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A Communication Based Model of Power

Description: We are affected greatly by power, and often do not understand what power is, how it is used, and its many other facets. Power and communication are interrelated, but how they relate to each other has been hard to understand. The model presented in this thesis explicates the relationship between the two critical variables. Power is portrayed as a hierarchical structure that is based on influence (communication) where the intensity and likelihood of success of power attempts increase as the level of power increases. The hierarchical structure has four levels, including influence at its base, and prominence, authority and control at the higher levels.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Keefer, Larry D. (Larry Dale)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Locus of Control and Adjustment to Retirement

Description: Locus of desired control and participation in a retirement preparation program was investigated in relation to retirement attitudes and adjustment. Fifty-nine subjects, consisting of older workers and retirees from a large southwestern corporation, comprised the sample. An experimental group, consisting of 12 subjects, completed questionnaires prior to and following their participation in the retirement preparation program. A control group, consisting of 15 subjects, completed the same questionnaires at approximately the same times as did the experimental group, but did not receive retirement preparation. A third group, consisting of 20 retirees who had a previous retirement preparation experience and 12 retirees who had not had such a retirement preparation experience, completed similar questionnaires.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Abel, Bruce Jules
Partner: UNT Libraries

Locus of Control as a Function of Seminary Training

Description: This study sought to determine if the locus of control of seminarians is altered as a result of graduate theological training. Gaskins' (1978) locus of control scale was selected because it included God as one of several external controls. This scale was either mailed or administered directly to first year and graduating students from two Southern Baptist and two Disciples of Christ seminaries. The 187 responses revealed no significant difference between the locus of control scores of the two levels despite the fact that all but one school reported mean graduating scores lower than their first year average. The effects of seminary on locus of control appears to be statistically insignificant.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Nicholson, Stephen David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness: Disconfirming Specific Task-Induced Expectancies of Control and the Immunization Phenomenon

Description: To test the hypothesis that a discrepancy between expectation and experience with regard to the controllability of outcomes would produce the greatest effect on later task behavior, 70 undergraduate volunteers were directed individually in a multiphase experiment. The first phase was designed to induce expectations of control or lack of control over outcomes. The second phase was designed to confirm or not to confirm the expectations induced. The third phase tested for the effects on later task behavior. The results indicated that the first phase procedure failed to induce the required expectancies, thus preventing a test of the experimental hypothesis. Possible procedural changes were discussed.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Taylor, Jerral DeWayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Internal-External Locus of Control in Glossolalics

Description: Internal-external locus of control was studied in relationship to the religious phenomena "glossolalia." Contrary to the main hypothesis formulated, glossolalics were found significantly more internal in locus of control than non-tongues speakers. Intercorrelations were studied between the variables of I-E, age, length of church membership, income level, educational level, and perceived control by God, for tongue-speaker and non-tongue-speaker groups. Chisquare comparisons were made between the groups on educational level, income level, and perceived control by God, with significant differences being found in educational level. Additional analysis was made between I-E and the variables of educational levels, income levels, and perceived control by God. Historical and current interpretations of the personality of glossolalics are challenged. The construct validity of the Rotter scale for use with religious populations is challenged.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Coulson, Jesse E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Judgment of Contingency and the Cognitive Functioning of Clinical Depressives

Description: Twenty-four psychiatric staff, 24 clinically depressed inpatients, and 24 nondepresssed schizophrenic patients at a state psychiatric facility completed five tasks under either reward or punishment conditions. Each task consisted of 30 trials of pressing or not pressing a button to make a light appear. Monetary reinforcement was contingent on light onset for the final ten trials of each task. Cash incentives for judgment of control accuracy were added for Tasks 3, 4, and 5. Cognitive functioning was evaluated on each task by measuring expectancy, judgment of control, evaluation of performance, and attribution. Mood and self- esteem were measured before and after the procedure. No significant differences were observed across mood groups for expectancy of control or judgment of control accuracy. Subject groups also did not differ in the attributions they made or in how successful they judged their performances to be. They set realistic, attainable criteria for success which were consistent with relevant conditional probabilities. Subjects in reward gave themselves more credit for task performance than subjects in punishment gave themselves blame for comparable performances. Punishment subjects demonstrated more stable, external attributions than those in reward. Across tasks, subjects overestimated when actual control was low and underestimated when actual control was high. Contrary to the "depressive realism" effect described by Alloy and Abramson (1979), clinical depressives did not display more accurate judgments of control than did nondepressives. All subjects appeared to base their control estimates on reinforcement frequency rather than actual control. Subjects showed a type of illusion of control for high frequency, low control tasks. Presumably, success in turning the light on led them to assume that their actions controlled light onset. Comparison to previous subclinical studies suggests a possible curvilinear relationship between judgment of control accuracy and level of psychopathology, with mild depressives displaying relatively greater accuracy than ...
Date: August 1990
Creator: Cobbs, David Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pulling Tangled Strings: "The Puppeteer" and Other Stories

