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Energy efficiency improvements in Chinese compressed airsystems

Description: Industrial compressed air systems use more than 9 percent ofall electricity used in China. Experience in China and elsewhere hasshown that these systems can be much more energy efficient when viewed asa whole system and rather than as isolated components.This paper presentsa summary and analysis of several compressed air system assessments.Through these assessments, typical compressed air management practices inChina are analyzed. Recommendations are made concerning immediate actionsthat China s enterprises can make to improve compressed air systemefficiency using best available technology and managementstrategies.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: McKane, Aimee; Li, Li; Li, Yuqi & Taranto, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

Description: Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Administration., United States. Bonneville Power
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Making industrial energy efficiency mainstream and profitable: Where public benefit and private interests intersect

Description: In 1996, the US Department of Energy s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Motor Challenge program began a unique collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Partnerships were sought with equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that had extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners were neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. The assumption was that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a motor system efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. A substantial effort was made to engage industrial suppliers in delivering program information as part of their customer interactions. A recent independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program attributes $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation.In 1997, the Compressed Air Challenge(R) (CAC) was developed as an outgrowth of the partnership concept. In this model, OIT is one of 15 sponsors who collaborated to create a national program of compressed air system training. The CAC has gone a step further by setting up a development and deployment model based on shared interests and shared costs among public, private, and not-for-profit organizations that serve industrial customers. Since the first CAC training session in 1999, approximately 3800 people have been trained by CAC qualified instructors--both end users and suppliers. More impressively, the entire compressed air market has begun to shift from a component-based to a system-based approach, largely as the result of collaboration. The typical leverage for OIT participation in a CAC training session is 10:1. During the past year, OIT has reorganized to integrate all of its near-term industrial offerings such as the Motor, Compressed Air, and Steam Challenges under a single ...
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: McKane, Aimee T.; Tutterow, Vestal & Cockrill, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measure it, See it, Manage it: Using Real Time Data to Benchmark,Optimize, and Sustain System Energy Efficiency

Description: Even after years of training and awareness building at thestate and national level, industrial cross-cutting systems (motor-driven,steam, process heating) continue to offer significant opportunities forenergy savings. The US Department of Energy estimates these remainingsavings at more than 7 percent of all industrial energy use. This paperpresents a different approach to promoting industrial system energyefficiency -- providing plant personnel with ready access to data uponwhich to base energy management decisions.In 2005, a Del Monte Foodsfruit processing plant in Modesto, California worked with LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)to specify and purchase permanentinstrumentation for monitoring their compressed air system. This work,completed as part of a demonstration project under a State TechnologiesAdvancement Collaborative (STAC) grant, was designed to demonstrate theeffectiveness of enterprise energy management (EEM), which is predicatedon the assumption that the energy efficiency of existing, cross-cuttingindustrial systems (motor-driven, steam) can be improved by providingmanagement and operating personnel with real-time data on energy use. Theinitial STAC grant provided for the installation and some initialanalyses, but did not address the larger issue of integrating these newdata into an ongoing energy management program for the compressed airsystem.The California Energy Commission (CEC) decided to support furtheranalysis to identify potential for air system optimization. Through theCEC's Energy in Agriculture Program, a compressed air system audit wasperformed by Tom Taranto to: Measure and document the system's baselineand CASE Index of present operation; Establish methods to sustain anongoing CASE Index measure of performance; Use AIRMaster+ to analyzesupply side performance as compared to the CASE Index; Identify demandside opportunities for efficiency and performance improvement; Assesssupply / demand balance and energy reduction opportunities; Evaluate thepresent air compressor control strategy and potential improvement, andCollect data to benchmark parameters for compressed air systems atsimilar facilities.This paper addresses the benefits and limitations ofboth continuous and targeted measurement in benchmarking, optimizing, andsustaining an efficient compressed air system. ...
Date: July 2, 2007
Creator: Taranto, Thomas; McKane, Aimee; Amon, Ricardo & Maulhardt, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

