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Personality and Decision Behavior

Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality and certain characteristics of decision-making behavior in a modified two-choice probability learning situation. More specifically, this study addresses itself to the following questions: (1) Can personality correlates of the decision-making process be demonstrated? (2) Are personality factors related to individual differences in maximizing tendency, risk-taking, and decisiveness? (3) If such relationships, exist, who do they fit into the framework of existing decision-making theory?
Date: August 1969
Creator: Scarborough, Jerry Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Problem Recognition in the Homeostatic Process of Consumer Decision Making: Its Definition, Measurement and Use

Description: One purpose of the dissertation was to determine what theoretical justification exists to support the description of problem recognition. Homeostatsis was found to be a well documented and accepted theory of tension reduction in both physiology and psychology. It was proposed as a proper theoretical foundation for problem recognition. It also implied that people develop styles as they repeatedly deal with similar problems. Another purpose of the dissertation was to develop a method for typifying consumers in the way they recognize problems. Scales were constructed to measure consumers' tendencies to recognize problems due to a change in one of their states. Three scales were developed: one to measure types sensitive to changes in the desired state, one to measure types sensitive to changes in the actual state, and a combined scale to measure tendencies to recognize problems due to changes in either state. The product category chosen to test the scales was clothing. The results indicated that all scales were extremely reliable and moderately valid.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Bruner, Gordon Carl.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ethical reasoning and risk propensity: a comparison of hospital and general industry senior executives

Description: This research explores whether differences in ethical reasoning levels exist between senior hospital managers and top level general industry executives. Similar comparisons are made between not-for-profit hospital managers and their peers in for-profit hospitals. Also examined are the ethical reasoning levels used most often by practicing executives, regardless of industry affiliation.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Williamson, Stanley G. (Stanley Greer)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Input Model for Foreign Policy Crisis Decision-Making

Description: The purpose of this thesis will be to examine the decision-making process in crisis situations, defined as those presenting a high threat and short decisional time. Crisis situations in the area of foreign policy have become more acute and dangerous since the end of World War II and the rise of nuclear weapon delivery capabilities.
Date: August 1969
Creator: Linn, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conflict in Children Related to the Number of Choice Alternatives

Description: The purposes of the present study are to attempt to discover if there is a predictable relationship between conflict and an increase in the number of choice alternatives, to specifically determine if this hypothesized relationship exists in a predictable order in children, to endeavor to show that this hypothesized relationship is such that generalization of application to a natural environment is credible, and to attempt to discover if there are sex differences that may influence this relationship.
Date: June 1968
Creator: Burleson, Billy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Business Intelligence Components on the Quality of Decision Making

Description: Decision makers require the right information at the right time, in the right place and in the right format so that they can make good decisions. Although business intelligence (BI) has the potential to improve decision making, there is little empirical evidence of how well this has been achieved. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the quality of decisions made using BI. The research question it addresses is what are the key antecedents of decision quality for users of business intelligence systems? The theoretical support for the model is developed based on the literature review that draws on decision support systems (DSS), group decision support systems (GDSS), and BI. Grounded on this literature review, the antecedents of decision quality are operationalized in this dissertation through independent variables such as the problem space complexity, the level of BI usage, the BI user experience, and information quality. The dependent variable is operationalized as decision quality and it captures the self-satisfaction with a decision made by users in a BI environment. The research model was tested using a survey of BI users whose names were provided by a marketing company. This research suggests that BI user experience is a more complex construct than has been initially thought.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Visinescu, Lucian L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Role of Competitiveness in Counter-System Counterplans in Academic Debate

Description: Allen J. Lichtman and Daniel M. Rohrer write that "Unfortunately, formal debate theory tends to lag behind the actual practice of competitive debate" (70). This statement accurately describes the current controversy surrounding the counter-system counterplans and how they may affect traditional debate theory. These counterplans are increasingly employed by negative teams in intercollegiate debate, but so far, there is no contemporary attempt to explain how they fit into current debate theory. This study will analyze this new genre of counterplans by answering the following questions.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Bjork, Rebecca S. (Rebecca Suzanne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Connecting the Circuit: Analyzing Jurors' Cognitive Gaps and Damage Awards in Patent Infringement Trials

