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RF Driven Multicusp H- Ion Source

Description: An rf driven multicusp source capable of generating 1-ms H{sup -} beam pulses with a repetition rate as high as 150 Hz has been developed. This source can be operated with a filament or other types of starter. There is almost no lifetime limitation and a clean plasma can be maintained for a long period of operation. It is demonstrated that rf power as high as 25 kW could be coupled inductively to the plasma via a glass-coated copper-coil antenna. The extracted H{sup -} current density achieved is about 200 mA/cm{sup 2}.
Date: June 1, 1990
Creator: Leung, K.N.; DeVries, G.J.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Hamm, R.W.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors

Description: Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A. & ten Kate, H.H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comment on flux creep with logarithmic U(j) dependence

Description: The numerical calculation by Wang and Dong [Phys. Rev. B 49, 698 (1994)] of flux density profiles across a slab sample exposes a possible misunderstanding of the solution given earlier by vinokur, Feigel`man and Geshkenbein, but also predicts a kink in the magnetization relaxation curve which Schnack and Griessen have already shown to be erroneous.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Gilchrist, J.; Schnack, H.G. & van der Beek, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Double Barrier Resonant Tunneling Transistor with a Fully Two Dimensional Emitter

Description: A novel planar resonant tunneling transistor is demonstrated. The growth structure is similar to that of a double-barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD), except for a fully two-dimensional (2D) emitter formed by a quantum well. Current is fed laterally into the emitter, and the 2D--2D resonant tunneling current is controlled by a surface gate. This unique device structure achieves figures-of-merit, i.e. peak current densities and peak voltages, approaching that of state-of-the-art RTDs. Most importantly, sensitive control of the peak current and voltage is achieved by gating of the emitter quantum well subband energy. This quantum tunneling transistor shows exceptional promise for ultra-high speed and multifunctional operation at room temperature.
Date: July 13, 2000
Creator: MOON,J.S.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.; BACA,WES E.; BLOUNT,MARK A.; HIETALA,VINCENT M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

Description: Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S. & van Zomeren, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercurrents in HgBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}} and TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7} Epitaxial Thin Films

Description: The availability of high-quality epitaxial thin films of HgBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}} (Hg-1212) and TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Tl-1212) with high critical current densities (J{sub c}) has made it possible to examine and compare the J{sub c} of these species. Results reveal that the J{sub c} of 1212 species have very similar temperature behavior at low fields, strongly suggesting that the 30-K shift in critical temperature (T{sub c}) induced by the exchange of Hg and Tl in the 1212 structure is due largely to a change in charge carrier density.
Date: August 23, 1999
Creator: Gapud, A.A.; Wu, J.Z.; Fang, L.; Yan, S.L.; Xie, Y.Y.; Siegal, M.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Particle-in-Cell Code for Numerical Simulation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

Description: We present a first look at the new code for self-consistent, 2D simulations of beam dynamics affected by the coherent synchrotron radiation. The code is of the particle-in-cell variety: the beam bunch is sampled by point-charge particles, which are deposited on the grid; the corresponding forces on the grid are then computed using retarded potentials according to causality, and interpolated so as to advance the particles in time. The retarded potentials are evaluated by integrating over the 2D path history of the bunch, with the charge and current density at the retarded time obtained from interpolation of the particle distributions recorded at discrete timesteps. The code is benchmarked against analytical results obtained for a rigid-line bunch. We also outline the features and applications which are currently being developed.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Balsa Terzic, Rui Li
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new generation Nb3Sn wire, and the prospects for its use inparticle accelerators

Description: The US DOE has initiated a Conductor Development Program aimed at demonstrating a high current density, cost effective Nb3Sn conductor for use in accelerator magnets. The first goal, an increase in current density by 50%, has been achieved in a practical conductor. The program is focused at present on achieving the second goal of reduced losses. The different approaches for achieving these goals will be discussed, and the status will be presented. Magnet technology R&D has been proceeding in parallel with the conductor development efforts, and these two technologies are reaching the level required for the next step--introduction into operating accelerator magnets. An obvious point for introducing this technology is the LHC interaction region magnets, which require large apertures and high fields (or high field gradients). By upgrading the interaction region magnets, machine performance can be enhanced significantly without replacing the arc magnets, which represent most of the cost of an accelerator. Design requirements generated by recent studies and workshops will be reviewed, and a roadmap for the development of the next-generation interaction region magnets will be presented.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R. & Gourlay, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIMITS OF Nb3Sn ACCELERATOR MAGNETS

