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The IceCube Data Acquisition Software: Lessons Learned during Distributed, Collaborative, Multi-Disciplined Software Development.

Description: In this experiential paper we report on lessons learned during the development ofthe data acquisition software for the IceCube project - specifically, how to effectively address the unique challenges presented by a distributed, collaborative, multi-institutional, multi-disciplined project such as this. While development progress in software projects is often described solely in terms of technical issues, our experience indicates that non- and quasi-technical interactions play a substantial role in the effectiveness of large software development efforts. These include: selection and management of multiple software development methodologies, the effective useof various collaborative communication tools, project management structure and roles, and the impact and apparent importance of these elements when viewed through the differing perspectives of hardware, software, scientific and project office roles. Even in areas clearly technical in nature, success is still influenced by non-technical issues that can escape close attention. In particular we describe our experiences on software requirements specification, development methodologies and communication tools. We make observations on what tools and techniques have and have not been effective in this geographically disperse (including the South Pole) collaboration and offer suggestions on how similarly structured future projects may build upon our experiences.
Date: September 21, 2007
Creator: Beattie, Keith S.; Beattie, Keith; Day, Christopher; Glowacki, Dave; Hanson, Kael; Jacobsen, John et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacing Detectors to Triggers And DAQ Electronics

Description: The complete design of the front-end electronics interfacing LHCb detectors, Level-0 trigger and higher levels of trigger with flexible configuration parameters has been made for (a) ASIC implementation, and (b) FPGA implementation. The importance of approaching designs in technology-independent form becomes essential with the actual rapid electronics evolution. Being able to constrain the entire design to a few types of replicated components: (a) the fully programmable 3D-Flow system, and (b) the configurable front-end circuit described in this article, provides even further advantages because only one or two types of components will need to migrate to the newer technologies. To base on today's technology the design of a system such as the LHCb project that is to begin working in 2006 is not cost-effective. The effort required to migrate to a higher-performance will, in that case, be almost equivalent to completely redesigning the architecture from scratch. The proposed technology independent design with the current configurable front-end module described in this article and the scalable 3D-Flow fully programmable system described elsewhere, based on the study of the evolution of electronics during the past few years and the forecasted advances in the years to come, aims to provide a technology-independent design which lends itself to any technology at any time. In this case, technology independence is based mainly on generic-HDL reusable code which allows a very rapid realization of the state-of-the-art circuits in terms of gate density, power dissipation, and clock frequency. The design of four trigger towers presently fits into an OR3T30 FPGA. Preliminary test results (provided in this paper) meet the functional requirements of LHCb and provide sufficient flexibility to introduce future changes. The complete system design is also provided along with the integration of the front-end design in the entire system and the cost and dimension of the electronics.
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Crosetto, Dario B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The D0 level three data acquisition system

Description: The DZERO experiment located at Fermilab has recently started RunII with an upgraded detector. The RunII physics program requires the Data Acquisition to readout the detector at a rate of 1 KHz. Events fragments, totaling 250 KB, are readout from approximately 60 front end crates and sent to a particular farm node for Level 3 Trigger processing. A scalable system, capable of complex event routing, has been designed and implemented based on commodity components: VMIC 7750 Single Board Computers for readout, a Cisco 6509 switch for data flow, and close to 100 Linux-based PCs for high-level event filtering.
Date: March 17, 2004
Creator: al., D. Chapin et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of MDSplus on NSTX at PPPL

Description: The MDSplus data acquisition system has been used successfully since the 1999 startup of NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] for control, data acquisition, and analysis for diagnostic subsystems. For each plasma ''shot'' on NSTX about 75 MBs of data is acquired and loaded into MDSplus hierarchical data structures in 2-3 minutes. Physicists adapted to the MDSplus software tools with no real difficulty. Some locally developed tools are described. The support from the developers at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] was timely and insightful. The use of MDSplus has resulted in a significant cost savings for NSTX.
Date: March 6, 2002
Creator: Davis, W.; Roney, P.; Carroll, T.; Gibney, T. & Mastrovito, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AGS Booster Beam Position, Tune, and Longitudinal Profile Data Acquisition System.

Description: In this paper we will describe a data acquisition system designed and developed for the AGS Booster. The system was motivated by the need to get high quality beam diagnostics from the AGS Booster. This was accomplished by locating the electronics and digital data acquisition close to the Booster ring, to minimize loss of bandwidth in the original signals. In addition we had to develop the system rapidly and at a low cost. The system consists of a Lecroy digital oscilloscope which is interfaced through a National Instruments LabView{trademark} server application, developed for this project. This allows multiple client applications to time share the scope without interfering with each other. We will present a description of the system design along with example clients that we have implemented.
Date: May 12, 2003
Creator: Brown, K. A.; Ahrens, L.; Severino, F.; Smith, K. & Wilinski, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Universal Networked Timer at NSTX