Description: This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller`s location.
Date: February 12, 1996
Creator: Kostelnik, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving industrial compressed air system performance: Office of Industrial Technologies brochure

Description: The Compressed Air Challenge, initiated by DOE, the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, and the Energy Center for Wisconsin, is in keeping with OIT's mission of partnering with industry, and other government and non-governmental organizations, to significantly improve the resource efficiency and competitiveness of the materials and process industries. They are working to improve the efficiency and reliability of industrial compressed air systems, and in the process help industry realize reduced operating costs and increased production.
Date: February 4, 1999
Creator: Ericksen, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

Description: This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles & Bauer, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

Description: This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical ...
Date: July 15, 2011
Creator: Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C. & Song, W.-K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storage opportunities in Arizona bedded evaporites

Description: Arizona is endowed with incredibly diverse natural beauty, and has also been blessed with at least seven discrete deposits of bedded salt. These deposits are dispersed around the state and cover some 2, 500 square miles; they currently contain 14 LPG storage caverns, with preliminary plans for more in the future. The areal extent and thickness of the deposits creates the opportunity for greatly expanded storage of LPG, natural gas, and compressed air energy storage (CAES). The location of salt deposits near Tucson and Phoenix may make CAES an attractive prospect in the future. The diversity of both locations and evaporate characteristics allows for much tailoring of individual operations to meet specific requirements.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Neal, J.T. & Rauzi, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

Description: Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization.
Date: January 26, 1999
Creator: Ericksen, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1980

Description: All of the major research funded under the Compressed Air Energy Storage Technology Program during the period March 1980 to March 1981 is described. This annual report is divided into two segments: Reservoir Stability Studies and Second-Generation Concepts Studies. The first represents research performed to establish stability criteria for CAES reservoirs while the second reports progress on research performed on second-generation CAES concepts. The report consists of project reports authored by research engineers and scientists from PNL and numerous subcontractors including universities, architect-engineering, and other private firms.
Date: June 1, 1981
Creator: Kannberg, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

Description: A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.
Date: May 17, 2007
Creator: Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E. & Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

Description: The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Holst, Kent (Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency, Traer, IA); Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H. (Schulte Associates LLC, Northfield, MN) & Critelli, Nicholas (Critelli Law Office PC, Des Moines, IA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Temperature-Controlled Chamber Based on Vortex Cooling

Description: We describe the construction and performance of a temperature-controlled chamber, based on a 'vortex' cooler. The chamber is capable of operation between room temperature and -42 C. The only nontrivial infrastructure requirement is dry compressed gas at 100 psi and 8 cfm. The chamber is economical, easy to operate and to build using commercially available parts. Since the refrigerant is compressed air, the chamber has minimal environmental impact. It does not generate mechanical vibrations nor electrical noise. It is suitable for testing electronically sensitive and low-power electronics at cold temperatures. We measured the reserve cooling capacity of the cold plate to be 17 watts at -27 C. At the limiting temperature of -42 C, reserve cooling power reduces to zero.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Krider, John & Nguyen, Hogan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of unmitigated release from reverse circulation drilling of a borehole three meters south of borehole 41-15-09 near SST 241-SX-115

Description: It is known that underground, single shell tank (SST) 241-SX-115 leaked 50,000 gallons of contaminated liquid to the soil. Now there is a campaign to more fully characterize the plume from that leak. To determine radionuclide concentrations in the vadose zone, boring into the soil and collecting samples of it are needed. It was decided to bore a new hole 3 m (9.8 ft) from existing borehole number 41-15-09, located near the south edge of the tank. Drilling and sampling will be done with the use of reverse circulation drilling, which uses compressed air to power the drill bit and sweep out drillings into separation and sampling equipment. Prior to drilling, however, it was determined that safety assessment calculations were needed to find out if postulated releases from the drilling would pose unacceptable risk to onsite and offsite receptors. Unacceptable risk would require the design and construction of safety significant equipment for prevention or mitigation of the release.
Date: May 25, 1999
Creator: SCOTT, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department