Description: Pushing accelerator magnets beyond 10 T holds a promise of future upgrades to machines like the Tevatron at Fermilab and the LHC at CERN. Exceeding the current density limits of NbTi superconductor, Nb{sub 3}Sn is at present the only practical superconductor capable of generating fields beyond 10 T. Several Nb{sub 3}Sn pilot magnets, with fields as high as 16 T, have been built and tested, paving the way for future attempts at fields approaching 20 T. High current density conductor is required to generate high fields with reduced conductor volume. However this significantly increases the Lorentz force and stress. Future designs of coils and structures will require managing stresses of several 100's of MPa and forces of 10's of MN/m. The combined engineering requirements on size and cost of accelerator magnets will involve magnet technology that diverges from the one currently used with NbTi conductor. In this paper we shall address how far the engineering of high field magnets can be pushed, and what are the issues and limitations before such magnets can be used in particle accelerators.
Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Caspi, Shlomo & Ferracin, Paolo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of a Short-Period Nb3Sn Superconducting Undulator

Description: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory develops high-field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets for HEP applications. In the past few years, this experience has been extended to the design and fabrication of undulator magnets. Some undulator applications require devices that can operate in the presence of a heat load from a beam. The use of Nb{sub 3}Sn permits operation of a device at both a marginally higher temperature (5-8K) and a higher J{sub c}, compared to NbTi devices, without requiring a larger magnetic gap. A half-undulator device consisting of 6 periods (12 coil packs) of 14.5 mm period was designed, wound, reacted, potted and tested. It reached the short sample current limit of 717A in 4 quenches. The non-Cu Jc of the strand was over 7,600 A/mm{sup 2} and the Cu current density at quench was over 8,000 A/mm{sup 2}. Magnetic field models show that if a complete device was fabricated with the same parameters one could obtain beam fields of 1.1 T and 1.6 T for pole gaps of 8 mm and 6 mm, respectively.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Dietderich, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel; Godeke, Arno; Prestemon, Soren; Pipersky, Paul T.; Liggins, Nate L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How an antenna launches its input power into radiation: thepattern of the Poynting vector at and near an antenna

Description: In this paper I first address the question of whether theseat of the power radiated by an antenna made of conducting members isdistributed over the "arms" of the antenna according to $ - \bf J \cdotE$, where $\bf J$ is the specified current density and $\bf E$ is theelectric field produced by that source. Poynting's theorem permits only aglobal identification of the total input power, usually from a localizedgenerator, with the total power radiated to infinity, not a localcorrespondence of $- \bf J \cdot E\ d^3x $ with some specific radiatedpower, $r^2 \bf S \cdot \hat r\ d\Omega $. I then describe a modelantenna consisting of two perfectly conducting hemispheres of radius\emph a separated by a small equatorial gap across which occurs thedriving oscillatory electric field. The fields and surface current aredetermined by solution of the boundary value problem. In contrast to thefirst approach (not a boundary value problem), the tangential electricfield vanishes on the metallic surface. There is no radial Poyntingvector at the surface. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate how theenergy flows from the input region of the gap and is guided near theantenna by its "arms" until it is launched at larger \emph r/a into theradiation pattern determined by the value of \emph ka.
Date: May 18, 2005
Creator: Jackson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vector Potential and Stored Energy of a Quadrupole Magnet Array

Description: The vector potential, magnetic field and stored energy of a quadrupole magnet array are derived. Each magnet within the array is a current sheet with a current density proportional to the azimuthal angle 2{theta} and the longitudinal periodicity (2m-1){pi}/L. Individual quadrupoles within the array are oriented in a way that maximizes the field gradient The array does not have to be of equal spacing and can be of a finite size, however when the array is equally spaced and is of infinite size the solution can be simplified. We note that whereas, in a single quadrupole magnet with a current density proportional to cos2{theta} the gradient is pure, such purity is not preserved in a quadrupole array.
Date: March 15, 1999
Creator: Caspi, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of a NbTi Superconducting Quadrupole Magnet Based on Alternating Helical Windings

