51 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

Description: Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: James, L.A. & Moshier, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elimination of TOA corrosion limits

Description: In 1958, planned large scale use of the new I & E slug geometry at more severe operating conditions than had been generally experienced suggested a possible compromise in reactor life and safety if a reasonable degree of rupture control with the new type of element was not maintained. The formalized slug corrosion limit (Top-of-Annulus limit) was issued as a Process Standard at the time of the full-scale loading of I & E geometry fuel elements to provide this limit for reactor operation. The loading of I & E slugs at all reactors has been accomplished and initial power level increases have been made. To date, 67 I & E ruptures have been sustained including both `hole` and `annulus` failures. The type and behavior of ruptures to be expected with I & E geometry are now characterized. Recent studies have indicated that the I & E failure experience is consistent with the general mathematical rupture model formulated from analysis of solid slug experience. Increased confidence in the use of this model in combination with Optimization Studies permits greater emphasis to be placed on the rupture model as a guide for reactor operation. It is the purpose of this report to present the basis for substituting the rupture model for the TOA corrosion limits for rupture control purposes.
Date: May 12, 1959
Creator: Graves, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The role of passive surface films on corrosion fatigue crack initiation. Final report, August 15, 1987--July 31, 1989

Description: Fatigue testing on commercially pure titanium with low and high oxygen contents, chosen to produce quite different slip behaviors, wavy and planar, respectively, was carried out in air and in 1M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, a strongly passivating environment for Ti. Goal was comparison of experimental fatigue data with a published model which rationalizes fatigue crack initiation under passive corrosion conditions. Although the general features of the experimental data were consistent with the tenets of the model, as was also the case in prior work using the stainless steel superalloy A-286, it appeared that the passivation conditions were so strong as to preclude the primary event proposed as the basis for the model, namely the emergence of slip steps through the passive film, thus permitting corrosive fatigue crack initiation. It is possible that choice of a less strong passivating environment would permit a better comparison of model and experiment for the CP Ti, an otherwise suitable experimental material.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Thompson, A. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of alloy chemistry, cold work, and water chemistry on corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloys and welds.

Description: Reactor vessel internal components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). A better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this cracking may permit less conservative estimates of damage accumulation and requirements on inspection intervals. The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare the resistance of Alloys 600 and 690 and their welds, such as Alloys 82, 182, 52, and 152, to EAC in simulated light water reactor environments. The existing crack growth rate (CGR) data for these alloys under cyclic and constant loads have been evaluated to establish the effects of alloy chemistry, cold work, and water chemistry. The experimental fatigue CGRs are compared with CGRs that would be expected in air under the same mechanical loading conditions to obtain a qualitative understanding of the degree and range of conditions for significant environmental enhancement in growth rates. The existing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data on Alloys 600 and 690 and Alloy 82, 182, and 52 welds have been compiled and analyzed to determine the influence of key parameters on growth rates in simulated PWR and BWR environments. The SCC data for these alloys have been evaluated with correlations developed by Scott and by Ford and Andresen.
Date: April 1, 2001
Creator: Chopra, O. K.; Soppet, W. K.; Shack, W. J. & Technology, Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

Description: Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.
Date: August 2, 1999
Creator: Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F. & Marder, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion fatigue of iron-chromium-nickel alloys: Fracture mechanics, microstructure and chemistry. Final technical report, June 1, 1988--November 30, 1993

Description: A multi-disciplinary research program was undertaken to address certain fundamental issues relating to corrosion fatigue crack growth in structurally important alloys in aqueous solutions. Focus was placed on austenitic iron-chromium-nickel alloys.
Date: January 5, 1994
Creator: Wei, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

Description: A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.
Date: May 27, 2006
Creator: Singh, Preet M & Pawel, Steven J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, October 1993--March 1994. Volume 18

Description: This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) during the six months from October 1993 to March 1994. EAC and fatigue of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in LWRs are important concerns in operating plants and as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators, and reactor pressure vessels, (b) EAC of wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels (SSs), and (c) radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence. Fatigue tests have been conducted on A302-Gr B low-alloy steel to verify whether the current predictions of modest decreases of fatigue life in simulated pressurized water reactor water are valid for high-sulfur heats that show environmentally enhanced fatigue crack growth rates. Additional crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of austenitic SSs to investigate threshold stress intensity factors for EAC in high-purity oxygenated water at 289{degrees}C. The data were compared with predictions based on crack growth correlations for wrought austenitic SS in oxygenated water developed at ANL and rates in air from Section XI of the ASME Code. Microchemical and microstructural changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating boiling water reactors were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements, which are not specified in the ASTM specifications, may contribute to IASCC of solution-annealed materials.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.; Erck, R.A.; Kassner, T.F.; Michaud, W.F.; Ruther, W.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue of polycrystalline silicon for MEMS applications: Crack growth and stability under resonant loading conditions

