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Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 3, Sealed sources held by general licensees

Description: This is the third volume in a series of three volumes characterizing the population of sealed sources that may become greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). In this volume, those sources possessed by general licensees are discussed. General-licensed devices may contain sealed sources with significant amounts of radioactive material. However, the devices are designed to be safe to use without special knowledge of radiological safety practices. Devices containing Am-241 or Cm-244 sources are most likely to become GTCC LLW after concentration averaging. This study estimates that there are about 16,000 GTCC devices held by general licensees; 15,000 of these contain Am-241 sources and 1,000 contain Cm-244 sources. Additionally, this study estimates that there are 1,600 GTCC devices sold to general licensees each year. However, due to a lack of available information on general licensees in Agreement States, these estimates are uncertain. This uncertainty is quantified in the low and high case estimates given in this report, which span approximately an order of magnitude.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Harris, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of self-radiation damage on electronic properties of {sup 244}Cm{sup 3+} in an orthophosphate crystal of YPO{sub 4}

Description: Electronic energy level of alpha-emitting isotope {sup 244}Cm{sup 3+} (t{sub {1/2}}=18.1 y) doped into single crystals of YPO{sub 4} has been studied using site-selected laser spectroscopic methods. Electronic transitions between the nominal {sup 8}S{sub 7/2} state of Cm{sup 3+} were utilized to characterize the effects of alpha-decay induced structural damage. The total splitting of the four crystal field doublets in the ground multiplet is 12.5 cm{sup -1} and that of the excited multiplet is 611 cm{sup -1}. Due to radiation damage accumulated in 17 years since the crystals were grown, the inhomogeneous line width of the {sup 8}S{sub 7/2} {leftrightarrow} {sup 6}D{sub 7/2} transitions in broader than 50 cm{sup -1} as measured without site selection. The line width of resonant fluorescence line narrowing (RFLN) is less than 1 cm{sup -1} at 4 K. A total of 12 satellite lines were observed symmetrically spacing about the RFLN line. The position, width, and intensity of these satellite lines have been analyzed to gain information on the electronic and structural properties of the actinide ions in the metamict phases of Cm{sup 3+}:YPO{sub 4}.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Liu, G.K.; Li, S.T.; Beitz, J.V. & Abraham, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low energy gamma-transitions in Pu{sup 238} and Pu{sup 240}

Description: We investigated electron and gamma spectra of mixtures of isotopes of curium. This was done on a beta spectrometer with double focusing at an angle of {pi}{radical}2 and on a scintillation gamma spectrometer with a 40 {times} 40 mm NAI(Tl) single crystal detector. The observed electron spectrum are interpolated and presented. Also, experimental results of the ratio of conversion at L and M subshells are presented and compared to theoretical values.
Date: March 27, 1967
Creator: Akalaev, G. G.; Vartanov, N. A. & Samoilov, P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation and Shielding Data for Pu-Al Components

Description: Radiation intensities associated with the various Pu-Al fuel and target components considered to date for a Cm244 production program vary according to quantity and isotopic content of the Pu used, age of the Pu since separation, and component design. This report summarizes the results of calculations made to determine expected radiation intensities and includes associated shielding data for use in evaluating future shielding requirements for billet preparation and tube extrusion facilities.
Date: January 6, 2003
Creator: Vernon, P.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infrared spectrum of curium-244

Description: The spectrum of curium-244 has been observed on the high resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer at Laboratoire Aime Cotton. An electrodeless lamp containing 50 $mu$g of CmI$sub 3$ was run for 12 hours and 800,000 points were taken. A total of 1743 lines have been ascribed to curium and 87 percent of the lines have been assigned to transitions between known energy levels.
Date: September 1, 1974
Creator: Conway, J.G.; Blaise, J. & Verges, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH-LEVEL SPILL AT THE HILAC

Description: On July 3, 1959, an incident occurred in the Hilac Building when the turning of the wrong valve resulted in pressurizing a helium cooling box, with a resultant blowout of a thin foil. The burst of He gas disintegrated experimental foils made up with 10/sup 11/ dpm of Cm/sup 244/. The resultant activity was quickly dispersed as airborne particulates throughout the building. The 27 people in the building were evacuated within 10 minutes under surveillance of the Health Chemistry personnel; wherever clothing proved to be contaminated it was removed, and in cases where nose swipes were pertinent they were taken. Although an assumption of a combination of the worst conditions could conceivably have resulted in 1 man's inhsling between 2 and 4 times the (alculated allowable inhalation for shont bursts,. evaluation from air analysis and medical tests indicate that it is unlikely that anyone actually did receive this amount. The bullding was closed during decontamination procedures, which required about 30 people for 3 weeks in direct decontamination work and 30 people for 3 weeks in indirect work. The cost of labor, material, and other charges related to the spill amounted to about 0,500 without overhead; equipment loss was held to less than 00. The lost time of operation of the Hilac has been evaluated at ,000, so that the total loss from the incident amounts to roughly 8,500. The primary cause of the accident was determined to be an error by the experimenter. Steps were taken to help insure against any recurrence of an uncontained radiation spill at the Hilac, and to decrease the danger of exposure to personnel in the event that a spill should occur in the future. (auth)
Date: September 24, 1959
Creator: Garden, N B & Dailey, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BUILDUP OF Cf$sup 252$ AND INTERMEDIATE ISOTOPES FROM Cm$sup 244$ IN A HIGH FLUX

Description: The amount of Cf/sup 252/ and intermediate isotopes which could be made from Cm/sup 244/ in a reactor with high neutron flux was calculated. The variations of different isotopes formed in the bombardment as a function of time are described by a series of linear differential equations. The cross sections used were either weighed measured values or values estimated from the amounts of curium and californium isotopes formed in irradiations of heavy elements. The number of atoms of heavy curium isotopes per initial Cm/sup 244/ atom is given as a function of total flux intervals. The buildup of Bk/sup 249/ and the californium isotopes is also shown. (M.C.G.)
Date: February 1, 1961
Creator: Vandenbosch, S.E. & Fields, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department