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NMR DOUBLE QUANTUM SPIN DECOUPLING IN SOLIDS

Description: The problem of spin decoupling spin I = 1 nuclei with large quadrupolar splittings {omega}{sub Q} (e.g. deuterium) from dilute S spins via double quantum transitions is dealt with. The normal two spin-1/2 single quantum decoupling problem (I = 1/2, S = 1/2) is first dealt with as a reminder of the coherent averaging approach and to understand the dependence of the S resonance linewidth on the I rf field intensity ({omega}{sub 1}) and resonance offset ({Delta}{omega}). The double quantum problem (I = 1, S = 1/2) is then treated analogously by introducting fictitious spin-1/2 operators for the I double quantum transition. The decoupling condition is found to be very sensitive to the spin-I resonance condition and to go as {approx} 1/4 with the spin I rf field intensity at resonance in the double quantum regime ({omega}{sub 1} << {omega}{sub Q}). Experimental examples on heavy ice, dimethyl-sulfoxide-d{sub 6} and benzene-d{sub 6} are presented verifying the quantitative theoretical predictions. Extensions to higher order multiple quantum effects for spin I > I and for several coupled spin-1/2 nuclei are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Pines, A.; Vega, S. & Mehring, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Negative differential mobility of weakly driven particles in models of glass formers

Description: We study the response of probe particles to weak constant driving in kinetically constrained models of glassy systems, and show that the probe's response can be non-monotonic and give rise to negative differential mobility: increasing the applied force can reduce the probe's drift velocity in the force direction. Other significant non-linear effects are also demonstrated, such as the enhancement with increasing force of the probe's fluctuations away from the average path, a phenomenon known in other contexts as giant diffusivity. We show that these results can be explained analytically by a continuous-time random walk approximation where there is decoupling between persistence and exchange times for local displacements of the probe. This decoupling is due to dynamic heterogeneity in the glassy system, which also leads to bimodal distributions of probe particle displacements. We discuss the relevance of our results to experiments.
Date: April 1, 2008
Creator: Jack, Robert L.; Kelsey, David; Garrahan, Juan P. & Chandler, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React"Stress-Managed" Block Dipole

Description: A second phase of a high field dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb{sub 3}Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A&M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate in the outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent with short sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. The decoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings was validated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkable robustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85% of short sample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness is attributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to the field in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation that characterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and the next development phase plans are discussed.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: McInturff, A.; Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Henchel, W.; Jaisle, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A ROSE-based OpenMP 3.0 Research Compiler Supporting Multiple Runtime Libraries

Description: OpenMP is a popular and evolving programming model for shared-memory platforms. It relies on compilers for optimal performance and to target modern hardware architectures. A variety of extensible and robust research compilers are key to OpenMP's sustainable success in the future. In this paper, we present our efforts to build an OpenMP 3.0 research compiler for C, C++, and Fortran; using the ROSE source-to-source compiler framework. Our goal is to support OpenMP research for ourselves and others. We have extended ROSE's internal representation to handle all of the OpenMP 3.0 constructs and facilitate their manipulation. Since OpenMP research is often complicated by the tight coupling of the compiler translations and the runtime system, we present a set of rules to define a common OpenMP runtime library (XOMP) on top of multiple runtime libraries. These rules additionally define how to build a set of translations targeting XOMP. Our work demonstrates how to reuse OpenMP translations across different runtime libraries. This work simplifies OpenMP research by decoupling the problematic dependence between the compiler translations and the runtime libraries. We present an evaluation of our work by demonstrating an analysis tool for OpenMP correctness. We also show how XOMP can be defined using both GOMP and Omni and present comparative performance results against other OpenMP compilers.
Date: January 25, 2010
Creator: Liao, C; Quinlan, D & Panas, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An NMR Study of 2-Ethylbutyllithium/Lithium 2-Ethyl-1-butoxide Mixed Aggregates, Lithium Hydride/Lithium 2-Ethyl-1-butoxide Mixed Aggregates, n-Pentyllithium Aggregates, and n-Pentyllithium/Lithium n-Pentoxide Mixed Aggregates

Description: A 13C and 6Li variable temperature NMR study of 2-ethylbutyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates formed from reacting 2-ethyl-1-butanol with 2-ethylbutyllithium in two O/Li ratios of 0.2/1 and 0.8/1. The 0.2/1 sample resulted in two 2-ethylbutyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates and seven lithium hydride/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates. The lithium hydride mixed aggregates were also studied using selective 1H decoupling experiments. The 0.8/1 sample resulted in six 2-ethylbutyllithium/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates and five lithium hydride/lithium 2-ethyl-1-butoxide mixed aggregates. A low temperature 13C NMR spectroscopy study of n-pentyllithium indicated three aggregates, most likely a hexamer, an octamer, and a nonamer. A low temperature 13C NMR study of an 0.2/1 O/Li ratio sample of n-pentyllithium mixed with 1-pentanol resulted in three n-pentyllithium/lithium n-pentoxide aggregates mixed aggregates along with the three n-pentyllithium aggregates. 13C NMR data for this mixture gave inconclusive results whether or not lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were present in the sample.
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Date: December 2005
Creator: Sellers, Nicole
Partner: UNT Libraries

Lifetime studies at the APS.

