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Search for localized excess fluxes in Auger sky maps and prescription results

Description: Using the first surface detector data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, they present the results of a blind search for overdensities in the cosmic ray flux with respect to isotropic expectations. they consider two energy bands: 1 EeV {le} E {le} 5 EeV and E {ge} 5 EeV at two angular scales: 5{sup o} and 15{sup o}. They also report the results of searches for excesses in target directions already defined in a set of prescriptions presented at the ICRC in 2003. At the moment, both analyses give results that are compatible with isotropy.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Revenu, Benoit & /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

Description: These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spatial evolution of 26-day recurrent galactic cosmic ray decreases: Correlated Ulysses COSPIN/KET and SOHO COSTEP observations

Description: In December 1995 the Ulysses spacecraft was at a radial distance of 3 AU from the Sun and 60{degree} northern heliographic latitude. To that time the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) started its mission. On board of both spacecraft particle sensors are measuring electrons, protons and helium nuclei in the MeV to GeV energy range. In early 1996 the counting rates of several hundred MeV galactic cosmic rays at Ulysses and at SOHO (Earth orbit) were modulated by recurrent cosmic ray decreases (RCRDs). The RCRDs at SOHO were found to be associated with a corotating interaction region (CIRs). A Lomb (spectral) analysis was performed on the galactic cosmic ray flux from February 1996 to June 1996. Surprisingly, the most probable frequency is {approximately} 28 days and not 26 or 27 days, corresponding to one solar rotation. The amplitude of the RCRDs is {approximately} 2.3% on both spacecraft. The variation in the solar wind speed shows the same periodicities and is anticorrelated to the variation in the cosmic ray flux. In contrast to the RCRDs the amplitude found in the solar wind speed is four times larger at WIND (120 km/s) than at Ulysses (32 km/s). The solar wind proton density and magnetic field strength yielded no significant periodicities, neither at Ulysses nor at WIND. Comparing the RCRDs with coronal hole structures observed in the FE XIV line, they found that a single coronal hole close to the heliographic equation can account for the RCRDs observed simultaneously at Ulysses and SOHO. The coronal hole boundaries changed towards lower Carrington longitudes and vanished slowly. The changes of the boundaries during the investigated period could explain a 28 day periodicity.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Heber, B.; Bothmer, V. & Droege, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Bayesian analysis of the solar neutrino problem

Description: We illustrate how the Bayesian approach can be used to provide a simple but powerful way to analyze data from solar neutrino experiments. The data are analyzed assuming that the neutrinos are unaltered during their passage from the Sun to the Earth. We derive quantitative and easily understood information pertaining to the solar neutrino problem.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Bhat, C.M.; Bhat, P.C.; Paterno, M. & Prosper, H.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COSMIC RAY BACKGROUND ANALYSIS FOR A CARGO CONTAINER COUNTER.

Description: We have developed a new model for calculating the expected yield of cosmic-ray spallation neutrons in a Cargo Container Counter, and we have benchmarked the model against measurements made with several existing large neutron counters. We also developed two versions of a new measurement uncertainty prediction code based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The codes calculate the minimum detectability limit for the Cargo Container Counter for either neutron singles or doubles counting, and also propagate the uncertainties associated with efficiency normalization flux monitors and cosmic ray flux monitors. This paper will describe the physics basis for this analysis, and the results obtained for several different counter designs.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Ensslin, Norbert; Geist, W. H. (William H.); Lestone, J. P. (John P.); Mayo, D. R. (Douglas R.) & Menlove, Howard O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Milagro Contributions to XXVI International Cosmic Ray Conference

Description: Milagrito, a prototype for the Milagro detector, operated for 15 months in 1997--8 and collected 8.9 x 10{sup 9} events. It was the first extensive air shower (EAS) array sensitive to showers initiated by primaries with energy below 1 TeV. The shadows of the sun and moon observed with cosmic rays can be used to study systematic pointing shifts and measure the angular resolution of EAS arrays. Below a few TeV, the paths of cosmic rays coming toward the earth are bent by the helio- and geo-magnetic fields. This is expected to distort and displace the shadows of the sun and the moon. The moon shadow, offset from the nominal (unreflected) position, has been observed with high statistical significance in Milagrito. This can be used to establish energy calibrations, as well as to search for the anti-matter content of the VHE cosmic ray flux. The shadow of the sun has also been observed with high significance.
Date: August 1, 1999
Creator: Hoffman, C.M.; Haines, T.J.; Sinnis, G.; Miller, R.S. & Thompson, N.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in the earth

Description: The high-energy particles in the galactic cosmic rays, (GCR) can produce nuclides deep in any object exposed to them. These cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) nuclides have been extensively studied during the last four decades, mainly in meteorites and lunar samples (e.g., 1,2). In extraterrestrial matter, several approaches have been used to determine the production systematics of these cosmogenic nuclides. Production rates of most cosmogenic nuclides in the Earth axe much lower, especially those nuclides made ``in situ`` in the Earth`s surface. Many of these @trial cosmogenic nuclides are only now being measured because of improved techniques, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). There have been very few determinations of the production rates of nuclides made in the Earth by cosmic rays. The work being done for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides is following the approaches used for, studying the production of extraterrestrial nuclides.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Reedy, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

Description: Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with associated electronics to measure ...
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T. & Orrell, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-dependent mass loss from hot stars with and without radiative driving

