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National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.
Date: November 30, 2013
Creator: Thornton, Brian; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change: Costs and Benefits of S. 2191/S. 3036

Description: This report examines six studies that project the costs of S. 2191 (S. 3036) to 2030 or 2050. It considers [1] the response of the economy to the technological challenges; [2] the ability to create a considerable amount of low-carbon generating capacity; [3] offsetts as a possible tool to reduce costs and buy time for the development of more efficient technologies; [4] the role of the Carbon Market Efficiency Board; [5] the effect of the Low Carbon Feul Standard; and [6] how the climate-related benefits function in a global context.
Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: Parker, Larry & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation

Description: This report sketches issues underlying broader use of cost-benefit analysis. It focuses on cost-benefit as one of several related frameworks for assessing regulatory actions or policies. Cost-benefit is the broadest of these frameworks, which also include impact assessment, risk assessment, and cost-effectiveness. Which analytical framework is appropriate depends on the regulatory context.
Date: June 28, 1995
Creator: Moore, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost-Benefit and Other Analysis Requirements in the Rulemaking Process

Description: A common concern voiced by proponents of regulatory reform in recent decades has been that the costs associated with certain regulations outweigh the benefits that the regulations are intended to provide. Another, and somewhat related, view is that more intelligent regulatory policies could achieve the same social goals (e.g., cleaner environment, safer workplaces) at less cost, or could achieve more ambitious goals at the same cost. Although many federal agencies are currently required to prepare cost-benefit analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses for certain rules before they are published in the Federal Register, proposed legislation has been introduced in the 113th Congress to expand those requirements to more agencies and more types of rules, and to produce more detailed analyses. This report identifies a number of those bills, but first describes the existing requirements for cost-benefit and other types of analysis in the federal rulemaking process. It also discusses options for changing the current set of analytical requirements. The report does not, however, attempt to address issues related to the quality of the analyses that agencies develop, or whether agencies use the results of cost-benefit analyses to guide decision making.
Date: December 9, 2014
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA's Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills

Description: This report examines EPA's analysis and adjusts some of its assumptions to reflect current regulations. The most important adjustment is the choice of baseline. The agency’s analysis assumes as a baseline that, in the absence of new federal legislation, EPA and the states will take no additional action to control SO2, NOx, Hg, or CO2 emissions beyond those actions finalized by mid-2004. This baseline is put forth despite three rules recently promulgated by EPA that limit SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions on a timeframe similar to that proposed by the Clear Skies legislation.
Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 1: Methodological Issues and Literature Review

Description: A background paper for an assessment for the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that closely looks at methodology and cost-effectiveness in the health care industry.
Date: September 1980
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Study 16: The Costs and Effectiveness of Nurse Practitioners

Description: A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that examines the costs and effectiveness of nurse practitioners and other types of physician extenders.
Date: July 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies: Case Study 2: The Feasibility of Economic Evaluation of Diagnostic Procedures: The Case of Computed Tomographic Scanning

Description: A case study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that explores "the feasibility of economic evaluation of diagnostic procedures" (p. 4).
Date: April 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies: Case Study 8: The Cost Effectiveness of Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "presents an analysis of the cost and efficacy of the current use of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy" (p. 3).
Date: May 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies: Case Study 5: Periodontal Disease: Assessing the Effectiveness and Costs of the Keyes Technique

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that compares and assesses different methods of treating periodontal disease (p. 3).
Date: May 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Costs and Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Screening in Elderly Men

Description: The background paper summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness and costs of prostate cancer screening and treatment in elderly men and explores the implications for Medicare of offering this preventive technology as a Medicare benefit.
Date: May 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Universal Health Insurance and Uninsured People: Effects on Use and Cost

Description: This report provides point estimates of the “access gap” in ambulatory health services contacts and inpatient hospital days per person using the best available data from three recent large national surveys of the U.S. population. The report also estimates the aggregate access gap for the U.S. and it estimates the implications for national health spending of providing universal health insurance coverage.
Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in India

Description: This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption cost-effectively. We focus on individual end use equipment types (hereafter referred to as appliance groups) that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. the high efficiency or Business Case scenario is constructed around a model of cost-effective efficiency improvement. Our analysis demonstrates that a significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions is achievable at net negative cost, that is, as a profitable investment for consumers. Net savings are calculated assuming no additional costs to energy consumption such as carbon taxes. Savings relative to the base case as calculated in this way is often referred to as “economic savings potential”. So far, the Indian market has responded favorably to government efficiency initiatives, with Indian manufacturers producing a higher fraction of high-efficiency equipment than before program implementation. This study highlights both the financial benefit and the scope of potential impact for adopting this equipment, all of which is already readily available on the market. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short-term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The Business Case concentrates on technologies for which cost-effectiveness can be clearly demonstrated.
Date: December 2, 2011
Creator: McNeil, Michael A.; Ke, Jing; Can, Stephane de la Rue du; Letschert, Virginie E. & McMahon, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Costs and Effectiveness of Cholesterol Screening in the Elderly

Description: This paper reviews the evidence that elevation of serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the elderly and that the detection and treatment of hypercholesterolemia in an elderly individual who does not have clinically apparent heart disease will diminish overall morbidity or mortality. It also estimates health care expenditures associated with screening and treatment of hypercholesterolemia in the elderly.
Date: April 1989
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Costs and Effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening in Elderly Women

Description: This paper examines what is known about the course of cervical cancer in elderly women; the effectiveness of the Pap test and its accuracy in this age group; the relative costs and effectiveness of different screening test schedules for elderly women; and the implications of these findings for Medicare.
Date: February 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Costs and Effectiveness of Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Elderly

Description: In this paper OTA summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness and costs of colorectal cancer screening in the elderly and explores the implications for Medicare of offering this preventive technology as a Medicare benefit. Nowhere are the hard choices between potential medical benefits and high costs illustrated more clearly than with this cancer screening technology.
Date: September 1990
Creator: Wagner, Judith L.; Duffy, Brigitte; Wadhwa, Sandeep & Jakubowski, Lara
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies: Case Study 9: The Artificial Heart: Cost, Risks, and Benefits

Description: A case study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that assesses the artificial heart program and "provides an opportunity to address policy questions concerning the distribution of research funds for treating heart disease, the equitable distribution of medical technology, and the potential costs to society before this life-saving technology is available for therapeutic use" (p. 3).
Date: May 1982
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategies for Medical Technology Assessment

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "analyzes the present system of identifying and testing medical technologies and of synthesizing and disseminating assessment information" (p. iii).
Date: September 1982
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department