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Territorial Issue Salience: Escalation, Resources, and Ethnicity

Description: Conflict over territory is a major concern to scholars and policymakers, and much of conflict over territory is driven by the issues that make territory more or less attractive, or salient, to states. I examine the impact that tangible and intangible issue salience has on territorial claims, and in particular, how it drives both conflict and conflict escalation. I argue that intangible issues, such as ethnic or religious kin, plays a greater role in driving more severe forms of armed conflict and conflict escalation, compared to tangible factors such as natural resources. This is theorized to be due to the difficulty in dividing territory with intangible elements, as well as domestic political pressure driving leaders to escalate. These suppositions are supported, with the finding that identity plays a particularly crucial and unique role in driving states to more severe forms of armed conflict. Further, I examine how natural resources may be viewed by states by their type and form of utilization, with certain resources likely to be more valuable or strategic to states based on their rarity, concentration, or ease of substitution, based in part on a state's level of development. The results support a fairly uniform role of natural resources, with particular resources and combinations of resources serving to drive low level conflict, but with generally little impact on severe forms of armed conflict. Development also is found to play a role, driving poorer states to dispute natural resources of certain types. Lastly, I return to the topic of conflict over territory with an ethnic dimension by examining the role of issue indivisibility in the negotiations process, and find that negotiated settlements are harder to reach, and states more likely to favor unilateral action when disputing territory with an ethnic or religious component compared to other types of issues ...
Date: August 2017
Creator: Macaulay, Christopher Cody
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conflict Resolution Strategies in Young Children: Do They Do What They Say?

Description: This study examined the consistency between verbal responses to hypothetical conflict scenarios and the actual conflict resolutions techniques children apply in everyday play. Twenty-one children were interviewed and observed in order to determine their conflict resolution strategies. During the interview process, each child was asked to finish 6 hypothetical conflict scenarios. During the observation portion, each child was observed in 2 conflict scenarios. Significant (p < .05) differences were found with regards to verbal responses for 3 scenarios, verbal and behavioral responses of females (females exhibited more socially acceptable conflict resolution strategies in their verbal responses, yet less socially acceptable conflict resolution strategies in their behavioral responses), and socially acceptable responses to conflict in verbal strategies. Results were discussed in light of previous research comparing gender differences and peer relationships to conflict resolution strategies.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Leventhal, Julie Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA): A Legal Overview

Description: This report examines the nature and scope of the current regulatory scheme, including the scope of FARA's application to agents of foreign principals; what the statute requires of those covered under the Act; exemptions available under the statute; and methods of enforcement. The report concludes by discussing various legislative proposals to amend FARA in the 115th Congress.
Date: December 4, 2017
Creator: Brown, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relationship of the Content of Dreams to Personal Conflicts

Description: This study will endeavor to substantiate the theory that dreaming serves the function of trying to handle conflicts met by the individual during waking life, but not resolved at the time. In order to do this, several hypotheses will be advanced concerning the different observable content of dreams of two different populations. A relationship will be drawn between this difference in content and the known difference in the types of conflicts common to each of the populations.
Date: January 1968
Creator: West, Helen Louise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Complex Adaptive Systems: Adapting and Managing Teams and Team Conflict

Description: This book chapter provides an overview of teams, complex adaptive systems, conflict stages, and conflict models, while also presenting adaptive leadership as a style that offers organizations with the capabilities of reacting to changing environments quickly.
Date: August 1, 2018
Creator: Turner, John; Baker, Rose M. & Morris, Mark
Partner: UNT College of Information

Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Modeling Social Unrest in Karachi, Pakistan

Description: Social unrest represents a major challenge for policy makers around the globe, as it can quickly escalate from small scale disturbances to highly public protests, riots and even civil war. This research was motivated by a need to understand social instability and to unpack the comments made during a spring 2013 conference hosted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security and the U.S. Institute for Peace, where policymakers noted that models considering social instability are often not suitable for decision-making. This analysis shows that existing state level models of instability could be improved in spatial scale to the city level, even without significantly improved data access. Better data would make this analysis more complete and likely improve the quality of the model. Another challenge with incorporating modeling into decision-making is the need to understand uncertainty in a model. Policy makers are frequently tasked with making decisions without a clear outcome, so characterization of uncertainty is critical. This report describes the work and findings of the project. It took place in three phases: a literature review of social stability research, a “hindsight scan” that looked at historical data, and a “foresight scan” looking at future scenarios.
Date: January 1, 2014
Creator: Olson, Jarrod; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Hund, Gretchen & Fagley, Erik M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role of Attachment in Perceptions of Interparental Conflict and Behavior Problems in Middle Childhood

