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Micro and nano composites composed of a polymer matrix and a metal disperse phase.

Description: Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Hytrel (a thermoplastic elastomer) were used as polymeric matrices in polymer + metal composites. The concentration of micrometric (Al, Ag and Ni) as well as nanometric particles (Al and Ag) was varied from 0 to 10 %. Composites were prepared by blending followed by injection molding. The resulting samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) in order to determine their microstructure. Certain mechanical properties of the composites were also determined. Static and dynamic friction was measured. The scratch resistance of the specimens was determined. A study of the wear mechanisms in the samples was performed. The Al micro- and nanoparticles as well as Ni microparticles are well dispersed throughout the material while Ag micro and nanoparticles tend to form agglomerates. Generally the presence of microcomposites affects negatively the mechanical properties. For the nanoparticles, composites with a higher elastic modulus than that of the neat materials are achievable. For both micro- and nanocomposites it is feasible to lower the friction values with respective to the neat polymers. The addition of metal particles to polymers also improves the scratch resistance of the composites, particularly so for microcomposites. The inclusion of Ag and Ni particles causes an increase in the wear loss volume while Al can reduce the wear for both polymeric matrices.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Olea Mejia, Oscar Fernando
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Retting on Surface Chemistry and Mechanical Performance Interactions in Natural Fibers for High Performance Polymer Composites

Description: Sustainability through replacement of non-renewable fibers with renewable fibers is an ecological need. Impact of transportation costs from South-east Asia on the life cycle analysis of the composite is detrimental. Kenaf is an easily grown crop in America. Farm based processing involves placing the harvested crop in rivers and ponds, where retting of the fibers from the plant (separation into fibers) can take 2 weeks or more. The objective of this thesis is to analyze industrially viable processes for generating fibers and examine their synergistic impact on mechanical performance, surface topography and chemistry for functional composites. Comparison has been made with commercial and conventional retting process, including alkali retting, enzymatic retting, retting in river and pond water (retting occurs by natural microbial population) with controlled microbial retting. The resulting kenaf fibers were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), polarized optical microscopy (POM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) optical fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and carbohydrate analysis. DMA results showed that pectinase and microbe treated fibers have superior viscoelastic properties compared to alkali retting. XPS, Raman, FT-IR and biochemical analysis indicated that the controlled microbial and pectinase retting was effective in removing pectin, hemicellulose and lignin. SEM, optical microscopy and AFM analysis showed the surface morphology and cross sectional architecture were preserved in pectinase retting. Experimental results showed that enzymatic retting at 48 hours and controlled microbial retting at 72 hours yield uniform and superior quality fibers compared to alkali and natural retting process. Controlled microbial retting is an inexpensive way to produce quality fibers for polymer composite reinforcement.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Ramesh, Dinesh
Partner: UNT Libraries

S09 Symposium KK, Structure-Property Relationships in Biomineralized and Biomimetic Composites

Description: The technical presentations and discussions at this symposium disseminated and assessed current research and defined future directions in biomaterials research, with a focus on structure-function relationships in biological and biomimetic composites. The invited and contributed talks covered a diverse range of topics from fundamental biology, physics, chemistry, and materials science to potential applications in developing areas such as light-weight composites, multifunctional and smart materials, biomedical engineering, and nanoscaled sensors. The invited speakers were chosen to create a stimulating program with a mixture of established and junior faculty, industrial and academic researchers, and American and international experts in the field. This symposium served as an excellent introduction to the area for younger scientists (graduate students and post-doctoral researchers). Direct interactions between participants also helped to promote potential future collaborations involving multiple disciplines and institutions.
Date: June 7, 2010
Creator: Kisailus, David; Estroff, Lara; Gupta, Himadri S.; Landis, William J. & Zavattieri, Pablo D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermoplastic and Thermoset Natural Fiber Composite and Sandwich Performance