Description: Although bulk silicon is not known to exhibit susceptibility to cyclic fatigue, micron-scale structures made from silicon films are known to be vulnerable to degradation by fatigue in ambient air environments, a phenomenon that has been recently modeled in terms of a mechanism of sequential oxidation and stress-corrosion cracking of the native oxide layer.
Date: December 5, 2001
Creator: Muhlstein, C.L.; Howe, R.T. & Ritchie, R.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Copper corrosion and its relationship to solar collectors:a compendium.

Description: Copper has many fine qualities that make it a useful material. It is highly conductive of both heat and electricity, is ductile and workable, and reasonably resistant to corrosion. Because of these advantages, the solar water heating industry has been using it since the mid-1970s as the material of choice for collectors, the fundamental component of a solar water heating system. In most cases copper has performed flawlessly, but in some situations it has been known to fail. Pitting corrosion is the usual failure mode, but erosion can also occur. In 2000 Sandia National Laboratories and the Copper Development Association were asked to analyze the appearance of pin-hole leaks in solar collector units installed in a housing development in Arizona, and in 2002 Sandia analyzed a pitting corrosion event that destroyed a collector system at Camp Pendleton. This report includes copies of the reports and accounts of these corrosion failures, and provides a bibliography with references to many papers and articles that might be of benefit to the solar community. It consolidates in a single source information that has been accumulated at Sandia relative to copper corrosion, especially as it relates to solar water heaters.
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Menicucci, David F. & Mahoney, Alan Roderick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion fatigue of iron-chromium-nickel alloys: Fracture mechanics, microstructure and chemistry. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

Description: Phase transformation and cracking during RT aging of charged, high-purity Fe18Cr12Ni alloy and commerical 304 ss were examined; results show that {epsilon}* (hcp) hydride formed on Fe18Cr12Ni upon charging, and it decomposed rapidly to form first {epsilon} and then {alpha}` martensite. Morphology of fracture surfaces of Fe18Cr12Ni produced by corrosion fatigue in NaCl solutions and in hydrogen was found to be identical. Effort was made to examine the approaches and methodologies used in service life predictions and reliability analyses.
Date: January 25, 1993
Creator: Wei, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility

Description: An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Matthes, S. A.; Covino, B. S., Jr.; Bullard, S. J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M. & Holcomb, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initiation of environmentally-assisted cracking in low-alloy steels

Description: Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is activated by a critical level of sulfide ions at the crack tip, which is produced from dissolution of sulfide inclusions (MnS, FeS, etc.) in the steel following exposure by a growing crack. EAC of concern herein is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs at 240--300 C in high temperature LWR or boiler water environments. The initiation of EAC is the onset of the higher fatigue crack growth rates in fully developed cracks already presumed to be present due to fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, or induced by fabrication. Initiation of EAC is induced by a change in loading parameters causing the fatigue crack growth rate to increase from a small multiple (2--4) to 40--100 times the air rate. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggests that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. However, more recent tests show that EAC can persist down to much lower velocities (100 times lower) in low oxygen water at slightly lower temperatures. A special set of experiments on high sulfur plate material demonstrate that EAC will not initiate from surface cracks with low sulfide inventories at low crack tip velocities. Transient diffusion calculations show that a finite crack extension at a high crack tip velocity is necessary to initiate EAC, providing a possible explanation for the lack of high crack growth observations reported in low alloy steels in structural applications involving low oxygen environments.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Wire, G. L. & Li, Y. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental aging degradation in continuous fiber ceramic composites

Description: The thermal stability of two-continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC`s) has been assessed. A Nicalon/CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (CAS) glass-ceramic composite has been subjected to unstressed, oxidation heat treatments between 375 and 1200{degrees}C, after which the material was tested in flexure at room temperature. The static fatigue behavior of a chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) Nicalon/SiC ceramic matrix composite has been assessed in air, between 425 and 1150{degrees}C, both with and without protective seal coating. Severe property degradation was observed due to oxidation of the graphite fiber/matrix interlayer in both CFCC`s.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Plucknett, K. P.; Lin, H. T.; Braski, D. N. & Becher, P. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue design curves of carbon and low-alloy steels