Description: Pulling Tangled Strings: "The Puppeteer" and Other Stories is a collection of stories with strong thematic and emotional connections that includes an opening preface describing the process used when writing the stories. Each of the stories is united by a main character that desperately wants to gain control of his environment. From a character acting out a classic revenge tale on his friend to a comatose teenager victimized by an ambiguous tragedy, these are characters who have been put into difficult life situations and need to feel like they are pulling the strings in their lives again. In all cases, however, the characters come to find that control does not come easily and that the motivations for their behavior are never clear cut, even to themselves.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Berryman, Archer
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effortless Control Processing: A Heuristic Strategy for Reducing Cognitive Bias in Judgments of Control

Description: The present investigation tested the prediction that effortless control processing, the deliberate activation of innate automatic encoding mechanisms, will enable nondepressed persons to accurately judge degree of control. Subjective judgment of control in nondepressed students was examined by a modification of the method developed by Jenkins and Ward (1965). The modification was based on Hasher and Zacks' (1979) version of the method. Several measures were used to assess students' representations of control. Students were asked to judge the degree of control their responses had over outcomes rather than the degree of contingency between responses and outcomes. To facilitate comparison of prior studies on the judgment of contingency with the present study, Jenkins and Ward's (1965) index of the actual degree of control was used. Their index used the magnitude of the difference between the conditional probability of an outcome given the occurrence of one response versus the conditional probability of the outcome given the occurrence of another response as representing degree of control or contingency. In this experiment, students instructed in effortful control processing and effortless control processing were presented with a series of problems in which there was no contingency between their responses and outcomes. The problems differed in the degree of favorable outcome frequency. Students' abilities to detect noncontingency between responses and outcomes under different conditions of outcome frequency was examined.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Evans, Harry Monroe
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceived Contingency of Parental Reinforcements, Depression, and Locus of Control

Description: To determine the relationships among perceived contingency of parental reinforcements, depression, and locus of control, 66 male and 54 female undergraduate university students completed questionnaire measures. Significant relationships were obtained between depression and locus of control for both sexes. Also, subjects of both sexes who described their parents as having administered rewards and punishments more noncontingently tended to describe themselves as more external and as more depressed. Parental rewards were perceived by both sexes as administered more noncontingently than punishments. Females tended to perceive parental rewards as delivered more noncontingently than did males. All the intercorrelations among perceived contingency of parental reinforcement, locus of control, and depression were in the prediction direction.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Morrison, Frank David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Repression-Sensitization and External-Internal Dimensions of Millon's Personality Typology

Description: In a study using 73 females and 30 male undergraduates, information on the basic dimensions of Millon's eight personality styles was obtained from correlations of the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory with Rotter's I-E scale and Byrne's R-S scale. Hypotheses predicting a significant relationship between the active-passive and repression-sensitization were generally supported. Predictions of a significant relationship between the dependent-indepenent dimension and generalized expectancy of locus of control were not supported. Implications of these findings for the efficacy of Millon's system are discussed, along with future research possibilities.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Heath, Robert Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness, Attribution, and Clinical Depression

Description: To test predictions of learned helplessness theory and attribution theory, depressed and nondepressed subjects were exposed to a word-association task in a skill, chance, or no-instructional-set condition. Subjects were asked to make attributions of success and failure to four factors--ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck--and rate expectancy of success. The predictions of both theories were only partially confirmed. Difficulties relating to the experimental design may account for the failure of nondepressed/skill subjects to show greater expectancy change. As predicted, all subjects in the chance condition displayed similar expectancy changes. Also as predicted, nondepressed subjects did not rate effort as being the least influential factor. Depressed subjects, however, rated all factors equivalently, instead of rating effort least influential.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Toppins, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Prediction of Susceptibility to Learned Helplessness