Description: The studies presented in this note are focused on the lifetime characterization with positrons for the symmetrical low {beta}{sub y} lattice. Before switching back to electrons, detailed lifetime studies were performed in order to gather data that could be compared to similar ones with electrons, the ultimate goal being to define a model that could be used to predict lifetimes. The report is divided into three parts: simulations to allow decoupling of the different contributions to the lifetime; review of the experimental conditions and related problems; and analysis of the data and discussion of the limitations.
Date: May 7, 1999
Creator: Ropert, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vibrational stability of NLC linac and final focus components

Description: Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.
Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: al., F. Le Pimpec et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF FATTYACIDS ON PHOTOSYNTHETIC SYSTEMS

Description: Fatty acids have a reversible inhibitory effect on respiration and on photosynthetic action. They investigated the influence of octanoic acid on the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas spheroids R-26. From the spectroscopic data they conclude that a less efficient energy transfer and decoupling of the light harvesting pigment system from the energy converting reaction center is responsible for the inhibitory effect.
Date: May 1, 1971
Creator: Steffea, Hans & Calvin, Melvin.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamical Layer Decoupling in a Stripe-ordered, High T_c Superconductor

Description: In the stripe-ordered state of a strongly-correlated two-dimensional electronic system, under a set of special circumstances, the superconducting condensate, like the magnetic order, can occur at a non-zero wave-vector corresponding to a spatial period double that of the charge order. In this case, the Josephson coupling between near neighbor planes, especially in a crystal with the special structure of La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, vanishes identically. We propose that this is the underlying cause of the dynamical decoupling of the layers recently observed in transport measurements at x = 1/8.
Date: April 6, 2010
Creator: Berg, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

Description: Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.
Date: August 3, 2008
Creator: Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff & Shirley, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of effects of deformation in Nb3Sn multifilamentary strands

Description: In the process that leads a flawless Nb{sub 3}Sn round strand to become part of a Rutherford cable first, and of a coil next, the same cabling process affects strands of different kinds in different ways, from filament shearing to subelement merging to composite decoupling. Due to plastic deformation, after cabling the filament size distributions in a strand usually change. The average filament size typically increases, as does the width of the distribution. This is consistent with the low field transport current of strands in cables being typically lower and less reproducible than for round strands [1]. To better understand the role of filament size in instabilities and to simulate cabling deformations, strands to be used in cables can be tested by rolling them down to decreasing sizes to cover an ample range of relative deformations. A procedure is herein proposed that uses both microscopic analysis and macroscopic measurements of material properties to study the effects of deformation.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Kashikhin, V.V.; /Fermilab; Kikuchi, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decoupling of self-diffusion and structural relaxation during afragile-to-strong cross-over in a kinetically constrained latticegas

Description: We present an interpolated kinetically constrained lattice gas model which exhibits a transition from fragile to strong supercooled liquid behavior. We find non-monotonic decoupling that is due to this crossover and is seen in experiment.
Date: January 30, 2005
Creator: Pan, Albert C.; Garrahan, Juan P. & Chandler, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation of short-lived radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir

Description: The origin of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.
Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

Description: Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of different cost recovery approaches that integrate alternative revenue sources. We also analyze alternative lost fixed cost recovery approaches to better understand how to mitigate the ...
Date: August 6, 2010
Creator: Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles & Schlegel, Jeff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Room Temperature Magnetic Barrier Layers in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

Description: We investigate the spin transport and interfacial magnetism of magnetic tunnel junctions with highly spin polarized LSMO and Fe3O4 electrodes and a ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 (NFO) barrier layer. The spin dependent transport can be understood in terms of magnon-assisted spin dependent tunneling where the magnons are excited in the barrier layer itself. The NFO/Fe3O4 interface displays strong magnetic coupling, while the LSMO/NFO interface exhibits clear decoupling as determined by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. This decoupling allows for distinct parallel and antiparallel electrode states in this all-magnetic trilayer. The spin transport of these devices, dominated by the NFO barrier layer magnetism, leads to a symmetric bias dependence of the junction magnetoresistance at all temperatures.
Date: March 9, 2010
Creator: Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Wong, F. J.; Chopdekar, R. V.; Arenholz, E. & Suzuki, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Variability of the Monthly Mean Temperature of the ECMWF and NCEP Reanalyses and CCM3 and CSM Simulations