Description: The objective of this thesis is to investigate the effects of adding natural fiber (kenaf fiber, retted kenaf fiber, and sugarcane fiber) into polymer materials. The effects are obtained by considering three main parts. 1. Performance in thermoplastic composites. The effect of fiber retting on polymer composite crystallization and mechanical performance was investigated. PHBV/PBAT in 80/20 blend ratio was modified using 5% by weight kenaf fiber. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the composites was done to investigate the glass transition and the modulus at sub-ambient and ambient temperatures. ESEM was conducted to analyze fiber topography which revealed smoother surfaces on the pectinase retted fibers. 2. Performance in thermoset composites. The effect of the incorporation of natural fibers of kenaf and of sugarcane combined with the polyester resin matrix is investigated. A comparison of mechanical properties of kenaf polyester composite, sugarcane polyester composite and pure polyester in tensile, bending, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA) and moisture test on performance is measured.. 3. Performance in sandwich composites. The comparison of the performance characteristics and mechanical properties of natural fiber composites panels with soft and rigid foam cores are evaluated. A thorough test of the mechanical behavior of composites sandwich materials in tensile, bending and DCB is presented here.
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Date: May 2014
Creator: Yang, Bing
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mechanical Properties of Polymer Modified Mortar

Description: The mechanical properties of the polymer-modified mortar are markedly improved over conventional cement mortar. We utilized recycled ABS in powder form and a polymer latex emulsion, polymer percentage ranges from 0 to 25 percent by polymer/cement ratio were investigated. The mechanical properties investigated were compression strength and adhesion strength. Compression strength effects did not have an impact on adhesion strength. Adhesion strength was calculated with pullout testing apparatus designed by the author. Results indicate that recycled ABS had a lower adhesive strength than the acrylic latex emulsion and the base mortar, but did increase in adhesive strength when mixed with maleic-anhydride. The adhesive strength was investigated for a Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) made of an "E" glass fiber that is a continuous strand roving oriented and pre-tensioned longitudinally in an isopthalic polyester matrix material. The FRP rebar was compared to standard steel rebars, and found that the standard steel corrugated rebar had a higher adhesive strength, due to mechanical interlocking. This was clarified by measurements using a smooth steel rebar. Characterization of the polymer-modified mortar was conducted by pore analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy was implemented to view the polymer particles, the cement fibrils formed by the hydration, and to prove Ohama's theory of network structure.
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Date: August 2002
Creator: Palos, Artemio
Partner: UNT Libraries

Formal Concerns in Conceptual Sculpture

Description: The problem I choose dealt with a new material to use in conceptual art. Since the nature of my work deals with ribbed sculptural forms that explore conceptual abstractions of recorded observations, I investigated a new material called composites. A composite is defined as two or more materials that are combined to share the best qualities of both. Laminated foam core, nylon fabric weave, vinyl, and resin composites may introduce an aesthetic and structural advantage to traditional material such as wood and metal. Innovations in laminated composites and methods of joining unfamiliar materials could offer an advantage for these new sculptures. A series of six ribbed sculptural forms were constructed, which consist of laminated composite material relating to personal observations expressed in my journal in the last quarter of the year 2000. The material was introduced in the desire for a cohesive formal relationship between the concepts and the forms. Patron, 2001 Mixed Media, 19"x 8"x 4"; PDQ, 2001 Mixed Media, 10"x 8"x 2"; PDQ2, 2001 Mixed Media, 21"x27"x3"; Bishop, 2001 Mixed Media, 23"x11"x5"; Coaster, 2001 Mixed Media, 14"x12"x9" and Putsch, 2001 Mixed Media, 69"x48"x24".
Date: May 2001
Creator: Stromberg, Matthew Gray
Partner: UNT Libraries

Frequency dependent thermal expansion in binary viscoelasticcomposites

Description: The effective thermal expansion coefficient beta* of abinary viscoelastic composite is shown to be frequency dependent even ifthe thermal expansion coefficients beta A and beta B of both constituentsare themselves frequency independent. Exact calculations for binaryviscoelastic systems show that beta* is related to constituent valuesbeta A, beta B, volume fractions, and bulk moduli KA, KB, as well as tothe overall bulk modulus K* of the composite system. Then, beta* isdetermined for isotropic systems by first bounding (or measuring) K* andtherefore beta*. For anisotropic systems with hexagonal symmetry, theprincipal values of the thermal expansion beta*perp and beta*para can bedetermined exactly when the constituents form a layered system. In allthe examples studied, it is shown explicitly that the eigenvectors of thethermoviscoelastic system possess non-negative dissipation -- despite thecomplicated analytical behavior of the frequency dependent thermalexpansivities themselves. Methods presented have a variety ofapplications from fluid-fluid mixtures to fluid-solid suspensions, andfrom fluid-saturated porous media to viscoelastic solid-solidcomposites.
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: Berryman, James G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bulk and Interfacial Effects on Density in Polymer Nanocomposites