Description: A fifty-item questionnaire, representing personality attributes related to behaviors used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness, was administered to 152 undergraduate students. Based upon factor analysis of the results, six subscales were developed to predict latency of response, failures to solve, and trials to task criterion of anagram solving, this being used to index the phenomenon of learned helplessness. The subscales comprised a ninety-item questionnaire given to seventy-seven undergraduate students three days before participation in the experiment proper. The subjects attempted to solve Levine (1971) discrimination problems (designed to be insolvable) and then attempted to solve patterned anagrams. Contrary to the learned helpless model of depression (Miller and Seligman, 1973), depression was curvilinearly related to latency of response and failures to solve in the anagram task. In addition, internal locus of control was linearly related to trials to criterion.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Foelker, George A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Internal-External Locus of Control, Perception of Teacher Intermittency of Reinforcement and Achievement

Description: This study measured the relationships between locus of control, students' perception of the schedule of teacher reinforcement, and academic achievement. The Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire, Perception of Teacher Reinforcement scale, and Wide Range Achievement Test were used to measure these variables. All subscores of the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire correlated significantly with achievement for the females, but no relationships were found for the males. Perception of the teacher as partially rewarding was significantly correlated with reading, spelling, and total achievement for the males and with reading and arithmetic achievement for the females. Perception of the teacher as partially punishing was significantly correlated with arithmetic achievement for the males, but was not related to achievement for the females.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Welch, Linda N.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Modern Training Techniques on Economically-Disadvantaged Homeless People

Description: This study examined a segment of the homeless population who participated in a jobs training program. The research investigated the effect of socioeconomic status, self-esteem, and locus of control on the clients in getting and keeping jobs. The training was a comprehensive 36-day treatment dealing with three major areas: (a) how to get a job, (b) how to keep a job, and (c) how to develop life-coping skills. A quasi-experimental research design was used for testing by t-tests, two-by-two repeated-measured anova, chi-square tests, and regression analysis. The findings showed that high socioeconomic status clients demonstrated higher self-esteem and internal locus of control than low socioeconomic status clients at the start of the treatment. The treatment had a significant effect on both groups with an increase in self-esteem and internal locus of control and a decrease in both external locus of control dimensions of powerful others and chance. The treatment had a greater effect on the low socioeconomic status clients than on the high socioeconomic status clients on increases in self-esteem and locus of control—internal. Both groups were successful in finding jobs, with 79% for high socioeconomic status clients and 74% for low socioeconomic status clients having jobs at the end of the treatment. Both high self-esteem and high socioeconomic status had a positive effect on the length of time over a sixmonth period following treatment that clients were able to maintain employment (job retention). This study must be considered largely as exploratory in its findings. Restrictions in the selection process prevented the results from being generalized. It does, however, provide a very important profile of a segment of the homeless population that can be useful in the research for new and improved methods of dealing with the problems of the homeless unemployed.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Frankenberger, John J. (John Joseph)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Self-Monitoring and Health Locus of Control on Improvement in a Work Hardening Program

Description: This study examined the effects of self-monitoring behavior and health locus of control on improvement in a work hardening program. The subjects included 22 male and 18 female outpatients in a hospital-based rehabilitation program. Subjects were classified as having an internal or external health locus of control, and were randomly assigned to either a self-monitoring or a non-self-monitoring group. Improvement was assessed via objective performance data and self-ratings of perceived improvement. The results indicated that individuals identified as having an internal health locus of control did not show greater gains in physical functioning or perceived improvement relative to externally oriented individuals. Additionally, those subjects participating in self-monitoring activities were no different from non-self-monitoring subjects in terms of improvement in exercise activities or perceived improvement. The results also indicated no interaction between health locus of control and the presence or absence of self-monitoring. It was suggested that other factors such as workman's compensation, pain patient characteristics, low self-concept, and severe stress may have proved more powerful influences on patient improvement than internal health locus of control or self-monitoring. It was also suggested that rehabilitation programs might benefit from creating structured environments in which patients receive frequent staff feedback and reinforcement for improvement. Monitoring small, discrete, easily attainable goals might prove more effective than monitoring mood, pain, etc. In addition, teaching specific internal health locus of control behaviors to patients may help them improve their self-concepts and progress. Further research is needed to explore the roles that pain patient personality characteristics, self-concept, and stress play in the progress of patients in a work hardening program.
Date: May 1989
Creator: Liedtke-Hendrickson, Valette
Partner: UNT Libraries

