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Composition of vapors from boiling nitric acid solutions

Description: From abstract: "The composition of vapors from aqueous nitric acid solutions boiling at 200 mm mercury total pressure is established for solutions containing between - and 67.5 w/o nitric acid. The volatility characteristics of low concentrations of chloride in the same concentration range of nitric acid have been measured in solutions boiling at 200 mm mercury. The effects of chloride concentration and pressure of boiling are evaluated. A spectrophotometric method of the determination of chloride in nitric acid solutions is described."
Date: February 9, 1955
Creator: Crooks, R. C.; Wilson, R. Q.; Bearse, A. E. & Filbert, Robert B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioinspired and biocompatible coatings of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and layer double hydroxide composites for corrosion resistance

Description: Hierarchical arrangement of biological composites such as nacre and bone containing high filler (ceramic) content results in high strength and toughness of the natural material. In this study we mimic the design of layered bone microstructure and fabricate an optimal multifunctional bio-nanocomposite having strength, toughness and corrosion resistance. Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), a biodegradable polymer was used as a substrate material with the reinforcement of LDH (Layered double hydroxide) as a nanofiller in different concentrations to achieve enhancement in mechanical properties as well as processing related thermostability. Corrosion resistance was increased by mimicking a layered structured which incorporated a tortuous diffusion path.
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Date: May 2016
Creator: Rizvi, Syed Hussain
Partner: UNT Libraries

Metal Matrix Composite Coatings of Cupronickel Embedded with Nanoplatelets for Improved Corrosion Resistant Properties

Description: This article studies the effects of nanoplatelet reinforcement on the durability, corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties of copper-nickel coatings.
Date: January 24, 2018
Creator: Thurber, Casey; Ahmad, Yahia H.; Calhoun, Margaret C.; Al-Shenawa, Amaal; D'Souza, Nandika; Mohamed, Adel M. A. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Towards Long-Term Corrosion Resistance in FE Service Environments

Description: The push for carbon capture and sequestration for fossil fuel energy production has materials performance challenges in terms of high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such challenges will be illustrated with examples from several current technologies that are close to being realized. These include cases where existing technologies are being modified—for example fireside corrosion resulting from increased corrosivity of flue gas in coal boilers refit for oxy-fuel combustion, or steam corrosion resulting from increased temperatures in advanced ultra supercritical steam boilers. New technology concepts also push the high temperature corrosion and oxidation limits—for example the effects of multiple oxidants during the use of high CO2 and water flue gas used as turbine working fluids.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Holcomb, G. R. & Wang, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of High Temperature Aging on the Corrosion Resistance of Iron Based Amorphous Alloys

Description: Iron-based amorphous alloys can be more resistant to corrosion than polycrystalline materials of similar compositions. However, when the amorphous alloys are exposed to high temperatures they may recrystallize (or devitrify) thus losing their resistance to corrosion. Four different types of amorphous alloys melt spun ribbon specimens were exposed to several temperatures for short periods of time. The resulting corrosion resistance was evaluated in seawater at 90 C and compared with the as-prepared ribbons. Results show that the amorphous alloys can be exposed to 600 C for 1-hr. without losing the corrosion resistance; however, when the ribbons were exposed at 800 C for 1-hr. their localized corrosion resistance decreased significantly.
Date: August 10, 2007
Creator: Day, S D; Haslam, J J; Farmer, J C & Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The response of hydrotalcite coated aluminum to sealing with transition metal salt solutions

Description: Objective was to determine if the protective coating could be enhanced by filling intercrystalline spaces or by reinforcing the coating at intermetallic particles by exposure to aqueous transition metal salt solutions. Two oxy-anion analogs to chromate were used: permanganate and molybdate. Ce(III) (as Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) was also studied. (Al alloys 2024-T3 and 6061-T6 were used as substrates.) Results are summarized. 4 figs, 1 tab, 3 refs.
Date: 1994
Creator: Buchheit, R. G. & Martinez, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOLYBDENUM DISILICIDE MATERIALS FOR GLASS MELTING SENSOR SHEATHS

Description: Sensors for measuring the properties of molten glass require protective sensor sheaths in order to shield them from the extremely corrosive molten glass environment. MoSi{sub 2} has been shown to possess excellent corrosion resistance in molten glass, making it a candidate material for advanced sensor sheath applications. MoSi{sub 2}-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes, MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laminate composite tubes, and MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} functionally graded composite tubes have been produced by plasma spray-forming techniques for such applications.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: PETROVIC, J.; CASTRO, R. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrodeposition of Molybdenum-Based Coatings from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions for Enhanced Corrosion Resistance

