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Containers used in shipping fruits and vegetables.

Description: Describes five types of containers used for shipping fruits and vegetables, and indications for their use. Discusses the benefits of standardized shipping containers.
Date: 1934
Creator: Spilman, H. A. (Harold Addison), 1883- & Davis, Robert W. (Robert William), 1899-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Shipping Cask D-38. Revision 1

Description: An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Shipping Cask D-38 (solids shipments) was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site radioactive material shipping packages. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the cask complies with the applicable regulations.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Box, W. D.; Shappert, L. B.; Seagren, R. D.; Watson, C. D.; Hammond, C. R. & Klima, B. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield

Description: The ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the transport of cylinders filled with radioactive gases. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the results are reported herein. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations.
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Evans, J.H.; Levine, D.L.; Eversole, R.E. & Mouring, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of inelastic design for radioactive material transportation packages

Description: There is much interest within the radioactive material transportation container design community in the use of inelastic analysis. In other industries where inelastic analysis is used in design there is typically an improved knowledge of the capacity of the structure and a more efficient use of material. This report describes the results of a program in which the incentives for inelastic analysis for radioactive material transport container design were investigated to determine if there are similar benefits. Detailed are the elastic and inelastic analyses of two containers subjected to impacts onto a rigid target following a thirty-foot free fall in end-on, side-on, and center-of-gravity- over-corner orientations.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Heinstein, M. W. & Ammerman, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Report for Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATO) Prototype.

Description: A prototype design for a plutonium air transport package capable of carrying 7.6 kg of plutonium oxide and surviving a ''worst-case'' plane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A series of impact tests were conducted on half-scale models of this design for side, end, and comer orientations at speeds close to 282 m/s onto a target designed to simulate weathered sandstone. These tests were designed to evaluate the performance of the overpack concept and impact-limiting materials in critical impact orientations. The impact tests of the Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP) prototypes were performed at SNL's 10,000-ft rocket sled track. This report describes test facilities calibration and environmental testing methods of the PMATP under specific test conditions. The tests were conducted according to the test plan and procedures that were written by the authors and approved by SNL management and quality assurance personnel. The result of these tests was that the half-scale PMATP survived the ''worst-case'' airplane crash conditions, and indicated that a full-scale PMATP, utilizing this overpack concept and these impact-limiting materials, would also survive these crash conditions.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Bobbe, Jeffery G. & Pierce, Jim Dwight
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the B-cask in accordance with proposed regulations of the AEC and ICC for off-site shipments of irradiated bismuth

Description: The growing concern of government agencies for safe shipment of radioactive materials, both in this country and in Europe, has resulted in a number of proposed regulations governing every phase of shipment including the design of the cask or container, There have been requests during the last year for increased shipments of irradiated bismuth from Hanford. This radioactive material has been shipped in the B-cask to the off-site processing plant for several years. These two factors, proposed regulations and increased demand for the product, have created a need for an engineering evaluation of the cask currently being used. While it is evident on casual inspection that the B-cask design would not meet certain requirements of the proposed regulations, it is necessary that a detailed study of the design be made to determine if modifications to the cask are practical for continued use under new regulations and whether additional casks should be of a new design as required by increased shipments of the product. The purpose of this design evaluation study is to: (a) Evaluate the integrity of the B-cask design in accordance with criteria published in document HW-76476, which is based primarily upon proposed regulations of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Interstate Commerce Commission; and (b) Determine whether the B-cask can be modified for continued use if the proposed regulations are formally issued in essentially the same form as proposed.
Date: July 12, 1963
Creator: Peck, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Type A packaging systems based on greater than 400 individual packaging tests

Description: Type A packagings commonly used within the U.S. were studied to determine their performance with respect to, ''Tests for demonstrating ability to withstand normal conditions of transport,'' (e.g., water spray, free drop (4 ft), penetration, corner drop, and compression). There are several differences in U.S. and IAEA Type A packaging requirements and these are outlined. For purposes of this study, U. S. requirements were used. More than 100 separate packagings (greater than 400 individual tests) were studied and evaluated. Most of these packagings can be divided into four basic groups: steel drums, wooden boxes, fiberboard containers, and steel boxes. The steel drums met all the requirements with a minimum of qualification and restrictions on use. The wooden boxes performed well, with three-way corner construction providing the best results. The Type A performance requirements had a much greater effect on fiberboard packagings (boxes and drums). In most cases penetration of the fiberboard container did occur, but this was dependent on the inner packagings and materials used. Steel boxes offer a wide flexibility in types of construction, materials usable, volumes, and authorized gross weights. Material usage and construction for wooden and fiberboard containers, such as use of plywood in box construction, banding of boxes, and use of ''firm'' cushioning materials within fiberboard containers, are also discussed.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Edling, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Furnace characterization for horizontal shipping container thermal testing

