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The Radiological Assessment and Recovery of Contaminated Areas

Description: From Abstract: "The conceptual nature of a radiological defense system and role of decontamination or reclamation in such a system are discussed. Most of the report deals with methods for reducing the observed data to interpretive form because the data were taken with a large contaminated area."
Date: March 1958
Creator: Miller, Carl F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Water Plant Isolation From Contamination

Description: From Introduction: "In this study, data has been obtained on radioactive nuclide concentrations in nuclear power plants of both the BWR direct cycle and the PWR indirect cycle. These data, together with leakage rates actually experienced in the PWR steam generators and with assumed leakage rates in brine heaters, are used to calculate concentrations of radioactive nuclides in the water plant product and effluent."
Date: October 1969
Creator: Crever, Frederick E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Reconnaissance of Ground-Water Contamination at Selected Landfills in Colorado

Description: Abstract: A reconnaissance study of eight landfills in Colorado shows that they have contaminated the shallow ground-water system. Contamination is indicated by values of specific conductance and concentrations of major ions and trace elements. Because only shallow ground water was sampled, it was not possible to determine whether deeper ground-water systems also are contaminated. The major effects on water quality caused by contaminants in the land-fills were increased salinity, nitrogen, iron, manganese, and phenols in the shallow ground-water system.
Date: 1983
Creator: Schneider, Paul A., Jr. & Turk, John T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

Description: The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?
Date: September 12, 2008
Creator: Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer & Sohn, Michael D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

Description: A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Demmer, Rick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: GrayQb{trademark} is a novel technology that has the potential to characterize radioactively contaminated areas such as hot cells, gloveboxes, small and large rooms, hallways, and waste tanks. The goal of GrayQb{trademark} is to speed the process of decontaminating these areas, which reduces worker exposures and promotes ALARA considerations. The device employs Phosphorous Storage Plate (PSP) technology as its primary detector material. PSPs, commonly used for medical applications and non-destructive testing, can be read using a commercially available scanner. The goal of GrayQb{trademark} technology is to locate, quantify, and identify the sources of contamination. The purpose of the work documented in this report was to better characterize the performance of GrayQb{trademark} in its ability to present overlay images of the PSP image and the associated visual image of the location being surveyed. The results presented in this report are overlay images identifying the location of hot spots in both controlled and field environments. The GrayQb{trademark} technology has been mainly tested in a controlled environment with known distances and source characteristics such as specific known radionuclides, dose rates, and strength. The original concept for the GrayQb{trademark} device involved utilizing the six faces of a cube configuration and was designed to be positioned in the center of a contaminated area for 3D mapping. A smaller single-faced GrayQb{trademark}, dubbed GrayQb SF, was designed for the purpose of conducting the characterization testing documented in this report. This lighter 2D version is ideal for applications where entry ports are too small for a deployment of the original GrayQb™ version or where only a single surface is of interest. The shape, size, and weight of these two designs have been carefully modeled to account for most limitations encountered in hot cells, gloveboxes, and contaminated areas. GrayQb{trademark} and GrayQb{trademark} SF share the same fundamental detection system design (e.g., ...
Date: December 12, 2013
Creator: Mayer, J.; Farfan, E.; Immel, D.; Phillips, M.; Bobbitt, J. & Plummer, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic Investigations of Radioactive Deposits, Semiannual Progress Report, June 1 to November 30, 1955

Description: A report containing a statement of progress during the six-months period from June 1 to November 30, 1955 on investigations of radioactive materials in the United States and Alaska. The program aims to understand many factors involved in uranium geology.
Date: December 1955
Creator: Geological Survey (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geohydrologic Evaluation of a Landfill in a Coastal Area, St. Petersburg, Florida

Description: Purpose and scope: This reports presents the results of a 2-year investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of St. Petersburg, to evaluate geohydrologic conditions at a landfill in a coastal area. The report defines and describes the geologic and geohydrologic units underlying the landfill, and examines the controls these units exert on the flow and quality of surface and ground water in the area. The study increases the understanding of the geohydrologic aspects of landfill operations and will be helpful in the selection of future landfill sites in similar coastal areas.
Date: February 1978
Creator: Hutchinson, C. B. & Stewart, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meta-Analyses of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effectswith Dampness and Mold in Homes

Description: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect models were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Fisk, William J.; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong & Mendell, Mark J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contaminant effects study : final report, January 5 to September 15, 1962

Description: From abstract: "This report describes work done on ARF Project C 216 from January 5, 1962 to September 15, 1962. The objectives of the program include evolution of an analytical research program to evaluate effects of environment contributed contamination on precise devices"
Date: November 14, 1962
Creator: Lieberman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contaminant Effects Study : Phase Report, January 5 to September 15, 1962

Description: From abstract: "This report describes and evaluates the variables affecting contamination of precise devices...In the present report these variables are discussed in more detail and the basis for their inclusion in the listing are given. The relative importance of the several parameters will be discussed in another report."
Date: October 9, 1962
Creator: Lieberman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consequence management, recovery & restoration after a contamination event.

