic fields, and space charge influence the beam particles in this simulation. The electrostatic fields exist in the ion-source extractor. The magnetic field exists in the ion source and in the solenoid lenses. The e{sup {minus}} particles, introduced into the beam of H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +}, simulate the space charge neutralization by the residual gas in the LEBT. The H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +} ions leaving the source emerge from a longitudinal magnetic field, which causes the beam to rotate.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Young, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

Description: This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Thompson, R.A. & Morrissey, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 1st Quarterly report for 1995, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: Work continued on the study of coal log pipeline research. Individual projects described include fast compaction of coal logs; effect of cooling on coal log quality; coal log capping; effectiveness of adding fiber to enhance coal log quality; fabrication using hydrophobic binders; cost estimation of different lubricants; automatic control of coal log pipeline system; CLP design; coal log train transport; economics of coal log pipeline; legal aspects; heating, cooling, and drying of logs; vacuum systems to enhance production; design; and effect of piston modification on capping.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Liu, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASSESSMENT OF THE PCFBC-EXPOSED AND ACCELERATED LIFE-TESTED CANDLE FILTERS

Description: Development of the hot gas filtration technology has been the focus of DOE/FETC and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation during the past twenty years. Systems development during this time has successfully lead to the generation and implementation of high temperature Siemens Westinghouse particulate filtration systems that are currently installed and are operational at Demonstration Plant sites, and which are ready for installation at commercial plant sites. Concurrently, materials development has advanced the use of commercially available oxide- and nonoxide-based monoliths, and has fostered the manufacture and use of second generation, oxide-based, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites and filament wound materials. This report summarizes the material characterization results for commercially available and second generation filter materials tested in Siemens Westinghouse's advanced, high temperature, particulate removal system at the Foster Wheeler, pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion, pilot-scale test facility in Karhula, Finland, and subsequent extended accelerated life testing of aged elements in Siemens Westinghouse pressurized fluidized-bed combustion simulator test facility in Pittsburgh, PA. The viability of operating candle filters successfully for over 1 year of service life has been shown in these efforts. Continued testing to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring three years of service operation on aged filter elements is recommended.
Date: September 30, 1999
Creator: Alvin, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department