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Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

Description: The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for Landscape Waste

Description: DOE orders mandate the development of a waste minimization program. The program`s goals are to: reduce volumes of wastes and toxicity; implement a system of tracking and reporting improvements; and devise a method for performing tasks. To satisfy the requirements of this program, Sandia conducts pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) to identify waste-generating processes. The information collected from a PPOA then is used to identify waste minimization opportunities. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted using Sandia`s new methodology for prioritizing, evaluating and managing site-wide waste streams. This new methodology and the list of priority waste streams are described in the wastes revision of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Plant. This PPOA addresses landscape waste minimization, partially in response to recent legislation and regulations.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Phillips, N.M. & Raubfogel, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An overview of the sustainability of solid waste management at military installations

Description: Sustainable municipal solid waste management at military solutions necessitates a combined approach that includes waste reduction, alternative disposal techniques, and increased recycling. Military installations are unique because they often represent large employers in the region in which they are located, thereby making any practices they employ impact overall waste management strategies of the region. Solutions for waste sustainability will be dependent on operational directives and base location, availability of resources such as water and energy, and size of population. Presented in this paper are descriptions of available waste strategies that can be used to support sustainable waste management. Results presented indicate source reduction and recycling to be the most sustainable solutions. However, new waste-to-energy plants and composting have potential to improve on these well proven techniques and allow military installations to achieve sustainable waste management.
Date: August 15, 2009
Creator: Borglin, S.; Shore, J.; Worden, H. & Jain, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan for composting studies involving weight and volume reduction of leaf and stalk biomass: DOE/OTD TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 {ampersand} TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41

Description: SRTC and a panel of experts from off-site previously determined that composting was the most attractive alternative for reducing the volume and weight of biomass that was slightly radioactive. The SRTC proposed scope of work for Subtask 2 of TTP{number_sign} SR17SS53 and TTP{number_sign} SR18SS41 involves bench scale studies to assess the rates and efficiencies of various composting schemes for volume and weight reduction of leaf and stalk biomass (SB). Ultimately, the data will be used to design a composting process for biomass proposed by MSE for phytoremediation studies at SRS. This could drastically reduce costs for transporting and disposing of contaminated biomass resulting from a future major phytoremediation effort for soil clean-up at the site. The composting studies at SRTC includes collaboration with personnel from the University of Georgia, who will conduct chemical analyses of the plant material after harvest, pre-treatment, and composting for specific time periods. Parameters to be measured will include: lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose, carbon and nitrogen. The overall objective of this project is to identify or develop: (1) an inexpensive source of inoculum (consisting of nutrients and/or microorganisms) capable of significantly enhancing biomass degradation, (2) an optimum range of operating parameters for the composting process, and (3) a process design for the solid state degradation of lignocellulosic biomass contaminated with radionuclides that is superior to existing alternatives for dealing with such waste.
Date: May 28, 1997
Creator: Wilde, E.W.; Kastner, J.; Murphy, C. & Santo Domingo, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

Description: The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

Description: Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result ...
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR & LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated solid waste management of Springfield, Massachusetts

Description: The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1993 cost of the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for Municipal Solid Waste management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of managing MSW in Springfield; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Validation of an Automated Multiunit Composting System.

Description: This thesis covers the design of an automated multiunit composting system (AMUCS) that was constructed to meet the experimental apparatus requirements of the ASTM D5338 standard. The design of the AMUCS is discussed in full detail and validated with two experiments. The first experiment was used to validate the operation of the AMUCS with a 15 day experiment. During this experiment visual observations were made to visually observe degradation. Thermal properties and stability tests were performed to quantify the effects of degradation on the polymer samples, and the carbon metabolized from the degradation of samples was measured. The second experiment used the AMUCS to determine the effect of synthetic clay nanofiller on the aerobic biodegradability behavior of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).
Date: December 2009
Creator: Pickens, Mark Everett
Partner: UNT Libraries

Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

Description: Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.
Date: May 11, 2011
Creator: Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 1--2

Description: This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons covering surface tension in water, the life cycle of plants, the protective function of the skeletal system, functions and behavior of the circulatory system and how to measure its activities, structure and functions of the digestive system, simple food chains, how that many foods come from different plant parts, importance of a good diet, distinguishing living and non-living things, and the benefits of composting. 8 figs.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

Description: This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sewage Disposal on the Farm and the Protection of Drinking Water

Description: Report discussing the proper disposal of sewage in rural areas, with special emphasis on practices which protect drinking water supplies. Methods for disposal of fecal matter include the privy, cesspool, dry-earth closet, and water-closet while liquid sewage may be disposed of in vaults or through irrigation systems. Proper disposal of kitchen scraps, ashes, and other common waste products is briefly explained. Water contamination and well construction is also discussed
Date: 1896
Creator: Smith, Theobald, 1859-1934
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

Description: Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated to be 4,500 to 5,000 Btu/lb. The feasibility of composting reclaimed waste at other landfill reclamation projects will depend upon site-specific technical and economic factors, including size and nature of the organic fraction of the waste mass, local processing costs, and the cost of waste disposal alternatives.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Salerni, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

Description: Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.
Date: November 15, 2009
Creator: Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D'haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

Description: With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford`s Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Engel, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

Description: This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.
Date: May 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

Description: This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department