Description: The barrier properties of polymers are a significant factor in determining the shelf or device lifetime in polymer packaging. Nanocomposites developed from the dispersion of nanometer thick platelets into a host polymer matrix have shown much promise. The magnitude of the benefit on permeability has been different depending on the polymer investigated or the degree of dispersion of the platelet in the polymer. In this dissertation, the effect of density changes in the bulk and at the polymer-platelet interface on permeability of polymer nanocomposites is investigated. Nanocomposites of nylon, PET, and PEN were processed by extrusion. Montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS) in a range of concentrations from 1 to 5% was blended with all three resins. Dispersion of the MLS in the matrix was investigated by using one or a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Variation in bulk density via crystallization was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy. Interfacial densification was investigated using force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. Mechanical properties are reported. Permeability of all films was measured in an in-house built permeability measurement system. The effect of polymer orientation and induced defects on permeability was investigated using biaxially stretched, small and large cycle fatigue samples of PET and nylon nanocomposites. The effect of annealing in nylon and nanocomposites was also investigated. The measured permeability was compared to predicted permeability by considering the MLS as an ideal dispersion and the matrix as a system with concentration dependent crystallinity.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Sahu, Laxmi Kumari
Partner: UNT Libraries

Processing and properties of Ag-clad BSCCO superconductors

Description: Long lengths of mono- and multifilament Ag-clad BSCCO (Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O) conductors with critical current densities of >10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K were fabricated by the powder-in-tube method. {Tc} magnets were assembled by stacking pancake coils fabricated from long tapes and then tested vs applied magnetic field at various temperatures. A magnet that contained {approx}2400 m of {Tc} conductor generated a field of 3.2 T at 4.2 K. In-situ tensile and bending properties of the Ag-clad conductors were studied. Multilayer Ag/superconductor composites were fabricated by chemical etching. Preliminary results with multilayer tapes show that continuous Ag reinforcement of the BSCCO core improves strain tolerance of the tapes so they can carry 90% of their initial I{sub c} at 1% bend strain desite a higher superconductor/Ag ratio than that of unreinforced tapes.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Jammy, R.; Iyer, A.N.; Chudzik, M.; Balachandran, U. & Haldar, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical and Friction Characteristics of Metallic Glass Composites at the Microstructural Length-scales

Description: This article evaluates the phase-specific electrochemical and friction characteristics of a Zr-based mtallic glass composite, which comprised roughly of 40% by volume crystalline dendrites in an amorphous matrix.
Date: November 1, 2017
Creator: Ayyagari, Aditya; Hasannaeimi, Vahid; Singh Arora, Harpreet & Mukherjee, Sundeep
Partner: UNT College of Engineering

Effects of Cyclic Stains on Transport Properties of a Superconducting Composite : Phase I, Degradation of Electrical Conductivity in Copper at 4.2 K

Description: The effects of cyclic strains at 4.2 K on the electrical resistivity of copper have been investigated as Phase I of a program to determine the overall effects on monolithic superconducting composites. This work is a direct application to the design of large superconducting magnets that are subject to several different modes of cyclic strain during assembly and normal operations.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Fisher, E. S.; Kim, S. H.; Linz, R. J. & Turner, A. P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical Deposition of Nickel Nanocomposites in Acidic Solution for Increased Corrosion Resistance

