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Additional Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

Description: Min-K 1400TE (Thermal Ceramics, Augusta, Georgia) insulation material was further characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions in an inert environment. Original characterization of Min-K was undertaken from April 1997 to July 2008 to determine its high temperature compressive strength and stress relaxation behavior up to 900 C in helium along with the formulation of a general model for the mechanical behavior exhibited by Min-K under these conditions. The additional testing described in this report was undertaken from April 2009 to June 2010 in an effort to further evaluate the mechanical behavior of Min-K when subjected to a variety of conditions including alternative test temperatures and time scales than previously measured. The behavior of Min-K under changing environments (temperature and strain), lateral loads, and additional isothermal temperatures was therefore explored.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Hemrick, James Gordon & King, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Failure of a fiber composite lamina under three-dimensional stresses

Description: The efficient use of thick-section fiber composites requires a proven three-dimensional failure model. Numerous failure criteria have been proposed, but the lack of critical experimental results makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of these models. It is shown that the various predictions for failure of a lamina due to the simple state of uniaxial stress plus superposed hydrostatic pressure are disparate. These differences are sufficient to allow evaluation of failure criteria using data that has the normal scatter found for composite materials. A high-pressure test system for fiber composites is described and results for the effects of pressure on the transverse and longitudinal compression strengths of a carbon fiber/epoxy lamina are discussed. Results are compared with a few representative failure models.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: DeTeresa, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aging and PBX 9502

Description: Components made from PBX 9502, an insensitive high explosive formulated with triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F 800 binder, have been in service for nearly two decades. Since that time, samples have been destructively evaluated to determine if potential changes that might affect safety, reliability, or performance have occurred in the high explosive with time. Data from routine, historical testing is reported elsewhere. This paper focuses on specific tests conducted to evaluate the effects of natural aging on handling sensitivity (through the small-scale tests of Human Electrostatic Discharge, friction, and Drop Weight Impact), compressive strength, and thermal ignition. Also reported are the effects of a radiation environment on TATB. Small-scale sensitivity tests show no differences between aged and unaged material. Observed differences in compressive strength behavior are attributed to conditions of original material rather than aging effects. Thermal ignition by flame and laser methods showed no changes between aged and unaged material. Extreme levels of radiation are shown to have only minimal effects in explosive response tests. PBX 9502 is concluded, once again, to be a very stable material, aging gracefully.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Skidmore, C.B.; Idar, D.J.; Buntain, G.A.; Son, S.F. & Sander, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bleed water testing program for controlled low strength material

Description: Bleed water measurements for two Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) mixes were conducted to provide engineering data for the Tank 20F closure activities. CLSM Mix 1 contained 150 pounds of cement per cubic yard whereas CLSM Mix 2 contained 50 pounds per cub yard. SRS currently used CLSM Mix 2 for various applications. Bleed water percentages and generation rates were measured along with flow and compressive strength. This information will be used to select a mix design for the Tank 20F closure activities and to establish the engineering requirements, such as, lift height, time required between lifts and quantity of bleed water to be removed from the tank during the placement activities. Mix 1 is recommended for placement within Tank 20F because it has better flow characteristics, less segregation, lower percentage of bleed water and slightly higher strength. Optimization of Mix 1 was beyond the scope of this study. However, further testing of thickening additives, such as clays (bentonite), sodium silicate or fine silicas maybe useful for decreasing or eliminating bleed water.
Date: November 12, 1996
Creator: Langton, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of a structural polyurethane foam and the effect of particulate loading

Description: The room temperature mechanical properties of a closed-cell, polyurethane encapsulant foam have been measured as a function of foam density. Tests were performed on both unfilled and filler reinforced specimens. Over the range of densities examined, the modulus of the unloaded foam could be described by a power-law relationship with respect to density. This power-law relationship could be explained in terms of the elastic compliance of the cellular structure of the foam using a simple geometric model found in the literature. The collapse stress of the foam was also found to exhibit a power-law relationship with respect to density. Additions of an aluminum powder filler increased the modulus relative to the unfilled foam.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L. & Whinnery, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive strength of masonry (f{sub m}{prime}) for the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant, Hollow Clay Tile Walls

Description: Prism tests have been performed on the HCT walls. The three groups of data were treated as separate data points and averaged. The recommended effective compressive strengths for HCT walls are 735 psi for single wythe 6- and 8-in. walls, and 495 psi for the double wythe 13-in. walls.
Date: April 17, 1995
Creator: Fricke, K.E. & Flanagan, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