Description: In order to perform regulatory thermal tests required by 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3) on the newly designed Horizontal Shipping Container (HSC), it was necessary to find a company involved in the business of heat treating who was willing to allow their furnace to be used for these tests. Of the companies responding to a request for interest, Lindberg Heat Treating Company`s Solon, Ohio, facility was found to be the best available vendor for this activity. Their furnace was instrumented and characterized such that these tests could be performed in a manner that would conform to the specifications contained in 10 CFR 71. It was found that Lindberg`s furnace was usable for this task, and recommendations concerning the use of this furnace for the above stated purpose are made herein.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Feldman, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for USA/9506/BLF (DOE-AL)

Description: The Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) satisfies the request of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration for a formal safety analysis of the insulated drum shipping container identified as USA/9506/BLF(DOE-A1). Included are discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Complete physical and technical descriptions of the packages are presented.
Date: November 11, 1977
Creator: Watkins, R. A.; Bertram, R. E.; Blauvelt, R. K.; Griffin, J. F.; Peterson, J. B. & Prosser, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact analysis of the UC-609 shipping package

Description: The inner containment vessel of the UC-609 shipping container must remain intact and sealed after undergoing a thirty foot drop onto an unyielding surface. The drop scenarios which were considered in this study included top corner down and top down drops. Results of the calculations performed for this study predict structural damage, as measured by accumulated effective plastic strains, but no failure of the inner primary containment vessel for both drop configurations. The top down impact is predicted to produce a higher-impact deceleration in the payload but the amount of damage to the primary containment vessel is predicted to be greater for the top corner impact configuration. The critical damage region for both drop scenarios is confined to the containment canister flange region. Verification of the analysis methodology was accomplished by comparing measured top corner crashes with calculated top corner crushes. Acceptable damage levels in this study were determined from calculated damage comparisons between the top corner drop, which reed intact during a top corner impact test, and the calculated top down impact damages. Comparisons were also made on the calculated maximum shear stress levels, which remained near or within NRC regulatory guidelines for both scenarios.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Kay, G. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of trip to Los Alamos, Albuquerque Operations Office, and ACF Industries, September 17--19, 1956

Description: This report describes travel to Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory September 17, and 19, ALOO and ACF Industries, Inc. At Los Alamos the principal subjects discussed were reservoir design, and reservoir shipping specifications. In Albuquerque a meeting was held with Albuquerque Operations Office personnel to discuss design and procurement of shipping containers, followed by discussions with ACF of reservoir fabrication and testing.
Date: October 9, 1956
Creator: Crawley, J. E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Certification of packagings: compliance with DOT specification 7A packaging requirements

Description: A study was conducted to determine which of the packagings currently listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395 a.1-5, meet the Specification 7A requirements (CFR 49 Section 173.350). According to DOT HM-111 the present listing of various authorized DOT specifications in Section 173.394 and Section 173.395 (Type A containers) of ICC Tariff No. 27 would be deleted with complete reliance being placed on the use of DOT 7A, Type A general packaging specification. Each user of a Specification 7A package would be required to document and maintain on file for one year a written record of his determination of compliance with the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements. All the specification packagings listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395a.1-5 were tested and shown to meet the Specification 7A criteria; however, in many cases qualifications were placed on their use. Forty-nine specification packagings were tested and shown to meet the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements and since there were several styles of some specific packagings, this amounts to greater than 80 packagings. The extensive testing generally indicated a high degree of containment integrity in the packagings tested and the documentation discussed is a valuable tool for shippers of Type A quantities of radioactive materials. (DLC)
Date: October 8, 1976
Creator: Edling, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the performance of the SMERF indoor fire facility with the use of an active calorimeter

Description: Tests with a water cooled calorimeter in the SMokE Reduction Facility (SMERF) at Sandia National Laboratories demonstrate that the facility is operational and ready for thermal regulatory testing of containers for radioactive materials. The facility is briefly described, and initial test results summarized.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Koski, J. A.; Gill, W.; Kent, L. A. & Wix, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new shipping container for an intense neutron emitter

Description: Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter (2.34 {times} 10{sup 12} n/s{center_dot}g) used in medicine, research, and industry. The western world`s sole source of this rare radioisotope is the Californium Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). A project has been initiated at the REDC to design a new Type B Californium Shipping Container. This effort is essential for future transportation of californium to meet the needs of users all over the world. The shipping container must meet all requirements for transport by motor freight, air, vessel, and rail, both domestic and foreign. There are unique problems in the design, fabrication, and licensing of a new Type B shipping container that will accommodate up to 60 milligrams of californium-252. One of the first challenges in the design phase of the project is the selection of a material to shield the high neutron flux. The more stringent safety precautions of today`s world impel us to consider more exotic materials for such a purpose. The candidate materials must be examined not just for their neutron shielding properties, but also in conjunction with other properties such as thermal and structural requirements to withstand the hypothetical accident conditions. The design and building of such a container is a formidable task requiring much planning. The licensing process, with the complex, interactive federal codes, is a special challenge and may be the biggest on the project in terms of time and money.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Bigelow, J. E.; Alexander, C. W.; Pace, J. V. III & Simmons, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks

Description: This paper identifies the active forces and moments in a closure bolt of a shipping cask. It examines the interactions of these forces/moments and suggest simplified methods for their analysis. The paper also evaluates the role that the forces and moments play in the structure integrity of the closure bolt and recommends stress limits and desirable practices to ensure its integrity.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Mok, G. C. & Fischer, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of smokeless gasoline fire test facility. [Shipping casks]

Description: Packaging for radioactive materials must perform satisfactorily when subjected to temperatures simulating an accident involving a fire. The new thermal test facility has proved to be a reliable method for satisfactorily performing the required test. The flame provides sufficient heat to assure that the test is valid, and the temperature can be controlled satisfactorily. Also, the air and water mist systems virtually eliminate any smoke and thereby exceed the local EPA requirements. The combination of the two systems provides an inexpensive, low maintenance technique for elimination of the smoke plume.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Griffin, J. F. & Watkins, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

Description: A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.
Date: July 8, 1977
Creator: Griffin, J. F.; Peterson, J. B.; Edling, D. A. & Blauvelt, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock and vibration environments for large shipping containers on rail cars and trucks

Description: The purpose of this study was to provide definitions of shock and vibration environment to which fissile material shipping containers may be exposed during normal shipment by truck and rail cars. The definitions of vibration, shock superimposed on vibration and rail coupling shock result from existing data. The dependence of shock environment, from rail coupling operations, on parameters like cargo weight and shock attenuation couplers was also studied using spring-mass models. These studies show that for rail cars equipped with standard draft gear, the cargo response decreases with increased cargo weight until the springs bottom out. For rail cars equipped with shock attenuation couplers, cargo weight has little effect on cargo response. The study also shows the importance of matching couplers and tiedown stiffnesses to decrease the cargo response. Vibration and shock data samples have been obtained during truck shipment of heavy cargo and the data will be presented in subsequent reports. Similar data need to be obtained for rail shipment of heavy cargo and during rail coupling operations with heavy cargo.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Magnuson, C. F. & Wilson, L. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation and handling environment

Description: The elements of the environment relating to transportation and handling include temperature, solar radiation, precipitation, humidity, pressure, shock, and vibration. While each of these deserves consideration, the latter two, shock and vibration, are perhaps the least understood. The report discusses all of these elements, but concentrates largely on shock and vibration. Emphasis is upon the necessity of understanding both the product and the environment. To that end, descriptions of the environment which have been derived statistically are discussed. Land, sea, and air transport are considered. Current knowledge of the handling environment is indicated.
Date: September 1, 1972
Creator: Gens, M. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

Description: An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Box, W. D.; Shappert, L. B.; Seagren, R. D.; Klima, B. B.; Jurgensen, M. C.; Hammond, C. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical and management considerations in conducting type B shipping container tests

Description: The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) mandate that type B shipping containers are capable of surviving specific drop tests. One approach for demonstrating compliance to the CFRs is to drop test a shipping container. This paper will discuss the technical and management considerations in conducting such drop tests on the 9975 family of shipping containers. For both technical and management considerations this paper will comment on loading the shipping container, dropping the shopping container, and examination of the shipping container after the drop tests.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Whitney, M. A.; Leader, D. R. & Phipps, D. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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