Experience of Time as a Function of Locus of Control

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine the effects that achievement and locus of control have on a person's ability to estimate the passage of time. The subjects were a group of 116 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at Mountain View College. Achievement was measured by the grade obtained in the course, and the locus of control was measured by the individual's score obtained on the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Five different cutoffs were used to determine the locus of control orientation (internal/external). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance techniques. No significant differences between any of the groups were found.
Date: August 1986
Creator: Payton, Tommy O. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Influence of Significant Other and Locus of Control Dimensions on Women Entrepreneur Business Outcomes

Description: The personality characteristic locus of control internality is widely-accepted as a trait possessed by women entrepreneurs. Recent research also suggests the presence of a coexisting attribute of similar strength, characterized as influence of a significant other. The presence of one personality characteristic implying perception of self-directed capability, together with indication of need for external assistance, poses a theoretical paradox. The study's purpose was to determine the nature and extent of direct and interactive effects which these and related variables had on entrepreneur return on investment. It was hypothesized that dimensions of significant other, as operationalized for this research, would support internality of locus of control and also modify constraining effects of educational and experiential disadvantage which the literature cites as pertinent to women entrepreneurs. This was nonexperimental, exploratory research of correlational cross-sectional design which examined hypothesized variable linkages. A convenience sample from a women's entrepreneur networking group was surveyed. Significant other elements were derived from factor analysis, resulting in four common dimensions. These factors, together with Rotter's Locus of Control instrument scores, reports on levels of education and experience, and hypothesized interactions, were independent variables. Hierarchial multiple regression was used to test a proposed path model. Two interpretable four-factor solutions derived from significant other variables were tested in two models. Although neither model attained overall significance, individual variables were directionally as hypothesized, and locus of control and certain factoral dimensions attained bivariate significance. Significant other factors appear to influence locus of control through statistical suppression as they interact with other variables. Results point toward a possibility that significant others who most affect female entrepreneur performance are those who give specific advice and aid, rather than moral support. Further research to explore what seems a strong relationship between return on investment and locus of control internality is recommended.
Date: May 1988
Creator: Nelson, George W. (George William), 1938-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Control Theory Training Upon Self-Concept and Locus of Control Among Selected University Freshmen

Description: This study examined the effects of Control Theory training upon self-concept and locus of control among students enrolled in the Provisional Admission Program (PAP) at the University of Texas at Arlington. Twenty-nine students randomly assigned to treatment or placebo control groups took the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSSEI-A) and the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (ANSIE) as pre- and posttests. Participants in the placebo control group attended their regular educational program for the same amount of time given to the treatment group. No significant differences were found on the Analysis of Covariance for CSSEI—A or ANSIE scores following the training period. CSSEI-A and ANSIE scores were elevated, indicating that PAP students think of themselves internally as do other college students, regardless of their SAT scores. The results of this study indicate that Control Theory training is insignificantly effective in producing changes in the self-concept and locus of control among PAP students. Control Theory research may need to be carried out with a smaller group size, use larger samples, provide more time to address the issues specific to PAP student needs, include a stronger counseling emphasis to meet their needs, use more sensitive instruments to detect such changes, and allow more time for the learning to occur before the administration of the posttest.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Smadi, Ahmad Abdel-Majid
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reframing Loneliness in Adult Females Who Vary in Dependency and Locus of Control

Description: Reframing in counseling offers the client a different framework for symptoms, thereby allowing the client a perspective that leads to change or no need for change. Using a loneliness measure as the dependent variable, 58 females underwent one of three treatments: positive reframing, self-control statements, or a waiting list control procedure. Two two-way analyses of covariance used an independent measure of dependency for the first analysis and a measure of perceived control for the second. Treatment type was the second dimension for each analysis. A significant interaction resulted for control by treatment F (2, 51) = 3.24; p < .05). A Newman-Keuls revealed significant differences for those who perceived themselves as in control, where reframing was more effective than either the control procedure (q_r = 3.56; p < .05) or those who perceived others as in control (q_r = 3.21; p < .05).
Date: May 1974
Creator: Jarvis, Mary Ann O'Loughlin
Partner: UNT Libraries

String student self-efficacy and deliberate music practice: Examining string students' musical background characteristics, self-efficacy beliefs and practice behaviors.