Description: A numerical hydrodynamics code is used to investigate two aspects of the winds of hot stars. The first is the question of the instability of the massive radiatively-driven wind of an O star that is caused by the line shape mechanism: modulation of the radiation force by velocity fluctuations. The evolution of this instability is studied in a model O star wind, and is found, /ital modulo/ some numerical uncertainty, to lead to wave structures that are compatible with observations of wind instabilities. The other area of investigation is of main-sequence B star winds. Attempts were made to simulate a radiatively-driven and a pulsation-driven wind in a B star, but in each case the wind turned out to be very weak. It is argued that the pulsation-driven wind model is not likely to apply to B stars. 28 refs., 11 figs.
Date: January 29, 1988
Creator: Castor, J.I.; Owocki, S.P. & Rybicki, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

Description: A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm/sup -2/. Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Reedy, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence for observation of underground muons from Cygnus X-3

Description: We have observed evidence for an average underground muon flux of approx. = 7 x 10/sup -11/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ which points back to the x-ray binary Cygnus X-3 and which exhibits the 4.8 h periodicity observed for other radiation from this source. These observations cannot be explained by conventional models of the propagation and interaction of cosmic rays. 13 refs., 2 figs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Bartelt, J.; Courant, H.; Heller, K.; Heppelmann, S.; Joyce, T.; Peterson, E.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Products from cosmic-ray interactions in extraterrestrial matter: What they tell us about radiation backgrounds in space

Description: The nuclides and the heavy-nuclei ''tracks'' made by the interactions of solar and galactic cosmic-ray particles with meteorites, lunar samples, and the Earth have been extensively studied, simulated, and modelled. Most research involves the use of these cosmogenic products to study the history of the ''targets'' or of the cosmic rays. However, much work has also been done in understanding these interactions and in predicting their rates as a function of the target's size and shape and of the location inside the target. These studies apply to any object exposed to cosmic rays. The fluxes as a function of depth for cosmic-ray primary and secondary particles vary greatly with particle energy and type. The variations of the fluxes of these cosmic rays in the past have been studied. Energetic solar particles are unpredictable and are the greatest potential radiation hazard in space. 11 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Reedy, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclide production by primary cosmic-ray protons

Description: The production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in the solar system and in interstellar space were calculated for the primary protons in the galactic and solar cosmic rays. At 1 AU, the long-term average fluxes of solar protons usually produce many more atoms of a cosmogenic nuclide than the primary protons in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR), the exceptions being nuclides made only by high-energy reactions (like /sup 10/Be). Because the particle fluxes inside meteorites and other large objects in space include many secondary neutrons, the production rates are much higher and ratios inside large objects are often very different from those by just the primary GCR protons in small objects. The production rates of cosmogenic nuclides are calculated to vary by about factors of 2.5 during at typical 11-year solar cycle, in agreement with measurements of short-lived radionuclides in recently fallen meteorites. The production of cosmogenic nuclides by the GCR particles outside the heliosphere is higher than that by the modulated GCR primaries normally in the solar system. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the fluxes of interstellar protons and, therefore, in the production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in interstellar space. Production rates and ratios for cosmogenic nuclides would be able to identify particles that were small in space or that were exposed to an unmodulated spectrum of GCR particles. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Reedy, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lunar radionuclide records of average solar-cosmic-ray fluxes over the last ten million years

Description: Because changes in solar activity can modify the fluxes of cosmic-ray particles in the solar system, the nature of the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their interactions with matter are described and used to study the ancient sun. The use of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites and lunar samples as detectors of past cosmic-ray variations are discussed. Meteorite records of the history of the galactic cosmic rays are reviewed. The fluxes of solar protons over various time periods as determined from lunar radionuclide data are presented and examined. The intensities of solar protons emitted during 1954 to 1964 (11-year solar cycle number 19) were much larger than those for 1965 to 1975 (solar cycle 20). Average solar-proton fluxes determined for the last one to ten million years from lunar /sup 26/Al and /sup 53/Mn data show little variation and are similar to the fluxes for recent solar cycles. Lunar activities of /sup 14/C (and preliminary results for /sup 81/Kr) indicate that the average fluxes of solar protons over the last 10/sup 4/ (and 10/sup 5/) years are several times larger than those for the last 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 7/ years; however, cross-section measurements and other work are needed to confirm these flux variations.
Date: March 21, 1980
Creator: Reedy, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance

Description: Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to temperatures T {approximately} 10{sup 6} {minus} 10{sup 8} K could result from the injection of subcosmic ray protons at epoch z {approximately} 10--100. The intensity of the subcosmic ray flux that provide conditions needed to explain the submillimeter excess by thermal Comptonization also leads to the production of cosmologically significant amounts of deuterium in collisions between subcosmic ray protons and primordial protons and {alpha}-particles. However, the amount of lithium produced through {alpha}-{alpha} reactions is in conflict with the observed Li abundance. If lithium is depleted, for example, by processing through Population II stars, arguments for the baryon content of the universe based on primordial deuterium and He abundances are weakened. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Date: October 27, 1989
Creator: Dermer, C.D.; Guessoum, N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) & National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Lab. for High Energy Astrophysics)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research in theoretical physics. [Henry A. Rowland Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins Univ. , Baltimore, Maryland]

Description: Progress made in the following areas is summarized: simulation of extensive air showers induced by interactions existing beyond the currently accepted Standard Model'' of elementary particle interactions; search for physics beyond the Standard Model'' in gluonic inclusive decays of heavy quarks; obtaining limits on the applicability of the special theory of relativity; an improved method of obtaining upper limits on the masses of primaries of extensive air showers associated with point sources in the sky. 8 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Domokos, G. & Kovesi-Domokos, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department