Description: The low frequency variation in the three dimensional air temperature fields of two reanalyses and two model simulations are described. The data sets used are the monthly mean temperature fields for the NCAR Climate Simulation Model (CSM, Boville and Gent, 1998) 300 year run, a NCAR Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3, Kiehl et al., 1998) AMIP type simulation, and the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF (ERA) reanalysis data sets. The variances and correlations are computed for the anomalies from the annual cycle for each data set. In general the reanalyses and models agree fairly well on the structure of the temperature variance. The models tend to have too much variance at the surface compared to the reanalyses. The CSMs poor simulation of the SST in the eastern Pacific leads to a much reduced variance in the Nino3 region. The enhanced variability over land appears to affect the midlatitude simulation of the CSM in that the higher surface variability extends off the east coast of continents. This is not evident in CCM3 and reanalyses where the SSTs are prescribed. At 200 hPa the CCM3 and reanalyses all evince the dumb bell pattern straddling the Equator in the eastern Pacific attributed by Yulaeva and Wallace (1994) to ENSO variations. The CSM shows no such pattern. A CCM3 integration using climatological SSTs displays more variance that the CSM in this region. Apparently the coupling to an ocean in the CSM suppresses the atmospheric model's variability in this locale. The correlations of the temperature fields with the surface air temperature show that the regions of subtropical subsidence are virtually uncorrelated to the surface at the 700 hPa level. The regions of the cold water off the west coast of continents evince decoupling with the surface at 850 hPa. In the region from 30S to 30N ...
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Boyle, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Including Internal Losses In The Equivalent Circuit Model Of The SLAC Damped Detuned Structure (DDS)

Description: In the equivalent circuit model for the DDS originally presented no losses were explicitly included in the cell circuits or the manifold circuits. Damping via the manifolds was effected by imposing matching conditions (including the possibility of reflection) on the ends of the manifolds. In this paper we extend the circuit theory to include lossy circuit elements. We discuss and compare shunt conductance and series resistance models for the cells. Manifold damping is modeled by introducing a shunt conductance per unit length in the transmission line elements of the manifolds. We apply the theory to the mitigation of performance degradation associated with fabricationally desirable decoupling of several cells at the ends of the structure from the manifolds.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Jones, Roger M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LOCAL DECOUPLING IN THE LHC INTERACTION REGIONS

Description: Local decoupling is a technique to correct coupling locally and operationally, that is, without a priori knowledge of the underlying skew quadrupole errors. The method is explained and applied to the correction of coupling in the interaction regions of the LHC at collision.
Date: September 7, 1999
Creator: PILAT,F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SKEW QUADRUPOLE FOCUSING LATTICES AND APPLICATIONS.

Description: In this paper we revisit using skew quadrupole fields in place of traditional normal upright quadrupole fields to make beam focusing structures. We illustrate by example skew lattice decoupling, dispersion suppression and chromatic correction using the neutrino factory Study-II muon storage ring design. Ongoing BNL investigation of flat coil magnet structures that allow building a very compact muon storage ring arc and other flat coil configurations that might bring significant magnet cost reduction to a VLHC motivate our study of skew focusing.
Date: June 18, 2001
Creator: PARKER,B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feedback Systems for Linear Colliders

Description: Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an integral part of the design. Feedback requirements for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at high bandwidth and fast response. To correct for the motion of individual bunches within a train, both feedforward and feedback systems are planned. SLC experience has shown that feedback systems are an invaluable operational tool for decoupling systems, allowing precision tuning, and providing pulse-to-pulse diagnostics. Feedback systems for the NLC will incorporate the key SLC features and the benefits of advancing technologies.
Date: April 12, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of cooling water on stability of NLC linac components

Description: Vertical vibration of linac components (accelerating structures, girders and quadrupoles) in the NLC has been studied experimentally and analytically. Effects such as structural resonances and vibration caused by cooling water both in accelerating structures and quadrupoles have been considered. Experimental data has been compared with analytical predictions and simulations using ANSYS. A design, incorporating the proper decoupling of structure vibrations from the linac quadrupoles, is being pursued.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: al., F. Le Pimpec et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Variability of the Monthly Mean Temperature of the ECMWF and NCEP Reanalyses and CCM3 and DSM Simulations

Description: The low frequency variation in the three dimensional air temperature fields of two reanalyses and two model simulations are described. The data sets used are the monthly mean temperature fields for the NCAR Climate Simulation Model (CSM, Boville and Gent, 1998) 300 year run, a NCAR Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3, Kiehl et al., 1998) AMIP type simulation, and the NCEPLNCAR and ECMWF (ERA) reanalysis data sets. The variances and correlations are computed for the anomalies from the annual cycle for each data set. In general the reanalyses and models agree fairly well on the structure of the temperature variance. The models tend to have too much variance at the surface compared to the reanalyses. The CSM's poor simulation of the SST in the eastern Pacific leads to a much reduced variance in the Nino3 region. The enhanced variability over land appears to affect the midlatitude simulation of the CSM in that the higher surface variability extends off the east coast of continents. This is not evident in CCM3 and reanalyses where the SSTs are prescribed. At 200 hPa the CCM3 and reanalyses all evince the dumb bell pattern straddling the Equator in the eastern Pacific attributed by Yulaeva and Wallace (1994) to ENS0 variations. The CSM shows no such pattern. A CCM3 integration using climatological SSTs displays more variance that the CSM in this region, apparently the CSM suppresses variability in this locale. The correlations of the temperature fields with the surface air temperature show that the regions of subtropical subsidence are virtually uncorrelated to the surface at the 700 hPa level. The regions of the cold water off the west coast of continents evince decoupling with the surface at 850 hPa. In the region from 30s to 30N the zonal mean correlation falls to about 0.7 below ...
Date: February 16, 2000
Creator: Boyle, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department