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The universal criterion for switching a magnetic vortex core in soft magnetic nanodots

Description: The universal criterion for ultrafast vortex core switching between core-up and -down vortex bi-states in soft magnetic nanodots was empirically investigated by micromagnetic simulations and combined with an analytical approach. Vortex-core switching occurs whenever the velocity of vortex core motion reaches a critical value, which is {nu}{sub c} = 330 {+-} 37 m/s for Permalloy, as estimated from numerical simulations. This critical velocity was found to be {nu}{sub c} = {eta}{sub c}{gamma} {radical}A{sub ex} with A{sub ex} the exchange stiffness, {gamma} the gyromagnetic ratio, and an estimated proportional constant {eta}{sub c} = 1.66 {+-} 0.18. This criterion does neither depend on driving force parameters nor on the dimension or geometry of the magnetic specimen. The phase diagrams for the vortex core switching criterion and its switching time with respect to both the strength and angular frequency of circular rotating magnetic fields were derived, which offer practical guidance for implementing vortex core switching into future solid state information storage devices.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Lee, K.-S.; Kim, S.-K.; Yu, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-S.; Guslienko, K. Y.; Jung, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pipeline Cross-Site Transfer Assessment for Tank 241-SY-101 Waste

Description: This study evaluated the feasibility of transferring waste now stored in Tank SY-101 in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site to a storage tank in 200 East Area through a 6.2-mile-long, 3-inch-diameter stainless steel pipeline. Using the Wasp slurry transport model, the critical velocity and expected pressure drop were calculated to determine 1) whether current SY-101 waste can be transferred through the existing cross-site transfer pipeline without additional dilution and, if it is not possible, how much dilution is needed.
Date: February 20, 2002
Creator: Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A. & Cooley, Scott K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Tank Farms Waste Certification Flow Loop Test Plan

Description: A future requirement of Hanford Tank Farm operations will involve transfer of wastes from double shell tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant. As the U.S. Department of Energy contractor for Tank Farm Operations, Washington River Protection Solutions anticipates the need to certify that waste transfers comply with contractual requirements. This test plan describes the approach for evaluating several instruments that have potential to detect the onset of flow stratification and critical suspension velocity. The testing will be conducted in an existing pipe loop in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s facility that is being modified to accommodate the testing of instruments over a range of simulated waste properties and flow conditions. The testing phases, test matrix and types of simulants needed and the range of testing conditions required to evaluate the instruments are described
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Scott, Paul A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Wells, Beric E.; Blanchard, Jeremy et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The work on the hydraulic collapse or instability of flat plates was extended by considering flow redistribution and the effect of unequal friction drops in the deflected region of the channels. A general formula for the pressure distribution over a plate as a function of the plate deflection is derived. From this general formula, linearized formulas for small deflections are derived for the pressure distribution and the critical velocity. Graphs of pressure distribution for various assumed deflection curves are presented. Formulas and curves are given for the magnification of initial deflections as a function of approach to the critical velocity. (auth)
Date: July 13, 1959
Creator: Johansson, E.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Loop Demonstration and Evaluation of Slurry Transfer Line Critical Velocity Measurement Instruments

Description: This report presents the results of the evaluation of three ultrasonic sensors for detecting critical velocity during slurry transfer between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP.
Date: July 31, 2010
Creator: Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Morgen, Gerald P.; Peters, Timothy J.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Adkins, Harold E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries

Description: This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk or effective viscosity of the slurry being transferred to some ...
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: ESTEY, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam-Water Critical Flow From High Pressure Systems. Interim Report

Description: In an earlier report, the problems associated with the prediction of the critical discharge rates of steam-water mixtures were discussed in detail. That report also gave the results of an experimental investigation of critical flows from long flow passages performed at low pressures. That investigation was later extended to consider short tubes, nozzles, and orifice flow configurations. The present work was undertaken to experimentally investigate the critical discharge phenomenon at higher pressures and to use the data gathered to critically evaluate the various proposed critical flow models. The purpose of this interim report is to describe in detail the apparatus assembled for this investigation and to report preliminary findings regarding the critical discharge rates from a 0.5-inch diameter flow passage.
Date: January 30, 1964
Creator: Zaloudek, F. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contribution to report ``Critical flow phenomena in two-phase mixtures and their relationships to reactor safety`` (for Geneva conference)

Description: Normally, in the flow of a flashing liquid through a pipe, it is assumed that the location of the choking phenomenon, if it exists, is at the exist of the pipe. Experiments have indicated that thee are circumstances under which choking can occur at the entrance instead. These experiments were performed to study the flashing of initially-compressed water through short lengths of pipe with length/diameter ratios of up to 20. Entrance configurations considered included sharp and rounded transitions and conical passages of 20- and 45-degree tapers. Upstream pressure ranged from 115 to 1,800 psia and in all instances, the upstream pressures were much greater than the saturation values. In most cases, choking of the flow was incurred when the liquid entering the pipe was required to depressurize to the saturation pressure (or below) when accelerating through the reduction at the entrance. Axial pressure surveys demonstrated that the pressure at the entrance of the pipe during choked conditions was the saturation pressure. It remained at the saturation value regardless of upstream pressure and the pressure distribution along the remainder of the pipe.
Date: January 23, 1964
Creator: Zaloudek, F. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

Description: The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 μm in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.
Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvement and verification of fast reactor safety analysis techniques. Progress report, October 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

Description: The critical superficial vapor velocity was measured for an open vessel system with chemically produced internal heat. The measured value was within experimental error of the value predicted by the Kutateladze stability criterion. The greatest error induced was in the measurement of the energy generation rate. The effects of mixtures were taken into account. Further work suggestions are also presented.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Barker, D.H. & Wheeler, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department