Description: The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. While effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the design curves, test data indicate that the Code fatigue curves may not always be adequate in coolant environments. This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) environments. The existing fatigue S-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of various material and loading variables such as steel type, dissolved oxygen level, strain range, strain rate, temperature, orientation, and sulfur content on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models have been developed for estimating the fatigue S-N curves as a function of material, loading, and environmental variables. The results have been used to estimate the probability of fatigue cracking of reactor components. The different methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments on the ASME Code fatigue design curves are presented.
Date: March 1998
Creator: Chopra, O. K. & Shack, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical basis for the initiation and cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature PWR environments

Description: The Section 11 Working Group on Flaw Evaluation of the ASME B and PV Code Committee is considering a Code Case to allow the determination of the conditions under which environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels could occur in PWR primary environments. This paper provides the technical support basis for such an EAC Initiation and Cessation Criterion by reviewing the theoretical and experimental information in support of the proposed Code Case.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: James, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of carbide fuel corrosion for nuclear thermal propulsion applications

Description: At the operation conditions of interest in nuclear thermal propulsion reactors, carbide materials have been known to exhibit a number of life limiting phenomena. These include the formation of liquid, loss by vaporization, creep and corresponding gas flow restrictions, and local corrosion and fuel structure degradation due to excessive mechanical and/or thermal loading. In addition, the radiation environment in the reactor core can produce a substantial change in its local physical properties, which can produce high thermal stresses and corresponding stress fractures (cracking). Time-temperature history and cyclic operation of the nuclear reactor can also accelerate some of these processes. The University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, under NASA sponsorship has recently initiated a study to model the complicated hydrogen corrosion process. In support of this effort, an extensive review of the open literature was performed, and a technical expert workshop was conducted. This paper summarizes the results of this review.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Pelaccio, D. G.; El-Genk, M. S. & Butt, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors - annual report, January-December 2001.

Description: This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2001. Topics that have been investigated include (a) environmental effects on fatigue S-N behavior of austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs, and (c) EAC of Alloy 600. The effects of key material and loading variables, such as strain amplitude, strain rate, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) level in water, and material heat treatment, on the fatigue lives of wrought and cast austenitic SSs in air and LWR environments have been evaluated. The mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic SSs in LWR environments has also been examined. The results indicate that the presence of a surface oxide film or difference in the characteristics of the oxide film has no effect on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic SSs in LWR environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and post-test fractographic analyses were conducted on several model SS alloys irradiated to {approx}2 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx}3 dpa) in He at 289 C in the Halden reactor. The results were used to determine the influence of alloying and impurity elements on the susceptibility of these steels to IASCC. Corrosion fatigue tests were conducted on nonirradiated austenitic SSs in high-purity water at 289 C to establish the test procedure and conditions that will be used for the tests on irradiated materials. A comprehensive irradiation experiment was initiated to obtain many tensile and disk specimens irradiated under simulated pressurized water reactor conditions at {approx}325 C to 5, 10, 20, and 40 dpa. Crack growth tests were completed on 30% cold-worked Alloy 600 in high-purity water under various environmental and loading conditions. The results are compared with data obtained earlier ...
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E; Hiller, R. W.; Shack, W. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

Description: Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J. & Technology, Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of environmental effects on fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steels.

Description: Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessel cladding, and core components in light water reactors are potential concerns to the nuclear industry and regulatory agencies. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or stress corrosion cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Crack growth data for wrought and cast austenitic SSs in simulated BWR water, developed at Argonne National Laboratory under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship over the past 10 years, have been compiled into a data base along with similar data obtained from the open literature. The data were analyzed to develop corrosion-fatigue curves for austenitic SSs in aqueous environments corresponding to normal BWR water chemistries, for BWRs that add hydrogen to the feedwater, and for pressurized water reactor primary-system-coolant chemistry. The corrosion-fatigue data and curves in water were compared with the air line in Section XI of the ASME Code.
Date: July 11, 1994
Creator: Shack, W. J.; Kassner, T. F. & Technology, Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

Description: DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption in crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats with temperature controlled cells for potentiostatic and potentiodynamic testing (Figure 2).
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Farmer, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

Description: The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM ...
Date: May 6, 2012
Creator: Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, J.A.; Thodla, R. & Gui, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department