Description: This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Biyani, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of angle-ply orientation on compression strength of composite laminates

Description: An experimental program was initiated to investigate the effect of angle-ply orientations on the compressive strength (X{sub 1C}) of 0{degree} plies in fiber reinforced composite laminates. Graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy test coupons with the generic architecture [0{sub 2}/{+-}{theta}] (where {theta} varied between 0{degree} and 90{degree}) and for the quasi-isotropic architecture were evaluated. The effective compressive strength of the 0{degree} plies varied considerably. The results were related to the Poisson's ratios of the laminates with high Poisson's ratios leading to high transverse tensile strains in the test coupons and lower than expected strengths. Specimens with the [O{sub 2}/{+-}30] architecture had both the highest Poisson's ratio and the lowest calculated ply-level compression strength for the 0{degree} plies. This work has implications in the selection of composite failure criterion for compression performance, design of test coupons for acceptance testing, and the selection of laminate architectures for optimum combinations of compressive and shear behavior. Two commonly used composite failure criteria, the maximum stress and the Tsai-Wu, predict significantly different laminate strengths depending on the Poisson's ratio of the laminate. This implies that the biaxial stress state in the laminate needs to be carefully considered before backing out unidirectional properties.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: DeTeresa, S J & Hoppel, C P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the stress/strain response of energetic materials as a function of strain rate and temperature: PBX 9501 and Mock 9501

Description: We have measured the stress/strain behavior of PBX 9501, Mock 900-21 and two new mocks consisting of monoclinic granular sugar embedded in (1) a BDNPA-F/estane binder (a 9501 material mock; a hard organic crystal embedded in a plastic) and (2) neat estane (an LX-14 mock) at strain rates from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -1}, at two L/D`s and at two temperatures (25 and 60 C). We find that the compressive strength falls with increasing temperature and rises with increasing strain rate. We also find that the new 9501 sugar mock most closely resembles the behavior of the 9501 explosive and differences may be attributable to the different ages of the estane binder used.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Funk, D.J.; Laabs, G.W.; Peterson, P.D. & Asay, B.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Yield strength and stress relaxation data for an adhesive used in butt joint tests

Description: Mechanical property data are reported for Epon 828/T403, an amine-cured epoxy adhesive. Data include compression modulus, compression yield strength and compression stress relaxation as a function of stress level, strain rate, and temperature and Mode I fracture toughness as a function of temperature. This data was generated to support a study investigating how temperature effects joint strength and the corresponding interface comer fracture toughness for adhesively bonded butt joints.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Guess, T.R. & Reedy, E.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pelletization of fine coals. Technical progress report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

Description: The first step consisted of producing a batch of seed pellets (in the size range {minus}4.75+4.00 mm) by pelletizing of 200 g of ground coal with desired additives (surface active agents and binders) and moisture content for 800 revolutions. The seed pellets are obtained by sieving the output from the batch drum. The second step involved the production of finished size pellets by layering the seed pellets with stepwise addition of moist feed which is again produced with desired additives and moisture content. Specifically, 25 g of the {minus}4.75+4.00 mm seed pellets are placed in the drum and 20 g of moist fluffy feed is added every 80 revolutions for five times. After 400 revolutions the pellets are sieved on the 4.75 mm screen and the screen undersize which corresponds to new seeds generated during the layering cycles is discarded. Now, 30 g of moist fluffy feed is added every 50 revolutions for five more cycles. These layered pellets are sieved again and the {minus}9.5+8.00 mm pellets. Coal agglomerates produced by the above described technique are nice and spherical. With our past experience with iron ore pelletization we learnt that as long as sufficient fluffy feed is available for the consumption by the seed pellets, they generally grow by forming layers consuming the feed rather than grow by coalescence. This is found to be true in the case of coal also. Growth by coalescence of coal pellets is found to yield raspberry type uneven agglomerates. After ascertaining the possibility of producing nice spherical pellets, several experiments have been conducted to develop the above standard procedure for making pellets in a reproducible way and testing them for their quality.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Sastry, K. V. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The mission of the 9975 package, originally designed only for transportation of radioactive materials, has been broadened to include storage at the Savannah River Site. Two components of this package, namely the containment vessel O-rings and fiberboard overpack, require continued integrity assessment under the storage conditions. The performance of the components over time is being evaluated using accelerated-aging studies. Compression stress relaxation (CSR) and leak testing are being used to measure the performance of O-rings. The performance of the fiberboard is being evaluated using compression strength, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and other physical properties. Models developed from the data collected provide an initial prediction of service life for the two components, and support the conclusion that normal service conditions will not degrade the performance of the package beyond specified functional requirements for the first assessment interval. Increased confidence in this conclusion is derived from field surveillance data and destructive evaluation of packages removed from storage.
Date: November 10, 2009
Creator: Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W. & Dunn, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Samples have been prepared from a softwood fiberboard lower subassembly. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples. Some of the observed differences result from the limited exposure periods of the softwood fiberboard samples, and the impact of seasonal humidity levels. Testing following additional conditioning will continue and should eliminate this bias. Post-conditioning data have been measured on a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but much of the compression strength data tends toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material. Cane fiberboard wall sheathing is specified for thermal insulation and impact resistance in 9975 shipping packages. Softwood fiberboard manufactured by Knight-Celotex was approved as an acceptable substitute for transportation in 2008. Data in the literature [1] show a consistent trend in thermal properties of fiberboard as a function of temperature, density and/or moisture content regardless of material source. Thermal and mechanical properties were measured for un-aged softwood fiberboard samples, and found to be sufficiently similar to those of un-aged cane fiberboard to support the acceptance of 9975 packages with softwood fiberboard overpack into KAMS for storage. The continued acceptability of aged softwood fiberboard to meet KAMS storage requirements was the subject of subsequent activities. This is an interim status report for experiments carried out per Task Technical Plan WSRC-TR-2008-00024 [2], ...
Date: January 8, 2010
Creator: Daugherty, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective Size Analysis of the Diametral Compression (Brazil) Test Specimen