Description: It has been shown that by superposing two solenoid-like thin windings, that are oppositely skewed (tilted) with respect to the bore axis, the combined current density on the surface is cos({theta})-like and the resulting magnetic field in the bore is a pure dipole field. Following a previous test of such a superconducting dipole magnet, a quadrupole magnet was designed and built using similar principles. This paper describes the design, construction and test of a 75 mm bore 600 mm long superconducting quadrupole made with NbTi wire. The simplicity of the design, void of typical wedges, end-spacers and coil assembly, is especially suitable for future high field insert coils using Nb{sub 3}Sn as well as HTS wires. The 3 mm thick coil reached 46 T/m but did not achieve its current plateau.
Date: August 16, 2009
Creator: Caspi, S.; Trillaud, F.; Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH CURRENT D- PRODUCTION BY CHARGE EXCHANGE IN SODIUM

Description: A beam of D{sup -} ions has been produced at 7-13 keV, with currents up to 2.2 {angstrom}, using charge exchange in sodium vapor. The beam profile is bi-Gaussian with angular divergence 0.7{sup o} x 2.8{sup o} and peak current density 15 mA/cm{sup 2}. The characteristics of the beam are in excellent agreement with predictions based on atomic cross sections. The sodium vapor target is formed by a jet directed across the beam. The sodium density drops rapidly in the beamline downstream from the charge exchange region, decreasing three orders of magnitude in 15 cm. Measurement and analysis of the plasma accompanying the beam demonstrate that plasma densities nearly equal to the beam density are obtained 1 m from the charge exchange medium. The plasma produced in the sodium is thus well confined to the charge exchange region and does not propagate along the beam.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Hooper, E.B.; Poulsen, P. & Pincosy, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A HIGH CURRENT DENSITY LI+ ALUMINO-SILICATE ION SOURCE FOR TARGET HEATING EXPERIMENTS

Description: The NDCX-II accelerator for target heating experiments has been designed to use a large diameter ({approx_equal} 10.9 cm) Li{sup +} doped alumino-silicate source with a pulse duration of 0.5 {micro}s, and beam current of {approx_equal} 93 mA. Characterization of a prototype lithium alumino-silicate sources is presented. Using 6.35mm diameter prototype emitters (coated on a {approx_equal} 75% porous tungsten substrate), at a temperature of {approx_equal} 1275 C, a space-charge limited Li{sup +} beam current density of {approx_equal} 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured. At higher extraction voltage, the source is emission limited at around {approx_equal} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, weakly dependent on the applied voltage. The lifetime of the ion source is {approx_equal} 50 hours while pulsing the extraction voltage at 2 to 3 times per minute. Measurements show that the life time of the ion source does not depend only on beam current extraction, and lithium loss may be dominated by neutral loss or by evaporation. The life time of a source is around {ge} 10 hours in a DC mode extraction, and the extracted charge is {approx_equal} 75% of the available Li in the sample. It is inferred that pulsed heating may increase the life time of a source.
Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A. & Waldron, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical design of a high field common coil magnet

Description: A common coil design for high field 2-in-1 accelerator magnets has been previously presented as a 'conductor-friendly' option for high field magnets applicable for a Very Large Hadron Collider. This paper presents the mechanical design for a 14 tesla 2-in-1 dipole based on the common coil design approach. The magnet will use a high current density Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor. The design addresses mechanical issues particular to the common coil geometry: horizontal support against coil edges, vertical preload on coil faces, end loading and support, and coil stresses and strains. The magnet is the second in a series of racetrack coil magnets that will provide experimental verification of the common coil design approach.
Date: March 18, 1999
Creator: Caspi, S.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.; Gourlay, S.; Gupta, R.; McInturff, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conductor Development for High Field Dipole Magnets

Description: Historically, improvements in dipole magnet performance have been paced by improvements in the superconductor available for use in these magnets. The critical conductor performance parameters for dipole magnets include current density, piece length, effective filament size, and cost. Each of these parameters is important for efficient, cost effective dipoles, with critical current density being perhaps the most important. Several promising magnet designs for the next hadron collider or a muon collider require fields of 12 T or higber, i.e. beyond the reach of NbTi. The conductor options include Nb{sub 3}Sn, Nb{sub 3}Al, or the high temperature superconductors. Although these conductors have the potential to provide the combination of performance and cost required, none of them have been developed sufficiently at this point to satisfy all the requirements. This paper will review the status of each class of advanced conductor and discuss the remaining problems that require solutions before these new conductors can be considered as practical. In particular, the plans for a new program to develop Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al conductors for high energy physics applications will be presented. Also, the development of a multikiloamp Bi-2212 cable for dipole magnet applications will be reported.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R. & Higley, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELM Suppression in Low Edge Collisionality H-Mode Discharges Using n=3 Magnetic Perturbations