Description: The fate of contaminants after a dispersal event is a major concern, and waterways may be particularly sensitive to such an incident. Contaminants could be introduced directly into a water system (municipal or general) or indirectly (Radiological Dispersal Device) from aerial dispersion, precipitation, or improper clean-up techniques that may wash contamination into storm water drains, sewer systems, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Most radiological, chemical, and biological contaminants have an affinity for sediments and organic matter in the water system. If contaminated soils enter waterways, a plume of contaminated sediments could be left behind, subject to remobilization during the next storm event. Or, contaminants could remain in place, thus damaging local ecosystems. Suitable planning and deployment of resources to manage such a scenario could considerably mitigate the severity of the event. First responses must be prearranged so that clean-up efforts do not increase dispersal and exacerbate the problem. Interactions between the sediment, contaminant, and water cycle are exceedingly complex and poorly understood. This research focused on the development of a risk-based model that predicts the fate of introduced contaminants in surface water systems. Achieving this goal requires integrating sediment transport with contaminant chemical reactions (sorption and desorption) and surface water hydrodynamics. Sandia leveraged its existing state-of-the-art capabilities in sediment transport measurement techniques, hydrochemistry, high performance computing, and performance assessment modeling in an effort to accomplish this task. In addition, the basis for the physical hydrodynamics is calculated with the EPA sponsored, public domain model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The results of this effort will enable systems analysis and numerical simulation that allow the user to determine both short term and long-term consequences of contamination of waterways as well as to help formulate preventative and remedial strategies.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Jones, Craig R.; James, Scott Carlton & Roberts, Jesse Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils

Description: Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Giles, J. R.; Roybal, L. G.; Carpenter, M. V.; Oertel, C. P. & Roach, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Techniques to Characterize the Distribution of Chromate Contamination in the Vadose Zone of the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site

Description: The purpose of this report is to identify and evaluate the state-of-the-art techniques for characteriza¬tion of chromate contamination in the vadose zone of the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. The techniques include direct techniques for analysis of chromium in the subsurface as well as indirect techniques to identify contamination through geophysical properties, soil moisture, or co-contaminants. Characteri¬zation for the distribution of chromium concentration in the vadose zone is needed to assess potential sources for chromate contamination plumes in groundwater at the 100-D, 100-K, and 100-B/C Areas.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Dresel, P. Evan; Truex, Michael J. & Sweeney, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of a Hanford Waste Site for Initial Deployment of the In Situ Gaseous Reduction Approach

Description: In Situ Gaseous Reduction is a technology currently being developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. This document presents the results of recent characterization activities undertaken at several of the soil waste sites at Hanford that contain significant levels of hexavalent chromium contamination. The objective of this study is to select a site for initial deployment of the technology at the Hanford Site.
Date: November 28, 2000
Creator: Thornton, Edward C; Cantrell, Kirk J; Faurote, James M; Gilmore, Terrance J; Olsen, Khris B & Schalla, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation of Pyromorphite in Anglesite-Hydroxyapatite Suspensions Under Varying pH Conditions

Description: Addition of phosphate to lead [Pb(ll)l-cOntarninated soil to immobilize soil Pb by formation of pyromorphite has been proposed as an alternative remediation technique. Lead sulfate (PbS04, anglesite), a Pb-bearing form found in contaminated soils and wastes, was reacted with a synthetic phosphate mineral, hydroxyapa$te [Ca5(PO& OH], under constant pH (PH 2-7) and simulated gastric pH conditions (PH varied from 2 to 7 within 30 rein) to assess the effects of reaction kinetics on the formation rate of chloropyromorphite and the volubility of Pb. Under constant pH condition, complete transformation of anglesite to chloropyromorphite, [Pb5(PO&Cl], was obtained at pH 4 and pH 5. At pH 6 and pH 7, the newly formed chloropyromorphite precipitated on the surface of undissolved apatite, The coverage of the apatite surface may reduce apatite dissolution fate and the transformation rate of Pb from anglesite to"chloropyromorphite. Increasing the P/Pb ratio increased the transformation rate, but anglesite was still present after a' 120-min reaction time. in the dynamic pH system, the added apatite was rapidly dissolved at the initial low pH, and complete transformation of anglesite to chloropyromorphite was obtained within 25 min., The soluble Pb level was controlled by the volubility of chloropyromorphite during the entire reaction process. These results demonstrate the effect of reaction kinetics on the formation rate of chloropyromorphite and the mechanisms controlling the solubilization of Pb in the anglesite-apatite system. Furthermore, they illustrate that a complete transformation of ingested anglesite to chloropyromorphite can be achieved. under gastrointestinal tract pH conditions if sufficient phosphate is provided.
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Ryan, J.A. & Zhang, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department