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The Radiological Assessment and Recovery of Contaminated Areas

Description: From Abstract: "The conceptual nature of a radiological defense system and role of decontamination or reclamation in such a system are discussed. Most of the report deals with methods for reducing the observed data to interpretive form because the data were taken with a large contaminated area."
Date: March 1958
Creator: Miller, Carl F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Water Plant Isolation From Contamination

Description: From Introduction: "In this study, data has been obtained on radioactive nuclide concentrations in nuclear power plants of both the BWR direct cycle and the PWR indirect cycle. These data, together with leakage rates actually experienced in the PWR steam generators and with assumed leakage rates in brine heaters, are used to calculate concentrations of radioactive nuclides in the water plant product and effluent."
Date: October 1969
Creator: Crever, Frederick E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

Description: The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?
Date: September 12, 2008
Creator: Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer & Sohn, Michael D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Reconnaissance of Ground-Water Contamination at Selected Landfills in Colorado

Description: Abstract: A reconnaissance study of eight landfills in Colorado shows that they have contaminated the shallow ground-water system. Contamination is indicated by values of specific conductance and concentrations of major ions and trace elements. Because only shallow ground water was sampled, it was not possible to determine whether deeper ground-water systems also are contaminated. The major effects on water quality caused by contaminants in the land-fills were increased salinity, nitrogen, iron, manganese, and phenols in the shallow ground-water system.
Date: 1983
Creator: Schneider, Paul A., Jr. & Turk, John T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

Description: A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Demmer, Rick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SINGLE-FACED GRAYQB{trademark} - A RADIATION MAPPING DEVICE

Description: GrayQb{trademark} is a novel technology that has the potential to characterize radioactively contaminated areas such as hot cells, gloveboxes, small and large rooms, hallways, and waste tanks. The goal of GrayQb{trademark} is to speed the process of decontaminating these areas, which reduces worker exposures and promotes ALARA considerations. The device employs Phosphorous Storage Plate (PSP) technology as its primary detector material. PSPs, commonly used for medical applications and non-destructive testing, can be read using a commercially available scanner. The goal of GrayQb{trademark} technology is to locate, quantify, and identify the sources of contamination. The purpose of the work documented in this report was to better characterize the performance of GrayQb{trademark} in its ability to present overlay images of the PSP image and the associated visual image of the location being surveyed. The results presented in this report are overlay images identifying the location of hot spots in both controlled and field environments. The GrayQb{trademark} technology has been mainly tested in a controlled environment with known distances and source characteristics such as specific known radionuclides, dose rates, and strength. The original concept for the GrayQb{trademark} device involved utilizing the six faces of a cube configuration and was designed to be positioned in the center of a contaminated area for 3D mapping. A smaller single-faced GrayQb{trademark}, dubbed GrayQb SF, was designed for the purpose of conducting the characterization testing documented in this report. This lighter 2D version is ideal for applications where entry ports are too small for a deployment of the original GrayQb™ version or where only a single surface is of interest. The shape, size, and weight of these two designs have been carefully modeled to account for most limitations encountered in hot cells, gloveboxes, and contaminated areas. GrayQb{trademark} and GrayQb{trademark} SF share the same fundamental detection system design (e.g., ...
Date: December 12, 2013
Creator: Mayer, J.; Farfan, E.; Immel, D.; Phillips, M.; Bobbitt, J. & Plummer, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meta-Analyses of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effectswith Dampness and Mold in Homes

Description: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect models were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Fisk, William J.; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong & Mendell, Mark J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geohydrologic Evaluation of a Landfill in a Coastal Area, St. Petersburg, Florida

Description: Purpose and scope: This reports presents the results of a 2-year investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of St. Petersburg, to evaluate geohydrologic conditions at a landfill in a coastal area. The report defines and describes the geologic and geohydrologic units underlying the landfill, and examines the controls these units exert on the flow and quality of surface and ground water in the area. The study increases the understanding of the geohydrologic aspects of landfill operations and will be helpful in the selection of future landfill sites in similar coastal areas.
Date: February 1978
Creator: Hutchinson, C. B. & Stewart, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consequence management, recovery & restoration after a contamination event.

Description: The fate of contaminants after a dispersal event is a major concern, and waterways may be particularly sensitive to such an incident. Contaminants could be introduced directly into a water system (municipal or general) or indirectly (Radiological Dispersal Device) from aerial dispersion, precipitation, or improper clean-up techniques that may wash contamination into storm water drains, sewer systems, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Most radiological, chemical, and biological contaminants have an affinity for sediments and organic matter in the water system. If contaminated soils enter waterways, a plume of contaminated sediments could be left behind, subject to remobilization during the next storm event. Or, contaminants could remain in place, thus damaging local ecosystems. Suitable planning and deployment of resources to manage such a scenario could considerably mitigate the severity of the event. First responses must be prearranged so that clean-up efforts do not increase dispersal and exacerbate the problem. Interactions between the sediment, contaminant, and water cycle are exceedingly complex and poorly understood. This research focused on the development of a risk-based model that predicts the fate of introduced contaminants in surface water systems. Achieving this goal requires integrating sediment transport with contaminant chemical reactions (sorption and desorption) and surface water hydrodynamics. Sandia leveraged its existing state-of-the-art capabilities in sediment transport measurement techniques, hydrochemistry, high performance computing, and performance assessment modeling in an effort to accomplish this task. In addition, the basis for the physical hydrodynamics is calculated with the EPA sponsored, public domain model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The results of this effort will enable systems analysis and numerical simulation that allow the user to determine both short term and long-term consequences of contamination of waterways as well as to help formulate preventative and remedial strategies.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Jones, Craig R.; James, Scott Carlton & Roberts, Jesse Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils

Description: Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Giles, J. R.; Roybal, L. G.; Carpenter, M. V.; Oertel, C. P. & Roach, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Techniques to Characterize the Distribution of Chromate Contamination in the Vadose Zone of the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site

Description: The purpose of this report is to identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art techniques for characteriza¬tion of chromate contamination in the vadose zone of the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. The techniques include direct techniques for analysis of chromium in the subsurface as well as indirect techniques to identify contamination through geophysical properties, soil moisture, or co-contaminants. Characteri¬zation for the distribution of chromium concentration in the vadose zone is needed to assess potential sources for chromate contamination plumes in groundwater at the 100-D, 100-K, and 100-B/C Areas.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Dresel, P. Evan; Truex, Michael J. & Sweeney, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of the States on Brownfields: Programs for Cleanup and Reuse of Contaminated Sites

Description: This paper first presents an overview of the nature and extent of the brownfields problem and discusses several key issues relating to their cleanup and redevelopment. Next, it examines three primary state approaches for addressing brownfields, with a particular focus on state voluntary cleanup programs. It then presents more detailed information on the voluntary programs in Minnesota, California, and Ohio.
Date: June 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of a Hanford Waste Site for Initial Deployment of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Approach

Description: In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. This document presents the results of recent characterization activities undertaken at several of the soil waste sites at Hanford that contain significant levels of hexavalent chromium contamination. The objective of this study is to select a site for initial deployment of the technology at the Hanford Site.
Date: November 28, 2000
Creator: Thornton, Edward C; Cantrell, Kirk J; Faurote, James M; Gilmore, Terrance J; Olsen, Khris B & Schalla, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Radiological Doses From Groundwater Contaminated By The Saltstone Disposal Facility

Description: Assessments of radiological dose from usage of groundwater potentially contaminated by the Saltstone Disposal Facility (Z-Area) were made for a hypothetical future resident farmer. These assessments were made using the routine aqueous release model LADTAP XL (C), which is the model used for demonstrating liquid pathway dose compliance at SRS. The dose factors used in LADTAP XL (C) are those specified by the Department of Energy.
Date: February 14, 2005
Creator: GERALD, JANNIK
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

Description: A geologic/geochemical investigation in the vicinity of UPR-200-E-82 was performed using pairs of cone-penetrometer probe holes. A total of 41 direct-push cone-penetrometer borings (19 pairs to investigate different high moisture zones in the same sampling location and 3 individual) were advanced to characterize vadose zone moisture and the distribution of contaminants. A total of twenty sample sets, containing up to two split-spoon liners and one grab sample, were delivered to the laboratory for characterization and analysis. The samples were collected around the documented location of the C-152 pipeline leak, and created an approximately 120-ft diameter circle around the waste site. UPR-200-E-82 was a loss of approximately 2,600 gallons of Cs-137 Recovery Process feed solution containing an estimated 11,300 Ci of cesium-137 and 5 Ci of technetium-99. Several key parameters that are used to identify subsurface contamination were measured, including: water extract pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, technetium-99, sodium, and uranium concentrations and technetium-99 and uranium concentrations in acid extracts. All of the parameters, with the exception of electrical conductivity, were elevated in at least some of the samples analyzed as part of this study. Specifically, soil pH was elevated (from 8.69 to 9.99) in five samples collected northeast and southwest of the C-152 pipeline leak. Similarly, samples collected from these same cone-pentrometer holes contained significantly more water-extractable sodium (more than 50 g/g of dry sediment), uranium (as much as 7.66E-01 g/g of dry sediment), nitrate (up to 30 g/g of dry sediment), and technetium-99 (up to 3.34 pCi/g of dry sediment). Most of the samples containing elevated concentrations of water-extractable sodium also had decreased levels of water extractable calcium and or magnesium, indicating that tank-related fluids that were high in sodium did seep into the vadose zone near these probe holes. Several of the samples containing high concentrations of water-leachable uranium ...
Date: February 5, 2007
Creator: Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Lanigan, David C.; Vickerman, Tanya S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Qualitative Survey of the Airborne Algae, Protozoa, and Bacteria at the Denton Sewage Treatment Plant

Description: This study had a three-fold purpose. First, it was decided to determine if algae and protozoa were emitted to the air at the Denton sewage treatment plant. The information obtained could be of future importance in the fields of algal and protozoan ecology and public health. Second, it was decided to make a survey of the airborne bacteria at this plant. Some researchers have described bacterial air contamination at similar sewage treatment plants, but the one in Denton has not been studied. Third, it was hoped that in this research some relationships could be found between the bacteria and the algae and protozoa in the air in the vicinity of the sewage aeration basin. It was hypothesized that pathogenic bacteria were carried in the air with these other organisms.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Mahoney, Joseph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Diesel Exhaust Contamination of Tunnel Air

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines on investigations of air contamination in tunnels due to diesel exhaust. Air samples were taken inside tunnels and measured for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. This report includes tables and graphs.
Date: February 1968
Creator: Holtz, John C. & Dalzell, Robert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department