Description: The optimal conditions for deposition of nickel coating and Ni-layered double hydroxide metal matrix composite coatings onto stainless steel discs in a modified all-sulfate solutions have been examined. Nickel films provide good general corrosion resistance and mechanical properties as a protective layer on many metallic substrates. In recent years, there has been interest in incorporation nano-dimensional ceramic materials, such as montemorillonite, into the metal matrices to improve upon the corrosion and mechanical properties. Layered double hydroxides have been used as corrosion enhancer in polymer coatings by increasing mechanical strength and lowering the corrosion rate but until now, have not been incorporated in a metal matrix by any means. Layered double hydroxides can be easily synthesized in a variety of elemental compositions and sizes but typically require the use of non-polar solvents to delaminate into nanodimensional colloidal suspensions. The synthesis of a Zn-Al LDH has been studied and characterized. The effects of the non-polar solvents dimethylformamide and n-butanol on the deposition and corrosion resistance of nickel coatings from a borate electrolyte bath have been studied, a nickel-LDH nanocomposite coating has been synthesized by electrochemical deposition and the corrosion resistance has been studied. Results indicate an improvement in corrosion resistance for the coatings with minimal change in the nickel matrix's internal strain and crystallite size.
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Daugherty, Ryan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Initial assessment of environmental effects on SiC/SiC composites in helium-cooled nuclear systems

Description: This report summarized the information available in the literature on the chemical reactivity of SiC/SiC composites and of their components in contact with the helium coolant used in HTGR, VHTR and GFR designs. In normal operation conditions, ultra-high purity helium will have chemically controlled impurities (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen) that will create a slightly oxidizing gas environment. Little is known from direct experiments on the reactivity of third generation (nuclear grade) SiC/SiC composites in contact with low concentrations of water or oxygen in inert gas, at high temperature. However, there is ample information about the oxidation in dry and moist air of SiC/SiC composites at high temperatures. This information is reviewed first in the next chapters. The emphasis is places on the improvement in material oxidation, thermal, and mechanical properties during three stages of development of SiC fibers and at least two stages of development of the fiber/matrix interphase. The chemical stability of SiC/SiC composites in contact with oxygen or steam at temperatures that may develop in off-normal reactor conditions supports the conclusion that most advanced composites (also known as nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites) have the chemical resistance that would allow them maintain mechanical properties at temperatures up to 1200 1300 oC in the extreme conditions of an air or water ingress accident scenario. Further research is needed to assess the long-term stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in inert gas (helium) in presence of very low concentrations (traces) of water and oxygen at the temperatures of normal operation of helium-cooled reactors. Another aspect that needs to be investigated is the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the oxidation stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in normal operation conditions.
Date: September 1, 2013
Creator: Contescu, Cristian I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Microbial Retting Environment of Hibiscus Cannabinus and Its Implications in Broader Applications

Description: Fiber-yielding plants is an area of increased interest due to the potential use in a variety of green-based materials. These biocomposites can be incorporated into multiple uses; for example, to replace building materials and interior vehicular paneling. The research here aims to focus in on the crop Hibiscus cannabinus for utilization into these functions. H. cannabinus is economically attractive due to the entire process being able to be accomplished here in the United States. The plant can be grown in a relatively short growth period (120-180 days), and then processed and incorporated in a biocomposite. The plant fiber must first be broken down into a useable medium. This is accomplished by the retting process, which occurs when microbial constituents breakdown the heteropolysaccharides releasing the fiber. The research aims to bridge the gap between the primitive process of retting and current techniques in molecular and microbiology. Utilizing a classical microbiological approach, which entailed enrichment and isolation of pectinase-producing bacteria for downstream use in augmented microbial retting experiments. The tracking of the bacteria was accomplished by using the 16S rRNA which acts as “barcodes” for bacteria. Next-generation sequencing can then provide data from each environment telling the composition and microbial diversity of each tested variable. The main environments tested are: a natural environment, organisms contributed by the plant material solely, and an augmented version in which pectinase-producing bacteria are added. In addition, a time-course experiment was performed on the augmented environment providing data of the shift to an anaerobic environment. Lastly, a drop-in set was performed using each isolate separately to determine which contributes to the shift in microbial organization. This research provided a much needed modernization of the retting technique. Previous studies have been subject to simple clone libraries and growth plate assays and next-generation sequencing will bring the understanding of ...
Date: May 2015
Creator: Visi, David K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Tribological Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered Tic/graphite/nickel Composites and Cobalt Alloys

