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Parameterized Beyond-Einstein Growth

Description: A single parameter, the gravitational growth index gamma, succeeds in characterizing the growth of density perturbations in the linear regime separately from the effects of the cosmic expansion. The parameter is restricted to a very narrow range for models of dark energy obeying the laws of general relativity but can take on distinctly different values in models of beyond-Einstein gravity. Motivated by the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism for testing gravity, we analytically derive and extend the gravitational growth index, or Minimal Modified Gravity, approach to parameterizing beyond-Einstein cosmology. The analytic formalism demonstrates how to apply the growth index parameter to early dark energy, time-varying gravity, DGP braneworld gravity, and some scalar-tensor gravity.
Date: September 17, 2007
Creator: Linder, Eric; Linder, Eric V. & Cahn, Robert N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comments on an Expanding Universe

Description: Various results are obtained for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We derive an exact equation that determines Hubble's law, clarify issues concerning the speeds of faraway objects and uncover a 'tail-light angle effect' for distant luminous sources. The latter leads to a small, previously unnoticed correction to the parallax distance formula.
Date: December 12, 2005
Creator: Samuel, Stuart & Samuel, Stuart
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Can We Test Seesaw Experimentally?

Description: The seesaw mechanism for the small neutrino mass has been a popular paradigm, yet it has been believed that there is no way to test it experimentally. We present a conceivable outcome from future experiments that would convince us of the seesaw mechanism. It would involve a variety of data from LHC, ILC, cosmology, underground, and low-energy flavor violation experiments to establish the case.
Date: June 7, 2006
Creator: Buckley, Matthew R. & Murayama, Hitoshi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-color light curves of type Ia supernovae on thecolor-magnitude diagram: A novel step toward more precise distance andextinction estimates

Description: We show empirically that fits to the color-magnituderelation of Type Ia supernovae after optical maximum can provide accuraterelative extragalactic distances. We report the discovery of an empiricalcolor relation for Type Ia light curves: During much of the first monthpast maximum, the magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae defined at a givenvalue of color index have a very small magnitude dispersion; moreover,during this period the relation between B magnitude and B-V color (or B-Ror B-I color) is strikingly linear, to the accuracy of existingwell-measured data. These linear relations can provide robust distanceestimates, in particular, by using the magnitudes when the supernovareaches a given color. After correction for light curve stretch factor ordecline rate, the dispersion of the magnitudes taken at the intercept ofthe linear color-magnitude relation are found to be around 0^m .08 forthe sub-sample of supernovae with (B_max - V_max) ?= 0^m 0.5, andaround 0^m.11 for the sub-sample with (B_max - V_max) ?= 0^m .2.This small dispersion is consistent with being mostly due toobservational errors. The method presented here and the conventionallight curve fitting methods can be combined to further improvestatistical dispersions of distance estimates. It can be combined withthe magnitude at maximum to deduce dust extinction. Theslopes of thecolor-magnitude relation may also be used to identify intrinsicallydifferent SN Ia systems. The method provides a tool that is fundamentalto using SN Ia to estimate cosmological parameters such as the Hubbleconstant and the mass and dark energy content of theuniverse.
Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Wang, Lifan; Goldhaber, Gerson; Aldering, Greg & Perlmutter, Saul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 4Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Number Counts Apportioned By Source Class: Pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the Ascent of Normal Galaxies

Description: This article presents cumulative and differential number-count measurements for the recently completed 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South survey.
Date: April 9, 2012
Creator: Lehmer, Bret; Xue, Yongquan; Brandt, William Nielsen; Alexander, David M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brusa, Marcella et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Large-scale mass power spectrum from peculiar velocities

Description: The power spectrum of mass density fluctuations is estimated from the Mark III and the SFI catalogs of peculiar velocities by applying a maximum likelihood analysis, using parametric models for the power spectrum and for the errors. Generalized CDM models with and without COBE normalization are used. The applications to the two different data sets give consistent results. The general result is a relatively high amplitude of the power spectrum, e.g., at k=0.1hMpc{sup -1} we find P(k){Omega}{sup 1.2}=(4.5{+-}2.0)x10{sup 3}(h{sup -1}Mpc){sup 3}, corresponding to {sigma}{sub 8}{Omega}{sup 0.6}=0.85{+-}0.2. Model-dependent constraints on combinations of cosmological parameters are obtained for families of COBE-normalized CDM models. these can roughly be approximated by {Omega}h{sub 60}{sup {mu}}n{sup {nu}}=0.6{+-}0.2, where {mu}=1.3 and {nu}=3.7, 2.0 for flat {Lambda}CDM models with and without tensor fluctuations respectively. For open CDM, without tensor fluctuations, the powers are {mu}=0.9 and {nu}=1.4. the quoted error-bars reflect the 90% formal likelihood uncertainty for each model and the variance among different models and between catalogs. This is a brief review of a collaborative project (for more details, see Zaroubi et al. 1997, Freudling et al. 1998). Preliminary constraints in the {Omega}-{Omega}{sub {Lambda}} plane are presented as well.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Zehavi, Idit
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cosmology, Extraterrestrial Life, and the Development and Character of Western European Thought in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