Description: This study considers the finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and Weibull effective size analysis for the diametral compression (DC) or Brazil specimen loaded with three different push-rod geometries. Those geometries are a flat push-rod, a push-rod whose radius of curvature is larger than that for the DC specimen, and a push-rod whose radius of curvature matches that of the DC specimen. Such established effective size analysis recognizes that the tensile strength of structural ceramics is typically one to two orders of magnitude less than its compressive strength. Therefore, because fracture is much more apt to result from a tensile stress than a compressive one, this traditional analysis only considers the first principal tensile stress field in the mechanically loaded ceramic component for the effective size analysis. The effective areas and effective volumes were computed as function of Weibull modulus using the CARES/Life code. Particular attention was devoted to the effect of mesh sensitivity and localized stress concentration. The effect of specimen width on the stress state was also investigated. The effects of push-rod geometry, the use of steel versus WC push-rods, and considering a frictionless versus no-slip interface between push-rod and specimen on the maximum stresses, where those stresses are located, and the effective area and effective volume results are described. Of the three push-rod geometries, it is concluded that the push-rod (made from WC rather than steel) whose radius of curvature matches that of the DC specimen is the most apt to cause fracture initiation within the specimen's bulk rather than at the loading interface. Therefore, its geometry is the most likely to produce a valid diametral compression strength test. However, the DC specimen remains inefficient in terms of its area and volume efficiencies; namely, the tensile strength of only a few percent of the specimen's entire area or ...
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Jadaan, Osama M. & Wereszczak, Andrew A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of Graphite Oxidation Work

Description: Data were developed to compare the extent of structural damage associated with high temperature exposure to an air leak. Two materials, NBG-18 graphite and unpurified PCEA graphite have been tested as of this report. The scope was limited to isothermal oxidation at a single temperature, 750°C. Ambient post-oxidation compression strength testing was performed for three levels of burn off (1%, 5%, and 10% mass loss) for two leak scenarios: 100% air and 10% air in helium. Temperature, gas flow, and dynamic mass loss oxidation conditions were monitored and recorded for each sample. The oxidation period was controlled with flow of inert gas during the thermal ramp and upon cool down with a constant 10 liter per minute flow maintained throughout furnace operation. Compressive strengths of parallel un-oxidized samples were tested to assess the relative mass loss effects. In addition to baseline samples matching the un-oxidized dimensions of the oxidized samples, two sets of mechanically reduced samples were prepared. One set was trimmed to achieve the desired mass loss by removing an effectively uniform depth from the geometric surface of the sample. The other set was cored to produce a full penetration axial hole down the center of each sample.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Smith, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan for buried waste containment system materials