Description: Zn-Mo coatings are very promising environment friendly anticorrosive coatings as replacement materials for cadmium and chromium (VI) based conversion layers. Electrodeposition has become a favorable technique in fabricating coatings due to its low cost, ease of use, and overall experimental control of coating quality. Very little research so far has been done for the electrodeposition of Zn-Mo coatings under alkaline conditions. In this work, Zn and Zn-Mo coatings were electrochemically deposited on stainless steel from an aqueous alkaline citrate solution. An organic compound, vanillin, was added to the electrolyte as a leveling agent for improving interlayer adherence and corrosion resistance of Zn-Mo coatings. Ni-Mo alloys have been known to possess high tensile strength and excellent corrosion protection of steels, and MoTe2 layers have a potential for the application in anticorrosive coatings due to their hydrophobic properties. In this study, MoTe2-Ni-Mo coatings were deposited on stainless steel using both sputtering and electrodeposition methods. These coatings with high corrosion resistance and other desirable properties are in demand in the oil and gas industry since they can protect and thus extend the lifetime of the underlying materials when exposed to aggressive environments. The Zn-Mo and MoTe2-Ni-Mo coatings were evaluated for chemical composition and corrosion behavior using different types of instrumental and electrochemical techniques. The addition of vanillin to the electrolyte did not change the crystalline structure or composition of the Zn-Mo coating, however, the corrosion resistance of the coating was significantly improved by the leveling effect of vanillin during the electrodeposition. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Mo coating was also enhanced by applying the hydrophobic MoTe2 monolayer on the top surface.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Zhou, Ting
Partner: UNT Libraries

DOE-DARPA High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM), Annual HPCRM Team Meeting & Technical Review

Description: The overall goal is to develop high-performance corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous-metal coatings for prolonged trouble-free use in very aggressive environments: seawater & hot geothermal brines. The specific technical objectives are: (1) Synthesize Fe-based amorphous-metal coating with corrosion resistance comparable/superior to Ni-based Alloy C-22; (2) Establish processing parameter windows for applying and controlling coating attributes (porosity, density, bonding); (3) Assess possible cost savings through substitution of Fe-based material for more expensive Ni-based Alloy C-22; (4) Demonstrate practical fabrication processes; (5) Produce quality materials and data with complete traceability for nuclear applications; and (6) Develop, validate and calibrate computational models to enable life prediction and process design.
Date: September 21, 2007
Creator: Farmer, J; Brown, B; Bayles, B; Lemieux, T; Choi, J; Ajdelsztajn, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

Description: Iron-based amorphous alloys possess enhanced hardness and are highly resistant to corrosion, which make them desirable for wear applications in corrosive environments. It was of interest to examine the behavior of amorphous alloys during anodic polarization in concentrated salt solutions and in the salt-fog testing. Results from the testing of one amorphous material (SAM2X5) both in ribbon form and as an applied coating are reported here. Cyclic polarization tests were performed on SAM2X5 ribbon as well as on other nuclear engineering materials. SAM2X5 showed the highest resistance to localized corrosion in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} solution at 105 C. Salt fog tests of 316L SS and Alloy 22 coupons coated with amorphous SAM2X5 powder showed resistance to rusting. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated pinpoint rust spots in some coatings.
Date: February 18, 2007
Creator: Rebak, R B; Day, S D; Lian, T; Aprigliano, L F; Hailey, P D & Farmer, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low cost titanium--myth or reality

Description: In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S. & Gerdemann, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Design and Rapid Development of Refractory Metal Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Applications

Description: One common barrier in the development of new technologies for future energy generating systems is insufficiency of existing materials at high temperatures (>1150oC) and aggressive atmospheres (e.g., steam, oxygen, CO2). To overcome this barrier, integrated design methodology will be applied to the development of refractory metal based alloys. The integrated design utilizes the multi-scale computational methods to design materials for requirements of processing and performance. This report summarizes the integrated design approach to the alloy development and project accomplishments in FY 2008.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Dogan, O.N.; King, P.E. & Gao, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cyclic and Linear Polarization of Yttrium-Containing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

Description: Iron-based amorphous alloys are produced by rapid solidification from the melt. These alloys may possess unique mechanical and corrosion resistant properties. The chemical composition of the alloy may influence the cooling rate that is necessary for the alloys to be completely vitreous. At the same time, the corrosion resistance of the amorphous alloys may also depend on their chemical composition. This paper examines the anodic behavior of iron-based amorphous alloys containing three different concentrations (1, 3 and 5 atomic %) of yttrium (Y) in several electrolyte solutions. Results from polarization resistance potentiodynamic polarization show that when the alloy contains 5% atomic Y, the corrosion resistance decreases.
Date: August 10, 2007
Creator: Day, S D; Lian, T; Farmer, J C & Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22

Description: The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.
Date: November 24, 2004
Creator: Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