Description: The current study investigated the association of interparental conflict, parent-child attachment, and children's behavior problems in middle childhood. Although the effects of interparental conflict have been studied extensively, there has been little research done in the developmental period of middle childhood. This study examined the potential mediating role of the attachment relationship between parents and children in a community sample consisting of 86 two-parent families with at least one child between the ages of 8-11. Path modeling procedures indicated that attachment security serves as a mediator between interparental conflict and child behavior problems based on child reports. In particular, child-reported attachment security to the mother significantly mediated the association between children's perceptions of threat from interparental conflict and child-reported internalizing and inattentive/hyperactive symptoms. Child-reported attachment security to the father was not a significant mediator and mediation was not supported in parent-report models. The current findings have implications for families experiencing conflict and speak to the importance of attachment in the parent-child relationship when explaining the association between instances of interparental conflict and child behavioral outcomes. In particular, parents who engage in conflict can prevent the damaging effects of that conflict by making the conflict less overt, explaining to children the reasons for the conflict, and providing children with some assurance that a secure parent-child and interparental relationship is still present, despite the conflict.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Cusimano, Angela Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Amnesty for Draft Evaders and Others: Pros and Cons and Possible Compromises

Description: This report discusses the pros and cons of offering amnesty to draft evaders, deserters, and those dishonorably discharged from the military during the Vietnam War along with possible compromises through providing various opinions on the issue offered in Congressional testimony, the news media, and constituent letters.
Date: April 19, 1972
Creator: Etridge, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Arab-Israeli Conflict Over Palestine: A Catalog of Issues and Problems as Defined by Opposing Arguments

Description: This report discusses the Arab-Israeli conflict and outlines major views on both sides regarding rights to the land and territorial divisions. It also discusses the ongoing military and economic warfare between them and international attempts to negotiate a diplomatic settlement. Maps illustrating historical divisions and proposals are provided.
Date: January 22, 1971
Creator: Mark, Clyde R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chief Student Affairs Officers in 4-Year Public Institutions of Higher Education: An Exploratory Investigation Into Their Conflict Management Styles and Praxis

Description: This study investigated the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The data for the study were collected using Hall's Conflict Management Survey. The sample for the study consisted of 25 chief student affairs officers. The purpose of the study was to identify the conflict management style preferences of chief student affairs officers. The other variables studied to ascertain if they had an impact on the style preferences were age, gender, number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer, ethnicity, and the size (enrollment) of their employing institution. The study found statistically significant associations (p<.05) between ethnicity and conflict management style, specifically the synergistic and win-lose styles, and between the synergistic style and age. The association between ethnicity and conflict management style could be attributed to the fact that the Caucasian group of chief student affairs officers comprised 66.7 % of the synergistic styles and 100 % of the win-lose styles. The association between the synergistic style and age could be due to the fact that the majority of the chief student affairs officers had a synergistic style, and of that group, 66.7 % were in the 50-59 age range. No statistically significant associations were found for correlations between conflict management style and gender; conflict management styles and number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer; or conflict management styles and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions. The lack of significance shows that there are no associations between the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers stratified according to gender, number of years of experience, and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Van Duser, Trisha Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Climate change effects on international stability : a white paper.

Description: This white paper represents a summary of work intended to lay the foundation for development of a climatological/agent model of climate-induced conflict. The paper combines several loosely-coupled efforts and is the final report for a four-month late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project funded by the Advanced Concepts Group (ACG). The project involved contributions by many participants having diverse areas of expertise, with the common goal of learning how to tie together the physical and human causes and consequences of climate change. We performed a review of relevant literature on conflict arising from environmental scarcity. Rather than simply reviewing the previous work, we actively collected data from the referenced sources, reproduced some of the work, and explored alternative models. We used the unfolding crisis in Darfur (western Sudan) as a case study of conflict related to or triggered by climate change, and as an exercise for developing a preliminary concept map. We also outlined a plan for implementing agents in a climate model and defined a logical progression toward the ultimate goal of running both types of models simultaneously in a two-way feedback mode, where the behavior of agents influences the climate and climate change affects the agents. Finally, we offer some ''lessons learned'' in attempting to keep a diverse and geographically dispersed group working together by using Web-based collaborative tools.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Murphy, Kathryn; Taylor, Mark A.; Fujii, Joy; Malczynski, Leonard A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Reinert, Rhonda K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Everyday Experience of Satisfaction, Conflict, Anger, and Violence for Women in Love Relationships

