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Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

Description: The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?
Date: September 12, 2008
Creator: Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer & Sohn, Michael D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Decontamination of Uranium from Fission Products by the Use of the Uranyl Oxalate Precipitation Reaction

Description: Abstract: "Decontamination factors of the order of 10-4 were obtained for Beta and Gamma emitters present as fission products when uranium was precipitated from 50 mC activity level solutions as uranyl oxalate under normal uranium yield conditions for three cycles (~60%). Factors of the order of 10-3 were obtained by the use of this reaction with similar solutions under relatively high uranium yield conditions for three cycles (~90%). The uranium peroxide precipitation reaction proved to be of no value on such solutions, yielding decontamination factors of only 17.1 Beta emitters and 1.2 for Gamma emitters for three cycles."
Date: May 10, 1951
Creator: Kelchner, B. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

Description: Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.
Date: March 1, 2014
Creator: Demmer, Rick; Drake, John & Ryan James, PhD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equipment Decontamination: a Brief Survey of the DOE Complex

Description: Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for using testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plants and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D. B.; Chen, L. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Nondestructive Assay System for use in Decommissioning a Plutonium-Handling Facility

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is decommissioning a facility used to fabricate reactor fuel elements. The equipment is contaminated with alpha emitters. The objective of decontamination is to reduce the TRU concentrations below 10 nCi/g of waste. A portable NDA procedure using Na I (TI ) gamma-spectrometric techniques was selected to measure the residual Pu and 2i 1 Am in the glove boxes. Assays were performed at different stages in the decontamination process to estimate the detection system sensitivity and the effectiveness of the cleaning efforts.
Date: July 1979
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Special Materials Division. Nondestructive Assay Section.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Instructions for Recovery of Radioactive Contaminated Equipment

Description: Abstract: This document outlines the essentials of the planning and action necessary for the recovery of radioactive contaminated equipment following a radiological disaster. It lists the records which should be collected before a disaster and discusses the training of personnel for recovery teams. Radiation doses, radiation indicators, and protective clothing are all treated in a general fashion. Procedures are given for the actual recovery of equipment, with emphasis on personnel safety. Decontamination techniques and materials are then discussed. Graphs and simple calculations are presented for determining safe work limits and radiation doses under varied conditions. A list of typical sources for radiological supplies and a brief bibliography are also included.
Date: 1959?
Creator: Sandia Corporation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

Description: An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) had been in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with current DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was mandated. Due to the high levels of radiation and contamination within the cells, a decontamination effort was necessary to provide an environment that permitted workers to enter the cells to perform refurbishment activities without receiving high doses of radiation and to minimize the potential for the spread of contamination. State-of-the-art decontamination methods, as well as time-proven methods were utilized to minimize personnel exposure as well as maximize results.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; Rosenberg, K.E. & Coleman, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry

Description: The Environmental Management Operations` Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL`s research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years).
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Shearer, T.; Pancake, D. & Shelton, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

Description: From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.
Date: December 9, 1998
Creator: Schwitzgebel, Jorg; Schwitzgebel, Klaus; Bonem, Michael W. & Borah, Ronald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program

Description: The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the second quarter of 1998 (April 1 - June 30.) These tasks have been granted a continuation until the end of August 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final draft technical reports will be the next submission. During this period, work was completed on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data has been evaluated and representative graphs are presented. The plot of Cumulative Injected Volume vs. Cumulative Week Time show the ability to consistently inject through the two center PVDs at a rate of approximately ten (10) gallons per hour. This injection rate was achieved under a static head that varied from five (5) feet to three (3) feet. The plot of Extracted Flow Rate vs. Cumulative Week Time compares the extraction rate with and without the injection of water. The injection operation was continuous for eight hour periods while the extraction operation was executed over a pulsing schedule. Extraction rates as high as forty-five (45) gallons per hour were achieved in conjunction with injection (a 350% increase over no injection.) The retrieved TCE in the liquid phase varied to a considerable degree depending on the pulsing scheme, indicating a significant amount of stripping (volatilization) took place during the extraction process. A field experiment was conducted to confirm this. A liquid sample was obtained using the same vacuum system used in the pad operation and a second liquid sample was taken by a bailer. Analyzation of TCE concentration showed 99.5% volatilization when the vacuum system was used for extraction. This was also confirmed by data ...
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Cook, Echol E. & Beatty, Tia Maria
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual report Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decommissioning GFY 1994

Description: OAK-B135 This document presents a summary of the activities conducted during GFY 1994 on decontamination and decommissioning of the Rockwell International Hot Laboratory. This is a multi-year program to decontaminate the RIHL facility to levels that allow release for unrestricted use.
Date: April 26, 1995
Creator: Felten, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of the States on Brownfields: Programs for Cleanup and Reuse of Contaminated Sites

Description: This paper first presents an overview of the nature and extent of the brownfields problem and discusses several key issues relating to their cleanup and redevelopment. Next, it examines three primary state approaches for addressing brownfields, with a particular focus on state voluntary cleanup programs. It then presents more detailed information on the voluntary programs in Minnesota, California, and Ohio.
Date: June 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies

Description: During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.
Date: August 6, 1997
Creator: Ebadian, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

Description: The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank ...
Date: January 21, 2014
Creator: Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J. & Wilmarth, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Report: Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their structure and energetics in surface decontamination

Description: The Department of Energy has a goal of decontaminating an estimated 180,000 metric tons of metal wastes in various surplus facilities. Uranium (U) and other radioactive actinides and lanthanides are embedded within the mixed oxide structures of the passivity layers of corroded iron and steel. These toxic metals can be dissolved out of the surface layers by a naturally occurring bacterial siderophore called Desferrioxamine B (DFB). DFB is a trihydroxamate ligand with one amine (pK1 =10.89) and three hydroxamate groups (pK2 =9.70, pK3 =9.03, and pK4 =8.30), which chelates with metals through hydroxamate coordination. Complexation of DFB with U can be utilized in decontamination strategy of the passivity layers. Therefore, we have been studying reactions of uranyl U(VI) with zerovalent iron (Fe0) followed by dissolution by DFB. The objectives were to determine the structure and speciation of solution and solid phases of U and to assess the effectiveness of DFB in U dissolution.
Date: April 22, 2007
Creator: Traina, Samuel J. & Sharma, Shankar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keys to successful D and D technology Deployments at the INEEL

Description: Seven improved decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) technologies were successfully deployed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) during the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (ID&D) project. The use of these improved technologies saved the INEEL $462K in fiscal year 1999, and is projected to save about $14M over the next ten years. Since deploying new technologies on D&D projects shows great potential for cost-savings, factors that led to successful deployment have been documented. These factors are described here as they apply to the seven deployments at the INEEL to assist with deployments at other DOE sites.
Date: April 2, 2000
Creator: Smith, A. M.; Meservey, R. H. & Shoemaker, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

Description: This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.
Date: September 30, 2001
Creator: Swenson, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The operation of the ORNL Volatility Pilot Plant for decontaminating and recovering uranium from molten-salt reactor fuels is discussed. A description of equipment, operating details, and performance of each system within the plant is contained. (C.J.G.)
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Miles, F W & Carr, W H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department