Description: Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.
Date: August 31, 2009
Creator: Fang, Z. Zak & Sohn, H. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indentation and oxidation studies on silicon nitride joints

Description: Si nitride ceramics have been joined with a Y oxide-SiO{sub 2} interlayer. A 1:2 molar ratio of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to SiO{sub 2} was chosen to obtain the desired Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} stoichiometry, which should give the interlayer better oxidation resistance compared to other interlayer materials. Mechanical characterization of the joints performed by indentation shows it to have good room temperature strength.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Gopal, M.; De Jonghe, L.C. & Thomas, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The electrochemical behavior of Ti and Ti alloys subjected to pulsed ion beam surface treatment

Description: Pulsed high-energy ion beams have been used to thermally treat Ti and Ti alloy surfaces to alter the electrochemical response. Two regimes have been explored: rapid melt and resolidification, and ion beam mixing. In this report, results from initial studies are presented exploring effect of these two regimes on the electrochemical behavior of Ti and Ti alloys.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Sorensen, N.R.; Buchheit, R.G.; Renk, T.R.; Grabowski, K.S. & Thompson, M.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature oxidation/sulfidation resistance of iron-aluminide coatings

Description: Iron aluminides containing > 20-25 at. % Al have oxidation and sulfidation resistance at temperatures well above those at which these alloys have adequate mechanical strength. Accordingly, these alloys may find application as coatings or claddings on more conventional higher-strength materials which are generally less corrosion-resistant at high temperatures. To this end, iron-aluminide coatings were prepared by gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc weld-overlay techniques. Specimens were cut from weld deposits and exposed to a highly aggressive oxidizing-sulfidizing (H2S-H2-H2O-Ar) environment at 800 C. All the weld overlayers showed good corrosion behavior under isothermal conditions, including a gas metal arc-produced deposit with only 21 at. % Al. Rapid degradation in corrosion resistance was observed under thermal cycling conditions when the initally grown scales spalled and the rate of reaction was then not controlled by formation of slowly growing Al oxide. Higher starting Al concentrations (> {approximately} 25 at. %) are needed to assure overall oxidation-sulfidation resistance of the weld overlays, but hydrogen cracking susceptibility must be minimized in order to physically separate the corrosive species from the reactive substrate material.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, I.G.; Goodwin, G.M. & Howell, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fiber-matrix interfaces in ceramic composites

Description: The mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are governed by the relationships between the matrix, the interface material, and the fibers. In non-oxide matrix systems compliant pyrolytic carbon and BN have been demonstrated to be effective interface materials, allowing for absorption of mismatch stresses between fiber and matrix and offering a poorly bonded interface for crack deflection. The resulting materials have demonstrated remarkable strain/damage tolerance together with high strength. Carbon or BN, however, suffer from oxidative loss in many service environments, and thus there is a major search for oxidation resistant alternatives. This paper reviews the issues related to developing a stable and effective interface material for non-oxide matrix CMCs.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, E.R.; Shanmugham, S. & Liaw, P.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive Creep Performance and High Temperature Dimensional Stability of Conventional Silica Refractories

Description: Furnace designers and refractory engineers recognize that optimized furnace superstructure design and refractory selection are needed as glass production furnaces are continually striving toward greater output and efficiencies. Harsher operating conditions test refractories to the limit, while changing production technology (such as the conversion to oxy-fuel from traditional air-fuel firing) can alter the way the materials perform. Refractories for both oxy- and air-fuel fired furnace superstructures are subjected to high temperatures during service that may cause them to excessively creep or subside if the refractory material is not creep resistant, or if it is subjected to high stress, or both. Furnace designers can ensure that superstructure structural integrity is maintained if the creep behavior of the refractory material is well understood and well represented by appropriate engineering creep models. Several issues limit the abilities of furnace designers to (1) choose the optimum refractory for their applications, (2) optimize the engineering design, or (3) predict the service mechanical integrity of their furnace superstructures. Published engineering creep data are essentially non-existent for almost all commercially available refractories used for glass furnace superstructures. The limited data that do exist are supplied by the various refractory suppliers. Unfortunately, these suppliers generally have different ways of conducting their mechanical testing and they also interpret and report their data differently; this makes it hard for furnace designers to draw fair comparisons between competing grades of candidate refractories. Furthermore, the refractory supplier's data are often not available in a form that can be readily used for furnace design and for the prediction and design of long-term structural integrity of furnace superstructures. With the aim of providing such comparable data, the US DOE's Office of Industrial Technology and its Advanced Industrial Materials program is sponsoring work to conduct creep testing and analysis on refractories of interest to the ...
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Karakus, M.; Kirkland, T.P.; Liu, K.C.; Moore, R.E.; Pint, B.A. & Wereszczak, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department