Description: Monolithic composites are needed that combine low friction and wear, high mechanical hardness, and high fracture toughness. Thin films and coatings are often unable to meet this engineering challenge as they can delaminate and fracture during operation ceasing to provide beneficial properties during service life. Two material systems were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and were studied for their ability to meet these criteria. A dual hybrid composite was fabricated and consisted of a nickel matrix for fracture toughness, TiC for hardness and graphite for solid/self‐lubrication. An in‐situ reaction during processing resulted in the formation of TiC from elemental Ti and C powders. The composition was varied to determine its effects on tribological behavior. Stellite 21, a cobalt‐chrome‐molybdenum alloy, was also produced by SPS. Stellite 21 has low stacking fault energy and a hexagonal phase which forms during sliding that both contribute to low interfacial shear and friction. Samples were investigated by x‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x‐ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron back‐scattered diffraction (EBSD). Tribological properties were characterized by pin on disc tribometry and wear rates were determined by profilometry and abrasion testing. Solid/self‐lubrication in the TiC/C/Ni system was investigated by Raman and Auger mapping. A tribofilm, which undergoes a stress‐induced phase transformation from polycrystalline graphite to amorphous carbon, was formed during sliding in the TiC/C/Ni system that is responsible for low friction and wear. TiC additions help to further decrease wear. Stellite 21 was also found to exhibit acceptably low friction and wear properties arising from the presence of Cr23C6 in the matrix and work hardening of the cobalt and chromium during sliding.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Kinkenon, Douglas
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fiber-Matrix Interface Studies on Electron Beam Cured Composites

Description: The recently completed Department of Energy (DOE) and industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) entitled, ''Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites,'' determined that the interlaminar shear strength properties of the best electron beam cured IM7/epoxy composites were 19-28% lower than autoclave cured IM7/epoxy composites (i.e. IM7/977-2 and IM7/977-3). Low interlaminar shear strength is widely acknowledged as the key barrier to the successful acceptance and implementation of electron beam cured composites in the aircraft/aerospace industry. The objective of this work was to improve the interlaminar shear strength properties of electron beam cured composites by formulating and evaluating several different fiber sizings or coating materials. The researchers have recently achieved some promising results by having discovered that the application of epoxy-based, electron beam compatible sizings or coatings onto surface-treated, unsized IM7 carbon fibers improved the composite interlaminar shear strength properties by as much as 55% versus composites fabricated from surface-treated, unsized IM7 fibers. In addition, by applying these same epoxy-based sizings or coatings onto surface-treated, unsized IM7 fibers it was possible to achieve an 11% increase in the composite interlaminar shear strength compared to composites made from surface-treated, GP-sized IM7 fibers. Work is continuing in this area of research to further improve these properties.
Date: May 23, 1999
Creator: Drazel, L.T.; Janke, C.J. & Yarborough, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barrier and Long Term Creep Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites.

Description: The barrier properties and long term strength retention of polymers are of significant importance in a number of applications. Enhanced lifetime food packaging, substrates for OLED based flexible displays and long duration scientific balloons are among them. Higher material requirements in these applications drive the need for an accurate measurement system. Therefore, a new system was engineered with enhanced sensitivity and accuracy. Permeability of polymers is affected by permeant solubility and diffusion. One effort to decrease diffusion rates is via increasing the transport path length. We explore this through dispersion of layered silicates into polymers. Layered silicates with effective aspect ratio of 1000:1 have shown promise in improving the barrier and mechanical properties of polymers. The surface of these inorganic silicates was modified with surfactants to improve the interaction with organic polymers. The micro and nanoscale dispersion of the layered silicates was probed using optical and transmission microscopy as well as x-ray diffraction. Thermal transitions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry. Mechanical and permeability measurements were correlated to the dispersion and increased density. The essential structure-property relationships were established by comparing semicrystalline and amorphous polymers. Semicrystalline polymers selected were nylon-6 and polyethylene terephthalate. The amorphous polymer was polyethylene terphthalate-glycol. Densification due to the layered silicate in both semicrystalline and amorphous polymers was associated with significant impact on barrier and long term creep behavior. The inferences were confirmed by investigating a semi-crystalline polymer - polyethylene - above and below the glass transition. The results show that the layered silicate influences the amorphous segments in polymers and barrier properties are affected by synergistic influences of densification and uniform dispersion of the layered silicates.
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Date: December 2004
Creator: Ranade, Ajit
Partner: UNT Libraries