Description: The problem of this study addressed how women experience the conflict variables of beliefs about conflict, anger arousal, conflict styles, and received and expressed violence as partners in love relationships and how these factors affect their reported satisfaction. Graduate women (M = 186) from University of North Texas completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), a subscale of Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI), the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), and Interpersonal Conflict Tactics and Strategies Scale (ICTAS), and the Severity of Violence Against Women scale (SVAW). Data were analyzed using MANOVAs with ANOVAs to examine significant differences. Multiple regression procedures were used for the exploratory questions. Women reporting less satisfied relationships were expected to believe that disagreement was more destructive and to report higher anger arousal than those who were more satisfied. The hypotheses were supported. Women who were less satisfied also reported using less constructive conflict tactics and more destructive and avoidant tactics as well as receiving some forms of violence. Expressed violence was not significantly related to low satisfaction. Results suggested that these conflict variables are highly interrelated. Strong feedback loops may develop. Strongly held conflict beliefs may affect the use of destructive and avoidant conflict strategies and increase anger which may reinforce the conflict beliefs. Women who have received violence may use both destructive and avoidant tactics. Use of tactics that escalate then de-escalate conflict suggests that conflict strategies may not be mutually exclusive. However, when a woman is low in anger and has previously received violence from a partner, she may use more avoidant tactics. In contrast women who express violence to their partners may use all three conflict tactics including constructive tactics. This finding suggested that women may express violence as a last resort to get a reaction from their partners.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Smith, R. Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Entering the Executive Branch of Government: Potential Conflicts of Interest With Previous Employments and Affiliations

Description: This report examines the federal laws and regulations relevant to entering into Government employment from the private sector. It is intended to provide those conducting congressional oversight with an outline of some of the issues, rules, regulations, ad oversight tools that may be available regarding this subject.
Date: March 24, 2003
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taylor Force Act: Palestinian Terrorism-Related Payments and U.S. Aid

Description: This report discusses the proposed Taylor Force Act in Congress which relates to the amount of foreign aid sent to the Palestinian Authority and reductions and further requirements being implemented due to Palestinian payments to families of those killed in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict whether as combatants or civilians and Palestinian prisoners in Israeli prisons that have been convicted of terrorism related offenses.
Date: September 12, 2017
Creator: Zanotti, Jim & Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Brief History of Attorney General Recusal

Description: This report lists the fifteen previous instances of U.S. Attorney General's recusing themselves from an investigation since 1989 after the announcement by U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions that he was recusing himself from and any investigations regarding President Donald Trump's presidential campaign.
Date: March 8, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jerusalem: U.S. Recognition as Israel's Capitol and Planned Embassy Move

Description: This report discuses President's Trump's announcement recognizing Jerusalem as the capitol of Israel and stating that the U.S. embassy would be moved there from Tel Aviv "as soon as practicable". It includes an overview of policy questions and concerns, international reactions, and Congressional reactions.
Date: December 8, 2017
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taylor Force Act: Palestinian Terrorism-Related Payments and U.S. Aid

Description: This report discusses possible legislation (the Taylor Force Act) that would affect U.S. aid payments to the Palestinian Authority. It provides background on the concerns that money might go toward payments to families accused of terrorism by Israel, as well as a discussion of proposed bills.
Date: December 12, 2017
Creator: Zanotti, Jim & Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Bombing of North Vietnam and the October 1968 "Understanding"

Description: This report discusses the "1968 Understanding" between North Vietnam and the United States regarding the cessation of bombing over North Vietnam and the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam in November 1970 which triggered protests and debates over the nature and actual content of the aforementioned "Understanding".
Date: February 4, 1971
Creator: Niksch, Larry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Draw-A-Person Technique as a Measure of Sexual Conflict

Description: Since much of the existing research which points to the low validity of the Draw-a-Person technique has used differentiation of diagnostic categories as a criterion, this study will be restricted to a consideration of the Draw-a-Person technique as a means for discriminating between a group of individuals who manifest conflicts in the area of sexual adjustment and a control group which does not show these conflicts in any appreciable amount.
Date: January 1968
Creator: Caspary, Arthur Courtney
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Rhetoric of Agitation and Control in the Chartist Movement in England, 1837-1848

Description: Chapter I includes a description of the Chartist Movement and discusses the criteria found in John W. Bowers and Donovan J. Och's Rhetoric of Agitation and Control that were used to analyze the agitation and control groups of the movement. Chapter II describes the ideologies of both groups. Chapter III analyzes the rhetorical strategies of the agitation group: petition, solidification, promulgation, polarization, non-violent resistance, and confrontation-escalation, and the strategies of the control group: avoidance and suppression. Chapter IV concludes that Chartist agitators effectively used rhetorical strategies; however, the control strategy of suppression was stronger and brought about the demise of Chartism.
Date: May 1974
Creator: McGee, Carla Creighton
Partner: UNT Libraries

A theoretical model of technical professionals in work teams

Description: A two-stage study was conducted which examined role strain and its correlates among technical professional employees in team settings in 14 companies in the United States and Canada. A questionnaire was constructed based on the results of interviews with engineers and managers, and the analysis of simple plot data.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Beyerlein, Susan T.
Partner: UNT Libraries