Description: A new Timing and Synchronization System component, the Universal Networked Timer (UNT), is under development at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The UNT is a second-generation multifunction timing device that emulates the timing functionality and electrical interfaces originally provided by various CAMAC modules. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology, each of the UNT's eight channels can be dynamically programmed to emulate a specific CAMAC module type. The timer is compatible with the existing NSTX timing and synchronization system and will also support a (future) clock system with extended performance. To assist system designers and collaborators, software will be written to integrate the UNT with EPICS, MDSplus, and LabVIEW. This paper will describe the timing capabilities, hardware design, programming/software support, and the current status of the Universal Networked Timer at NSTX.
Date: September 23, 2005
Creator: Sichta, P.; Dong, J.; Lawson, J. E.; Oliaro, G. & Wertenbaker, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The IceCube data acquisition system: Signal capture, digitization,and timestamping

Description: IceCube is a km-scale neutrino observatory under construction at the South Pole with sensors both in the deep ice (InIce) and on the surface (IceTop). The sensors, called Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), detect, digitize and timestamp the signals from optical Cherenkov-radiation photons. The DOM Main Board (MB) data acquisition subsystem is connected to the central DAQ in the IceCube Laboratory (ICL) by a single twisted copper wire-pair and transmits packetized data on demand. Time calibration ismaintained throughout the array by regular transmission to the DOMs of precisely timed analog signals, synchronized to a central GPS-disciplined clock. The design goals and consequent features, functional capabilities, and initial performance of the DOM MB, and the operation of a combined array of DOMs as a system, are described here. Experience with the first InIce strings and the IceTop stations indicates that the system design and performance goals have been achieved.
Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Collaboration, The IceCube & Matis, Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal to upgrade the MIPP data acquisition system

Description: The MIPP TPC is the largest contributor to the MIPP event size by far. Its readout system and electronics were designed in the 1990's and limit it to a readout rate of 60 Hz in simple events and {approx} 20 Hz in complicated events. With the readout chips designed for the ALICE collaboration at the LHC, we propose a low cost effective scheme of upgrading the MIPP data acquisition speed to 3000 Hz.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Baker, W.; Carey, D.; Johnstone, C.; Kostin, M.; Meyer, H. & Raja, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USABC electric vehicle Battery Test Procedures Manual. Revision 2

Description: This manual summarizes the procedural information needed to perform the battery testing being sponsored by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). This information provides the structure and standards to be used by all testing organizations, including the USABC developers, national laboratories, or other relevant test facilities.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ATLAS: A Small, Light Weight, Time-Synchronized Wind-Turbine Data Acquistion System

Description: Wind energy researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed a small, lightweight, time- synchronized, robust data acquisition system to acquire long-term time-series data on a wind turbine rotor. A commercial data acquisition module is utilized to acquire data simultaneously from multip!e strain-gauge, analog, and digital channels. Acquisition of rotor data at precisely the same times as acquisition of ground data is ensured by slaving the acquisition clocks on the rotor- based data unit and ground-based units to the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system with commercial GPS receiver units and custom-built and programmed programmable logic devices. The acquisition clocks will remain synchronized within two microseconds indefinitely. Field tests have confirmed that synchronization can be maintained at rotation rates in excess of 350 rpm, Commercial spread-spectrum radio modems are used to transfer the rotor data to a ground- based computer concurrently with data acquisition, permitting continuous acquisition of data over a period of several hours, days or even weeks.
Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Berg, D.E.; Robertson, P. & Zayas, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kerman Photovoltaic Power Plant R&D data collection computer system operations and maintenance

Description: The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system at the Kerman PV Plant monitors 52 analog, 44 status, 13 control, and 4 accumulator data points in real-time. A Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) polls 7 peripheral data acquisition units that are distributed throughout the plant once every second, and stores all analog, status, and accumulator points that have changed since the last scan. The R&D Computer, which is connected to the SCADA RTU via a RS-232 serial link, polls the RTU once every 5-7 seconds and records any values that have changed since the last scan. A SCADA software package called RealFlex runs on the R&D computer and stores all updated data values taken from the RTU, along with a time-stamp for each, in a historical real-time database. From this database, averages of all analog data points and snapshots of all status points are generated every 10 minutes and appended to a daily file. These files are downloaded via modem by PVUSA/Davis staff every day, and the data is placed into the PVUSA database.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Rosen, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey data acquisition system, and early results

Description: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey will systematically map one- quarter of the sky, producing detailed images in five color bands and determining the positions and absolute bright- nesses of more than 100 million celestial objects. It will also measure the redshifts of a million selected galaxies and of 100,000 quasars, yielding a three-dimensional map of the universe through a volume one hundred times larger than that explored to date. The SDSS collaboration is currently in the process of commissioning the 2.5-meter survey tele- scope. We describe the data acquisition system used to record the survey data. This system consists of twelve sin- gle board computers and their associated interfaces to the camera and spectrograph CCD electronics, to tape drives, and to online video displays, distributed among several VME crates. A central UNIX computer connected to the VME crates via a vertical bus adapter coordinates the sys- tem and provides the interface to telescope operations. We briefly discuss results from the observing runs to date and plans for the archiving and distribution of data.
Date: June 29, 1999
Creator: J. Annis, J. Bakken, D. Holmgren, D. Petravick, R. Rechenmacher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Channel control ASIC for the CMS hadron calorimeter front end readout module