Description: This study examined the musical background characteristics, self-efficacy beliefs, and practice behaviors of string students auditioning for an all-region orchestra in one large South-Central district. Purposes of the study were: (1) to describe the musical backgrounds and self-efficacy beliefs of high school string students, (2) to measure the relationship between self-efficacy scores and performance achievement, and (3) to describe the practice behaviors and thoughts of high and low self-efficacy string students. Questionnaires were given to 101 high school string students; 65 competed in all-region orchestra. Descriptive data from the questionnaire revealed information such as how many took private lessons and that those who did tended to have a higher sense of perceived self-efficacy in relation to playing their string instruments. Other descriptive items asked questions such as whether or not students started in public school and how much they practiced outside of orchestra. The relationship of summed self-efficacy scores to a competition ranking was found to be statistically significant and inverse. For all string participants (n=65) Spearman's rho was, rs= -.37, (p=.001) with 14% of the variance explained (r2 =.14). This inverse relationship documents the linear trend for students with better rankings (lower ranking numbers) to also tend to have higher self-efficacy scores. Observation and interview data of 8 higher and 8 lower self-efficacy sub-group students were also analyzed. The higher self-efficacy sub-group students tended to use more cognitive practice strategies, while the lower self-efficacy sub-group tended to use dissimilar and less advanced strategies. Understanding string students' musical background experiences and characteristics and the possible relationship self-efficacy may have with practice and achievement could benefit certain students. Helping these students gain a higher sense of perceived self-efficacy in their musical endeavors, or obtain certain characteristics that successful students share, could possibly enable them to develop and understand more complex practice ...
Date: August 2008
Creator: Cahill Clark, Jennifer L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Childbirth and Locus of Control: The Role of Perceived Control in the Choice and Utilization of Birthing Alternatives

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the wives' perceptions of personal control over the process of childbirth were related to couples' choices and utilization of three birthing alternatives (home birth, unmedicated hospital birth, and medicated hospital birth). The wives' perceived control over the childbirth process was expected to vary inversely with the level of medical intervention in the birthing alternative chosen. The home birth mothers were expected to perceive themselves as having more control over childbirth than were the unmedicated hospital group mothers, and the unmedicated hospital group mothers more than the medicated hospital group mothers. The husbands' perception of their wives' perceived control in childbirth and their participation was also measured.
Date: August 1985
Creator: Dawson-Black, Patricia A. (Patricia Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cognitive Strategies for the Control of Experimentally Induced Pain: The Role of Pleasantness and Relevance of Content in Imagery

Description: This study compared the relative efficacy of four imagery techniques in increasing tolerance to cold pressor pain. Relevant pleasant, relevant unpleasant, irrelevant pleasant, and irrelevant unpleasant imagery strategies were compared in a two-way factorial design. Prior research suggested that pleasantness and relevance both affect imagery potency. This study attempted to assess the relative contribution of these two variables to increases in pain tolerance. Also investigated were the roles of several hypothesized mediating variables; namely, contextual valence, self-efficacy, treatment credibility, and involvement in imagery. The subjects were 60 female undergraduates who were randomly assigned to the four imagery groups. Two-way analysis of covariance were performed on all dependent variables, using pain threshold as the covariate. Pearons r.'s were used to test correlational hypotheses.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Geary, Thomas Dennis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Programmed Instruction as a Means of Enhancing Group Intelligence Test Performance of Externalizing Children

Description: This study focused on two major areas of investigation: (1) locus of control and (2) the influence on test performance of anxiety and motivation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of programmed instruction dealing with motivation, anxiety, and test-wiseness as a means of enhancing group intelligence test performance of externalizing children. While earlier research demonstrated the viability of this technique x^ith a heterogeneous sample, no studies have utilized any kind of instruction to facilitate the performance of externalizers on standardized tests. It was hypothesized that intelligence test performance would be enhanced by programmed instruction. Furthermore, externalizers were expected to demonstrate greater gains than internalizers, which would thereby suggest that locus of control provides a source of variance in intellectual assessment.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Petty, Nancy Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries