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The Construction Sector in the U.S. Economy

Description: The construction sector is a major component of the U.S. economy. During the past decade, construction was a prime beneficiary of low interest rates and the housing-led economic boom, but was also one of the largest casualties of the subsequent financial crisis. Construction spending comprised about 7%-8% of U.S. annual economic output from 1995 to mid-2000, reaching nearly 9% of gross domestic product at the peak of the housing run-up in 2006, before declining to about 5% in 2010. Likewise, construction employment ranged from a low of about 4.6 million during the early 1990s to a high of 7.7 million during the 2006 housing boom, and was about 5.5 million in early 2011.
Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: Kirchhoff, Suzanne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Wall Framing; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

Description: Advanced framing techniques for home construction have been researched extensively and proven effective. Both builders and home owners can benefit from advanced framing. Advanced framing techniques create a structurally sound home that has lower material and labor costs than a conventionally framed house. This fact sheet describes advanced framing techniques, design considerations, and framing.
Date: November 7, 2000
Creator: Institute, Southface Energy & Tromly, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 1. Thermal & Mechanical Design

Description: This technical report represents the final design for a sodium to sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium to water steam generator. The intermediate heat exchanger is designed for operation in a nuclear power plant using liquid sodium as the primary and secondary coolant. Since the primary fluid coming fro the reactor is radioactive, the purpose of the IHX is to transfer heat to a nonradioactive fluid which then goes to the steam generator. Because of radioactivity the unit will be enclosed in a concrete pit and will not be accessible during periods of operation. Immediately after shutdown it will be necessary to allow time for radioactive decay before the unit will be accessible to personnel. Because of inaccessibility and possible long periods allowed for decay time, it is imperative that the unit give trouble free operation. During periods of shutdown, the internals should have easy access for inspection and repair if necessary so that down time is held to a minimum. The steam generator is designed to generate superheated steam using liquid sodium from the intermediate heat exchanger as the heat source. Its basic design is a shell and tube unit made up of three difference sections: (1) a boiler section, (2) a steam drum, and (3) a superheater section. These three sections are combined into a single unit construction with a large sphere as the steam drum connecting the boiler and superheater section. This design makes a relatively long unit but has the advantage of reducing costs since the steam drum acts a a closure for one end of the boiler and superheater and eliminates the need for external connecting piping.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 2. Chemical & Stress Analysis

Description: Introduction: This volume deals principally with the chemical analysis and the stress analysis for a sodium to sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium to water steam generator. The work presented is an extension and modification of the analysis presented in the preliminary design report. The chemical analysis covers the sodium cover gas system and the effects of sodium-water reactions in the event of a leak in the steam generator. Considerable design work was done in an effort to maintain the integrity of the steam generator vessel under maximum leak conditions. The method of sizing relief valves for each unit under varying leak rates is presented in this text and operation of the unit for the various leak rates is resented in the Operation and Maintenance volume. The stress analysis section covers those thermal transients which would be physically possible with this intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator design. Attention has been given to methods of operation which would minimize the magnitude and frequency of thermal shocks. Certain areas have been studied in detail where thermal stresses appear high. This report also includes a structural design basis for handling stress analysis of combined mechanical, hydrostatic and thermal stresses and conditions for using creep and stress rupture properties.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 3. Specifications

Description: Introduction: Sodium Components Material Specifications. Twenty-three material, inspection and welding specification are presented for the various parts of both the intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator. Tables indicate the applicable parts and assemblies to which these specifications shall apply. For other parts, where the material requirements are not severe, the ASTM or other indicated specifications shall apply.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Final Design. Volume 4. Operation & Maintenance

Description: This technical report contains the operation and maintenance specifications for the intermediate heat exchanger and the steam generator. The report contains eight sections: (1) General Information, (2) Shipping and Installation, (3) Operation Procedures, (4) Scram and Casualty Shutdowns, (5) Leaks, (6) Instrumentation and Control, (7) Maintenance, and (8) four Appendixes (a) Boiler Water Chemistry Recommendations, (b) Final Concept Drawings, (c) Industrial Nucleonics Literature on Liquid Level Detector, and (d) Sodium Purity Control Recommendations.
Date: September 30, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foundations for Farm Buildings

Description: This bulletin discusses different ways of constructing the foundations of farm buildings. "The following general recommendations point out common errors and are intended to assist farmers to provide suitable foundations for ordinary farm structures except where unusual soil conditions are found. The foundation of a farm building may consist of (1) continuous walls, (2) a series of piers either built in place or precast, (3) a combination of walls and piers, (4) a concrete slab laid on the ground, (5) wood posts, or (6) wood sills. The essential features necessary for the successful use of the various types are discussed under the above headings; also the thickness of walls and dimensions of piers for medium-sized structures other than heavy storages are suggested. Requirements for cellar walls are given on pages 18-21. It is necessary that foundation footings be made wide enough to support the structure on the kind of soil to be built on. The characteristics and bearing power of various soils are given on p. 3. The general method of calculating the weight on footings is given on pages 38-44. It can be used where buildings are heavy or are of a different character from those described under Types of Foundations." -- p. 1
Date: 1941
Creator: Miller, Thomas A. H. & Molander, Edward G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods and Formulas for Calculating the Strength of Plate and Shell Constructions as Used in Airplane Design

Description: "This report is a compilation of previously published articles on formulas and methods of calculation for the determination of the strength and stability of plate and shell construction as employed in airplane design. In particular, it treats the problem of isotropic, orthotopic, and stiffened rectangular plates, thin curved panels, and circular cylinders under various loading conditions. The purpose of appending the pertinent literature references following the subjects discussed was to facilitate a comprehensive study of the treated problems" (p. 1).
Date: February 1936
Creator: Heck, O. S. & Ebner, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Construction Applications, Practices, and Techniques of Natural Trumpets: A Comparative Analysis of Baroque and Modern Era Natural Trumpet Construction Methods

Description: This work discusses in detail the history of, and processes associated with the construction of baroque era trumpets then and now. The work addresses metallurgy, tools, construction methods, and playing characteristics of instruments built with old techniques and modern techniques.
Access: Restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Wells, Lawrence E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Structural Response and Permanent Displacement Measurements

Description: Measurements and visual observations made during the Hardtack II series of underground shots provide basis for conclusions regarding shock-resistant design of protection for cavities in rock and qualitative prediction of permanent displacements in rock due to nuclear detonations. Vibration measurements on blast-resistant construction in soil provided non-nuclear test results which apply to shock resistant design. With varying soil cover, the compressive mode predominated in arch structures and a mass of soil apparently acted with the structure that varied in magnitude in inverse fashion with two depths of cover. Underground structural harmonic response theories were in part verified, for some structures, though the absence of an appreciable flexural mode in buried arch structures was significant.
Date: October 28, 1960
Creator: Sievers, R. H., Jr. & Stacy, A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale "Up or Down" Analysis for Prototype Test

Description: Introduction: In conjunction with the final design and development of a 70 MW sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a sodium steam generator, an analysis is required which can be used as a basis for a determination to scale up or scale down the designs. Included in this analysis are those considerations leading to the recommendation of the best prototype test unit and to some of the limits imposed on scaling up or down when considering future applications of designs other than those actually tested. In addition, these considerations include aspects required to accurately predict the performance, operation, mechanical reliability, and feasibility of fabrication of the 70 MW design.
Date: May 1, 1960
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Program for 30 Megawatt Prototype Sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator

Description: The designer's concept of a test program for the 30-Mw prototype intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator designed and fabricated as part of the Sodium Components Development Program is presented. The performance data will serve to verify the thermal design, or allow application of improved techniques to future designs, give an improved basis for stress analysis in design of future units, and demonstrate the capability and limitations of the units in relation to the performance specifications for which they were designed. Welding techniques for type 316 stainless steel are described. The specifications and operating conditions of the units are given along with instrumentation drawings showing test equipment design and arrangement.
Date: September 14, 1962
Creator: Alco Products (Firm).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[A construction site littered with pipes]

Description: Photograph of a construction site that is littered with pipes. The pipes are in various sizes and there are other building materials laying among them. In the background of the image, there are structures that are partially built. The sky in the image is very cloudy and there are wires going across the sky.
Date: [1940..1960]
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Construction site]

Description: Photograph of a construction site including a wooden structure at the bottom of a large pit. The wooden structure is possibly the frame of a building. A piece of equipment can be seen amongst the structure. In the background, a man can be seen looking down upon the pit.
Date: 19XX
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[Men working on construction equipment]

Description: Photograph of men working on a construction site surrounded by various equipment and materials. A man on the left stands on top of a barrel while the man next to him holds up a beam that he is working on. Two other men stand nearby, one wearing a suit. A building with metal panels and a tall doorway is visible.
Date: [1900..1920]
Creator: Williams, Byrd M. (Byrd Moore), Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Materials Testing Reactor Project : Addendum to Reactor Building Wing Report, Design Report No. 27A

Description: "Changes, corrections and additions to the original report are included in this addendum. These are brought about by further development of the design by Blaw-Knox, AHL and ORNL. The changes in the original wiritings are listed below in accordance with the main headings, pages and paragraphs to which they apply. Following this is a list of the contemplated personnel in the MTR program. This listing sets out the number of offices and the office furniture requirements. Also numbers for lockers, showers, toilets and rest rooms are set forth. Although the listing includes all major buildings planned for the site, it is included here since the reactor building wing is more markedly influenced by office requirements."
Date: November 25, 1949
Creator: Link, L. E. & Guzik, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Win(d)-Win(d) Solutions for wind developers and bats

Description: Bat Conservation International initiated a multi-year, pre-construction study in mid-summer 2009 to investigate patterns of bat activity and evaluate the use of acoustic monitoring to predict mortality of bats at the proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project (RWEP) in east-central Wyoming. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) determine levels and patterns of activity for three phonic groups of bats (high-frequency emitting bats, low-frequency emitting bats, and hoary bats) using the proposed wind facility prior to construction of turbines; (2) determine if bat activity can be predicted based on weather patterns; correlate bat activity with weather variables; and (3) combine results from this study with those from similar efforts to determine if indices of pre-construction bat activity can be used to predict post-construction bat fatalities at proposed wind facilities. We report results from two years of pre-construction data collection.
Date: October 31, 2011
Creator: Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Arnett, Ed & Huso, Manuela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How to Build a Log Cabin by the Post-and-Beam Method

Description: The primary purpose of this study is to give simple and detailed instructions for building a log cabin by the post-and-beam method. The data were gathered from three sources: (1) library research, (2) interviews with experienced builders of cabins, and (3) personal experience in cabin construction. A step-by-step guide for building a cabin is given in Chapters II and III, which explain in depth how to construct each section of the cabin, from laying the foundation to putting on the finishing touches. It is believed that any serious builder can follow the directions and construct his own log cabin for less than one-third the cost of a similar commercially built cabin.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Conlee, Robert Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries
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