Description: Patent litigation is notorious for the technicality of evidence and the rhetoric of experts. Citizens selected to serve on the jury have no specialized training and have rarely been exposed to the technology or the patent process. This study provides insight into the field of jury decision-making in complex patent cases by analyzing the cognitive gaps and the tactics used by jurors to minimize them. Additionally, the study examines the justifications for the damage awards jurors provide. This analysis focused on jurors engaged in mock trial patent deliberations. The story model and sensemaking theory serve as the theoretical framework of this research and provide a structure for support and a lens for analysis. The results indicate that jurors rely on three distinct and dichotomous topologies when navigating cognitive gaps. Searching for answers either individually or as a group, relying on lists or stories, and turning to facts or emotions, jurors navigate through their uncertainty. Through the line-by-line analysis of mock jury transcriptions, three continuums regarding damage justifications emerged. Jury members found themselves navigating uncertainty versus certainty, rationality versus irrationality, and facts versus emotions. The theoretical implications broaden the story model to include cognitive gaps in all phases and increase the model's efficacy in patent litigation through the addition of a fourth phase. This study also confirms and enhances the use of sensemaking to describe the jury decision-making process. The results of this study should be applied practically to the field of patent litigation. Results should be used to create a user-friendly environment where the high stakes of litigation demand increased juror understanding and are critical to justice.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Drescher, L. Hailey
Partner: UNT Libraries

Decision-Making with Big Information: The Relationship between Decision Context, Stopping Rules, and Decision Performance

Description: Ubiquitous computing results in access to vast amounts of data, which is changing the way humans interact with each other, with computers, and with their environments. Information is literally at our fingertips with touchscreen technology, but it is not valuable until it is understood. As a result, selecting which information to use in a decision process is a challenge in the current information environment (Lu & Yuan, 2011). The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how individual decision makers, in different decision contexts, determine when to stop collecting information given the availability of virtually unlimited information. Decision makers must make an ultimate decision, but also must make a decision that he or she has enough information to make the final decision (Browne, Pitts, & Wetherbe, 2007). In determining how much information to collect, researchers found that people engage in ‘satisficing' in order to make decisions, particularly when there is more information than it is possible to manage (Simon, 1957). A more recent elucidation of information use relies on the idea of stopping rules, identifying five common stopping rules information seekers use: mental list, representational stability, difference threshold, magnitude threshold, and single criterion (Browne et al., 2007). Prior research indicates a lack of understanding in the areas of information use (Prabha, Connaway, Olszewski, & Jenkins, 2007) and information overload (Eppler & Mengis, 2004) in Information Systems literature. Moreover, research indicates a lack of clarity in what information should be used in different decision contexts (Kowalczyk & Buxmann, 2014). The increase in the availability of information further complicates and necessitates research in this area. This dissertation seeks to fill these gaps in the literature by determining how information use changes across decision contexts and the relationships between stopping rules. Two unique methodologies were used to test the hypotheses in the conceptual ...
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Date: August 2016
Creator: Gerhart, Natalie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Robust Decision Making

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy and other customers who have direct contracts with the Laboratory. The people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure at the laboratory require continual investment to maintain and improve the laboratory’s capabilities. With ever tightening federal and customer budgets, the ability to direct investments into the people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure which are most closely aligned with the laboratory’s mission and customers’ goals grows increasingly more important. The ability to justify those investment decisions based on objective criteria that can withstand political, managerial and technical criticism also becomes increasingly more important. The Systems Engineering tools of decision analysis, risk management and roadmapping, when properly applied to such problems, can provide defensible decisions.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Christopher A. Dieckmann, PE, CSEP-Acq
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : final report (assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting).