Description: Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces the edge pressure gradient and pedestal current density below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport.
Date: July 11, 2005
Creator: Burrell, K H; Evans, T E; Doyle, E J; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH ELECTRIC FIELD, HIGH CURRENT PACKAGING OF SIC PHOTO-SWITCHES

Description: This paper discusses the methods and materials being developed to package semi-insulating Silicon Carbide (SiC) in a high electric field, high current package while providing entrance for photo-conductive optical energy necessary for closure. The switch requirements and design goals are presented. The switch material package combination must enable a relatively large current and control the current density at the contacts and through the material while supporting a very high electric blocking field. The material parameters and methods of controlling the current density and the peak electric field in the region where the electrode separated from the SiC material are discussed. The mask design and Ohmic contact formation processes at the SiC--metal electrode interface as well as the methods used to bond the semiconductor contact to the electrode are discussed. In addition, images of package failures are presented and the direction being pursued for improving package performance is presented.
Date: May 26, 2005
Creator: Nunnally, W; Sanders, D; Sampayan, S & Caporaso, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

Description: Efficient PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell performance requires effective water management. To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operations. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells, with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) properties. High resolution neutron radiography was used to image fuel cells during a variety of conditions. The effect of specific operating conditions, including flow direction (co-flow or counter-flow) was examined. Counter-flow operation was found to result in higher water content than co-flow operation, which correlates to lower membrane resistivity. A variety of cells were used to quantify the membrane water in situ during exposure to saturated gases, during fuel cell operation, and during hydrogen pump operation. The quantitative results show lower membrane water content than previous results suggested.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Borup, Rodney L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Davey, John R; Spendelow, Jacob S; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Milestones in EBIT Spectroscopy and Why it Almost Didn't Work

Description: The EBIT spectroscopy that now seems routine would not be possible without considerable good luck in several areas of EBIT technology. Among these are x-ray background, ion cooling, neutral gas density, and electron current density and energy control. A favourable outcome in these areas has enabled clean x-ray spectra, sufficient intensity for high resolution spectroscopy, production of very high charge states, and a remarkable variety of spectroscopic measurements. During construction of the first EBIT 20 years ago, it was not clear that any of this was possible.
Date: July 17, 2007
Creator: Marrs, R E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for Electron Imaging with Ultrafast Time Resolution

Description: Many pivotal aspects of material science, biomechanics, and chemistry would benefit from nanometer imaging with ultrafast time resolution. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of short-pulse electron imaging with t10 nanometer/10 picosecond spatio-temporal resolution, sufficient to characterize phenomena that propagate at the speed of sound in materials (1-10 kilometer/second) without smearing. We outline resolution-degrading effects that occur at high current density followed by strategies to mitigate these effects. Finally, we present a model electron imaging system that achieves 10 nanometer/10 picosecond spatio-temporal resolution.
Date: January 26, 2007
Creator: Armstrong, M R; Reed, B W; Torralva, B R & Browning, N D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison Between Nb3Al and Nb3Sn Strands and Cables for High Field Accelerator Magnets

Description: The Nb{sub 3}Al small racetrack magnet, SR07, has been successfully built and tested to its short sample limit beyond 10 Tesla without any training. Thus the practical application of Nb{sub 3}Al strands for high field accelerator magnets is established. The characteristics of the representative F4 strand and cable, are compared with the typical Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and cable. It is represented by the OST high current RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn strand with 108/127 configuration. The effects of Rutherford cabling to both type strands are explained and the inherent problem of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand is discussed. Also the test results of two representative small racetrack magnets are compared from the stand point of Ic values, and training. The maximum current density of the Nb{sub 3}Al strands is still smaller than that of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, but if we take into account of the stress-strain characteristics, Nb{sub 3}Al strands become somewhat favorable in some applications.
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Rusy, A.; Takeuchi, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department