Description: The objectives of the FY 1997 barrier material work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory are to (1) select a waste barrier material and verify that it is compatible with the Buried Waste Containment System Process, and (2) determine if, and how, the Buried Waste Containment System emplacement process affects the material properties and performance (on proof of principle scale). This test plan describes a set of measurements and procedures used to validate a waste barrier material for the Buried Waste Containment System. A latex modified proprietary cement manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Company will be tested. Emplacement properties required for the Buried Waste Containment System process are: slump between 8 and 10 in., set time between 15 and 30 minutes, compressive strength at set of 20 psi minimum, and set temperature less than 100{degrees}C. Durability properties include resistance to degradation from carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates. A set of baseline barrier material properties will be determined to provide a data base for comparison with the barrier materials when tested in the field. The measurements include permeability, petrographic analysis to determine separation and/or segregation of mix components, and a set of mechanical properties. The measurements will be repeated on specimens from the field test material. The data will be used to determine if the Buried Waste Containment System equipment changes the material. The emplacement properties will be determined using standard laboratory procedures and instruments. Durability of the barrier material will be evaluated by determining the effect of carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates on the compressive strength of the barrier material. The baseline properties will be determined using standard ASTM procedures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Weidner, J. & Shaw, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How geometric details can affect the strength of adhesive lap joints

Description: The durability of adhesively bonded joints--when utilized as blade attachments--has a significant impact on the performance of wind turbines. Accordingly, there is interest in determining how geometric details affect the strength of these joints. Finite element analyses were performed to aid in the selection of three composite-to-metal joint geometries for compressive axial testing. Both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted. Analysis and testing of these joints provide insight into the effects of adding extra adhesive to the end of the bond or tapering the metal adherend. The issue of whether the relative performance of different joints in monotonic tests can be used to predict the relative fatigue strength of these joints is also addressed.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Metzinger, K.E. & Guess, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the reduction of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. 1: Neutron diffraction studies

Description: In-situ metal-ceramic composites consisting of Ni particles embedded in alumina matrices were obtained by the partial reduction of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The volume shrinkage that accompanies the reduction reaction generates residual stresses. Neutron diffraction studies were performed for the first time at various temperatures to study the evolution of phases in situ during reduction and to determine their stress state. It was determined that compressive stresses of several hundred MPa in magnitude can be generated inside the unreduced part of spinel. It was also found that the stress generation is strongly influenced by material and processing variables such as reduction temperature and the initial density of spinel. The diffraction results were then compared to finite element calculations and a reasonable agreement was obtained.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Uestuendag, E.; Hanan, J.C.; Clausen, B.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Sass, S.L. & Barbieri, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of thermomechanical processing on the resulting mechanical properties of 6101 aluminum foam

Description: Porous materials represent a tremendous weight savings for light-weight structural applications. The fabrication path can play a critical role in the resulting properties. High porosity aluminum was fabricated in a number of ways. The starting material was a cast 6101 aluminum that had a relative density of 9.8%. The cast aluminum block was compressed by uniaxial, biaxial, and triaxial densification. Uniaxial compression was done at room temperature and 200 C. Biaxial compression was achieved by unidirectional rolling at room temperature and 200 C. Triaxial compression was done by cold isostatic pressing at 3.4, 6.7, and 34 MPa (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ksi). Metallography and mechanical test specimens were machines from the processed bars. The mechanical properties showed that the relative yield strength depended both on relative density and processing temperature.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Margevicius, R.W.; Stanek, P.W. & Jacobson, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of hydraulic cement admixture waste forms for sodium-bearing, high aluminum, and high zirconium wastes

Description: A three-way blend of portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested on simulated acidic high sodium, aluminum, and zirconium low-level wastes (LLW). Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For sodium LLW, a 21% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.3 and a compressive strength of 2750 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For aluminum LLW, a 10% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4.50 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 21% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3570 pounds per square inch.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Herbst, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SEM studies of stressed and irradiated Climax Stock quartz monzonite

Description: In an effort to find the mechanism by which gamma irradiation weakens the unconfined compressive strength of Climax Stock quartz monzonite (CSQM), sections of rock which had been irradiated and loaded to near failure were studied by scanning electron microscopy and compared to sections of rock which had been loaded but not irradiated. The quantities measured and compared were numbers and lengths of microfractures in the rock. We found that the crack parameters depended neither on irradiation treatment nor even on stress history, except in one sample which actually failed. By comparison to cracks counted in other granites by other workers, the crack statistics on CSQM are much noisier and much less indicative of stress history. CSQM is structurally more heterogeneous than the other granites, which is probably the cause of the greater noise level. 12 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Beiriger, J.M. & Durham, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department