Description: The Channel Control ASIC (CCA) is used along with a custom Charge Integrator and Encoder (QIE) ASIC to digitize signals from the hybrid photo diodes (HPDs) and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the CMS hadron calorimeter. The CCA sits between the QIE and the data acquisition system. All digital signals to and from the QIE pass through the CCA chip. One CCA chip interfaces with two QIE channels. The CCA provides individually delayed clocks to each of the QIE chips in addition to various control signals. The QIE sends digitized PMT or HPD signals and time slice information to the CCA, which sends the data to the data acquisition system through an optical link.
Date: September 26, 2002
Creator: al., Ray Yarema et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving Image Quality and Reducing Drift Problems via Automated Data Acquisition and Averaging in Cs-corrected TEM

Description: Image acquisition with a CCD camera is a single-press-button activity: after selecting exposure time and adjusting illumination, a button is pressed and the acquired image is perceived as the final, unmodified proof of what was seen in the microscope. Thus it is generally assumed that the image processing steps of e.g., 'dark-current correction' and 'gain normalization' do not alter the information content of the image, but rather eliminate unwanted artifacts. Image quality therefore is, among a long list of other parameters, defined by the dynamic range of the CCD camera as well as the maximum allowable exposure time depending on sample drift (ignoring sample damage). Despite the fact that most microscopists are satisfied with present, standard image quality we found that it is a relatively easy to improve on existing routines in at least two aspects: (1) Suppression of lateral image drift during acquisition by using significantly shorter exposure times with a plurality of exposures (3D-data set); and (2) Improvement in the Signal/Noise ratio by averaging over a given data set by exceeding the dynamic range of the camera.
Date: August 29, 2008
Creator: Voelkl, E; Jiang, B; Dai, Z R & Bradley, J P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

Description: AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.
Date: May 15, 2009
Creator: Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric joint inversion

Description: The growing use of the controlled-source electromagnetic method (CSEM) and magnetotellurics (MT) for exploration applications has been driving the development of data acquisition technologies, and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and imaging techniques. However, targeting increasingly complex geological environments also further enhances the problems inherent in large-scale inversion, such as non-uniqueness and resolution issues. In this paper, we report on two techniques to mitigate these problems. We use 3-D joint CSEM and MT inversion to improve the model resolution. To avoid the suppression of the resolution capacities of one data type, and thus to balance the use of inherent, and ideally complementary information content, different data reweighting schemes are proposed. Further, a hybrid model parameterization approach is presented, where traditional cell-based model parameters are used simultaneously within a parametric inversion. The idea is to limit the non-uniqueness problem, typical for 3-D imaging problems, in order to allow for a more focusing inversion. The methods are demonstrated using synthetic data generated from models with a strong practical relevance.
Date: February 15, 2009
Creator: Commer, M. & Newman, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of hexavalent uranium with inline and field-portable immunosensors

Description: An antibody that recognizes a chelated form of hexavalent uranium was used in the development of two different immunosensors for uranium detection. Specifically, these sensors were utilized for the analysis of groundwater samples collected during a 2007 field study of in situ bioremediation in a aquifer located at Rifle, CO. The antibody-based sensors provided data comparable to that obtained using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA). Thus, these novel instruments and associated reagents should provide field researchers and resource managers with valuable new tools for on-site data acquisition.
Date: October 2, 2008
Creator: Melton, Scott J.; Yu, Haini; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation and telemetry at Sandia National Laboratories.

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy multiprogram engineering and scientific facility with unique design, development, and test capabilities arising from their work in nuclear weapons, energy resources, defense systems, nuclear safeguards, and specialized scientific endeavors. To support these programs, they have developed instrumentation and telemetry expertise not available elsewhere. This technology is applicable to projects in government and industry. Since the 1950s, they have applied our technical competence to meet difficult challenges with innovative solutions to data acquisition and telemetry problems. Sandia - with experience in fields as diverse as parachute design and plasma physics, geology and rocket guidance, human factors and high-speed aerodynamics, non-destructive testing and satellite communications - can use the power of synergism among our many disciplines to solve your complex problems of data and acquisition and analysis. SNL solves difficult data acquisition problems for extreme environments with expertise in advanced telemetry techniques, high data rate telemetry design, specialized electronics packaging, MIL-STD-1553 communications, instrumentation development, real-time data analysis, project management, specialized testers and data encryption.
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BNL Accelerator Test Facility Control System Upgrade.

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) has embarked on a complete upgrade of its decade old computer system. The planned improvements affect every major component: processors (Intel Pentium replaces VAXes), operating system (Linux/Real-Time Linux supplants OpenVMS), and data acquisition equipment (fast Ethernet equipment replaces CAMAC serial highway.) This paper summarizes the strategies and progress of the upgrade along with plans for future expansion.
Date: June 2001
Creator: Malone, R.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Wang, Xijie & Yakimenko, Vitaly
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department