Description: Cosmology, as an all-encompassing theoretical construction of universal reality, serves as one of the best indicators for a variety of philosophical, scientific, and cultural values. Within any cosmological system, the question of extraterrestrial life is an important element. Mere existence or nonexistence, however, only exposes a small portion of the ideological significance behind the contemplation of life outside of earth. The manners by which both believers and disbelievers justify their opinions and the ways they characterize other worlds and their inhabitants show much more about the particular ideas behind such decisions and the general climate of thought surrounding those who consider the topic. By exploring both physical and abstract structures of the universe, and specifically concepts on the plurality of worlds and extraterrestrial life, Western European thought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries reveals not an era of pure advancement and modernization, but as a time of both tradition and change.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Simpson, Emily
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biased Cosmology: Pivots, Parameters, and Figures of Merit

Description: In the quest for precision cosmology, one must ensure that the cosmology is accurate as well. We discuss figures of merit for determining from observations whether the dark energy is a cosmological constant or dynamical, with special attention to the best determined equation of state value, at the ``pivot'' or decorrelation redshift. We show this is not necessarily the best lever on testing consistency with the cosmological constant, and moreover is subject to bias. The standard parametrization of w(a)=w_0+w_a(1-a) by contrast is quite robust, as tested by extensions to higher order parametrizations and modified gravity. Combination of complementary probes gives strong immunization against inaccurate, but precise, cosmology.
Date: June 19, 2006
Creator: Linder, Eric V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interstellar colonization and the zoo hypothesis

Description: Michael Hart and others have pointed out that current estimates of the number of technological civilizations arisen in the Galaxy since its formation is in fundamental conflict with the expectation that such a civilization could colonize and utilize the entire Galaxy in 10 to 20 million years. This dilemma can be called Hart's paradox. Resolution of the paradox requires that one or more of the following are true: we are the Galaxy's first technical civilization; interstellar travel is immensely impractical or simply impossible; technological civilizations are very short-lived; or we inhabit a wildnerness preserve. The latter is the zoo hypothesis. (GHT)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Jones, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

Description: We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.
Date: March 24, 2008
Creator: Supernova Cosmology Project
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revamped braneworld gravity

Description: Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the vDVZ discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit ''straight'' gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e. the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of DGP-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Bao, Ruoyu; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U.; Carena, Marcela; /Fermilab; Lykken, Joseph; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U. /Fermilab et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the hydrogen emission from the type Ia supernova 2002ic

Description: The discovery of SN 2002ic by the Supernova Factory and the subsequent spectroscopic studies have led to the surprising finding that SN 2002ic is a type Ia supernova with strong ejecta-circumstellar interaction. Here we show that nearly 1 year after the explosion the supernova has become fainter overall, but the H-alpha emission has brightened and broadened dramatically compared to earlier observations. We have obtained spectropolarimetry data which show that the hydrogen-rich matter is highly aspherically distributed. These observations suggest that the supernova exploded inside a dense, clumpy, disk-like circumstellar environment.
Date: December 10, 2003
Creator: Wang, Lifan; Baade, Dietrich; Hoflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. Craig; Kawabata, Koji & Nomoto, Ken'ichi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear constraints on the age of the universe

Description: In this paper a review is made of how one can use nuclear physics to put rather stringent limits on the age of the universe and thus the cosmic distance scale. As the other papers in this session have demonstrated there is some disagreement on the distance scale and thus the limits on the age of the universe (if the cosmological constant ..lambda.. = 0). However, the disagreement is only over the last factor of 2, the basic timescale seems to really be remarkably well agreed upon. The universe is billions of years old - not thousands, not quintillions but bilions of years. That our universe has a finite age is philosophically intriguing. That we can estimate that age to a fair degree of accuracy is truly impressive. No single measurement of the time since the Big Bang gives a specific, unambiguous age. Fortunately, we have at our disposal several methods that together fix the age with surprising precision. In particular, as the other papers show, there are three totally independent techniques for estimating an age and a fourth technique which involves finding consistency of the other three in the framework of the standard Big Bang cosmological model. The three independent methods are: cosmological dynamics, the age of the oldest stars, and radioactive dating. This paper concentrates on the third of the three methods, as well as go into the consistency technique.
Date: December 1, 1982
Creator: Schramm, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department