Description: An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The current experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Findings are twofold. First, the data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out performed the group working together. The theoretical and applied (e.g., cost effectiveness) implications of this finding are discussed. Second, the current experiment yielded several viable solutions to the wickedly difficult problem that was posed.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Bauer, Travis L.; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris & Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intergovernmental decisionmaking for environmental protection and public works

Description: The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document addresses intergovernmental decisionmaking for environmental protection and public works.
Date: November 1992
Creator: United States. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

Description: Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended ...
Date: October 1, 2001
Creator: Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne & Hill, Susan Gardiner
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Different Forms of Accounting Feedback, Cost Aggregation and Pricing Knowledge on Profitability and Profit Estimation

Description: This study extends a research stream calling for further research regarding pricing and accounting feedback. Marketing executives rely heavily on accounting information for pricing decisions, yet criticize accounting feedback usefulness. To address this criticism, this research integrates the cognitive psychology and accounting literature addressing feedback effectiveness with pricing research in the marketing discipline. The research extends the scope of previous accounting feedback studies by using a control group and comparing two proxies of subject task knowledge; years of pricing experience and a measure of the cognitive structure of pricing knowledge. In addition, this research manipulates task complexity by using two different accounting systems. These systems vary in the number of cost pools used in allocating overhead, resulting in differentially projected cost and profit information. A total of 60 subjects participated in a computer laboratory experiment. These subjects were non-accountants with varying amounts of pricing knowledge. Subjects were randomly assigned to six experimental groups which varied by feedback type (no accounting feedback, outcome feedback only, or a combination of outcome and task properties feedback) and task complexity (high or low number of overhead cost pools). The subjects attempted to (1) maximize profits for a product during 15 rounds of pricing decisions, and (2) accurately estimate their profit for each round. The experimental results indicate no difference in performance between the three feedback types examined. However, increases in both subjects' pricing knowledge and the number of cost pools do influence feedback effectiveness. This study suggests that the amount of the users' task knowledge may influence the effectiveness of current accounting reports. In addition, increasing the number of cost pools in accounting systems may be beneficial for all users.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Smith, David M., 1961-
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Reduced Challenge at the Conclusion of Cognitive and Exercise Tasks

Description: Research has suggested that memories for difficult or painful experiences seem related to a combination of the worst and most recent moments. This peak-end theory was tested in relation to an exercise task (eccentric quadriceps using a BIODEX machine) as well as a cognitive task (standardized quantitative test questions). For each type of task there were two trials: short and happy endings. The happy endings trial included the same task as the short trial with an additional 25% duration at a lesser intensity (80% of short task intensity). A 2 (task type) by 2 (trial type) repeated measures design was used. Participants made global ratings of difficulty immediately after each component, thus generating four ratings, and later indicated their preferences for hypothetical future trials. Results indicated support for the theory that the shorter trials are evaluated as more difficult, with the cognitive task being evaluated as more difficult overall than the exercise task. Preference scores, however, revealed a preference only for the happy endings cognitive task, with no preference indicated on the exercise task. Results confirm previous research in suggesting differences between judgements of tasks and future choices. However, confounds complicated interpretations, especially for the cognitive task. The most conservative interpretation of data suggests that in circumstances where "more is better," happy endings will result in more work with no higher level of discomfort. Implications for future research and applications of the theory are discussed.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Diehl, Nancy S. (Nancy Sue)
Partner: UNT Libraries

An investigation of the effects of presentation format and time pressure on decision makers performing tasks of varying complexitites

Description: The primary objective of this study was to determine which presentation format leads to better decision performance when the decision maker solving a problem of certain complexity is experiencing a certain level of time pressure.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Hwang, Mark I. (Mark Ing-Hwa)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Decision making and teacher morale in selected elementary schools in north Texas: an exploratory study

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether elementary teacher morale is related to teacher freedom to make decisions and give input into their work and work environment. Additionally, the study attempted to determine whether teacher decision making freedom varies with age, gender, number of degrees, years of experience, or special teaching assignment.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Turnage, Peggy J. (Peggy Jo)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Aligning National Environmental Policy Act processes with environmental management systems: A Guide for NEPA and EMS Practitioners

Description: This guidebook for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Environmental Management System (EMS) practitioners identifies elements of an EMS that can improve NEPA implementation in order to promote conditions under which humans and nature exist in productive harmony.
Date: April 2007
Creator: Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries