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A Guide to Building Commissioning

Description: Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Baechler, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) test results and plans

Description: The LEDA 75-keV injector and 6.7-MeV RFQ have been tested with pulsed and cw proton beam currents up to 100 mA. Several LINAC2000 papers give the results of those measurements. A follow-on experiment, to intentionally introduce and measure beam halo on the RFQ output beam, is reported in several papers at this conference (PAC2001). In this paper we summarize the LEDA RFQ commissioning results and the beam-halo measurements and we discuss future test plans for this high-current, high-average-power rf structures test bed.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Smith, H. V. (Horace V.); Schneider, J. D. (J. David) & Sheffield, R. L. (Richard L.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

D0 status and first results from Run II

Description: In order to fully exploit the physics potential of the Tevatron Run 2, the D0 detector has been upgraded. Having nearly completed the commissioning phase, the D0 detector is starting to produce its first physics results. An overview of the status of the main subdetectors involved in the upgrade is given, followed by some examples of preliminary physics results already emerging.
Date: January 12, 2004
Creator: Juste, Aurelio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cleanliness improvements of NIF (National Ignition Facility) amplifiers as compared to previous large-scale lasers

Description: Prior to the recent commissioning of the first NIF (National Ignition Facility) beamline, full-scale laser-amplifier-glass cleanliness experiments were performed. Aerosol measurements and obscuration data acquired using a modified flatbed scanner compare favorably to historical large-scale lasers and indicate that NIF is the cleanest large-scale laser built to date.
Date: June 9, 2004
Creator: Honig, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EFCOG Best Practice Submission - Guidance for Retro-Commissioning

Description: Commissioning is slowly becoming an accepted quality method for ensuring that buildings are designed, constructed, and operated as required by the building owner and as intended by the original design. Retro-commissioning is a process, using commissioning concepts, to ensure that existing buildings are operated and maintained as required by the owner to meet the building’s current mission. Retro-commissioning further seeks to incorporate new equipment and operating practices to upgrade existing facilities to obtain increased efficiency and employee comfort and productivity. Retro-commissioning practices are not universal. Best practices have been identified to assist Federal organizations with the development of retro-commissioning programs and to help DOE sites to begin this quality related process.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Ernest L. Fossum, CEM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commissioning: A Highly Cost-Effective Building Energy Management Strategy

Description: Quality assurance and optimization are essential elements of any serious technological endeavor, including efforts to improve energy efficiency. Commissioning is an important tool in this respect. The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver-if not exceed-the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, one-time or repeated commissioning (often called retrocommissioning) identifies the almost inevitable drift in energy performance and puts the building back on course, often surpassing the original design intent. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to improving performance, rather than a discrete technology.
Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: Mills, Evan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Commissioning Plan for a Laser Heater for FERMI@elettra

Description: The purpose of a laser heater is to increase the electron beam uncorrelated energy spread as a way to control and ideally suppress the microbunching instability in the linac drive for x-rays FELs. We review the motivations for equipping FERMI with a laser heater and provide a specification for the basics parameters as well as a description of a practical layout including desired diagnostics provisions for both the electron and laser beams. We also outline some useful operational guidelines for commissioning.
Date: October 25, 2008
Creator: Zholents, Alexander A.; Qiang, J.; Venturini, M.; Wells,, R.; Wilcox, R.; Di Mitri, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The SNS RFQ Commissioning

Description: LBNL has built for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project a 402.5 MHz RFQ that is designed to accelerate up to 60 mA H{sup -} from 65 keV to 2.5 MeV [1]. A one millisecond pulse length at 60 Hz provides a 6% duty factor. The RFQ has now been built, conditioned at full duty factor and tested with beam. This paper will present results from the final installation, tuning and beam commissioning. Beam measurements include acceleration and transport efficiencies and transverse emittances. The LEBT optics were tuned for best results. Performance testing of the RF power distribution is also discussed here.
Date: August 16, 2002
Creator: Ratti, A.; Ayers, J.; Doolittle, L.; DiGennaro, R.; Gough, R.A.; Hoff, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Configuration Studies and Recommendations for the ILC DampingRings

Description: We describe the results of studies comparing different options for the baseline configuration of the ILC damping rings. The principal configuration decisions apply to the circumference, beam energy, lattice type, and technology options for key components, including the injection/extraction kickers and the damping wigglers. To arrive at our recommended configuration, we performed detailed studies of a range of lattices representing a variety of different configuration options; these lattices are described in Chapter 2. The results of the various studies are reported in chapters covering issues of beam dynamics, technical subsystems, costs, and commissioning, reliability and upgrade ability. Our detailed recommendations for the baseline configuration are given in Chapter 7, where we also outline further research and development that is needed before a machine using our recommended configuration can be built and operated successfully. In the same chapter, we suggest possible alternatives to the baseline configuration.
Date: February 4, 2006
Creator: Wolski, Andrzej; Gao, Jie & Guiducci, Susanna
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

Description: ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.
Date: December 6, 2007
Creator: Martovetsky, N N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLRF requirements for APT

Description: As part of the Accelerator Protluction of Tritium (APT) program, a normal conducting (NC) - superconducting (SC) 100 mA continuous wave (CW), 1030 MeV accelerator is being designed. Maintaining the RF cavities in this linac at their proper resonant frequency, rf field amplitude and phase during commissioning (low duty factor pulse mode) and operation (high current continuous beam) is the function of the Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) system, This paper describes the linac characteristics that determine the LLRF system requirements with the corresponding control functions, and an overview of the techniques proposed to meet these requirements.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: McCarthy, M. P. (Michael P.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The construction of DEGAS (DEGenerate Advanced Source), a proof of principle for a quantum limited brightness electron source, has been completed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The commissioning and the characterization of this source, designed to generate coherent single electron 'bunches' with brightness approaching the quantum limit at a repetition rate of few MHz, has been started. In this paper the first experimental results are described.
Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Zolotorev, Max S.; Commins, Eugene D.; Oneill, James; Sannibale, Fernando; Tremsin, Anton & Wan, Weishi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IFC BIM-Based Methodology for Semi-Automated Building Energy Performance Simulation

Description: Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is still rarely used in building design, commissioning and operations. The process is too costly and too labor intensive, and it takes too long to deliver results. Its quantitative results are not reproducible due to arbitrary decisions and assumptions made in simulation model definition, and can be trusted only under special circumstances. A methodology to semi-automate BEP simulation preparation and execution makes this process much more effective. It incorporates principles of information science and aims to eliminate inappropriate human intervention that results in subjective and arbitrary decisions. This is achieved by automating every part of the BEP modeling and simulation process that can be automated, by relying on data from original sources, and by making any necessary data transformation rule-based and automated. This paper describes the new methodology and its relationship to IFC-based BIM and software interoperability. It identifies five steps that are critical to its implementation, and shows what part of the methodology can be applied today. The paper concludes with a discussion of application to simulation with EnergyPlus, and describes data transformation rules embedded in the new Geometry Simplification Tool (GST).
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Bazjanac, Vladimir
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Action-Oriented Benchmarking: Concepts and Tools

Description: Most energy benchmarking tools provide static feedback on how one building compares to a larger set of loosely similar buildings, without providing information at the end-use level or on what can be done to reduce consumption, cost, or emissions. In this article--Part 1 of a two-part series--we describe an 'action-oriented benchmarking' approach, which extends whole-building energy benchmarking to include analysis of system and component energy use metrics and features. Action-oriented benchmarking thereby allows users to generate more meaningful metrics and to identify, screen and prioritize potential efficiency improvements. This opportunity assessment process can then be used to inform and optimize a full-scale audit or commissioning process. We introduce a new web-based action-oriented benchmarking system and associated software tool-EnergyIQ. The benchmarking methods, visualizations, and user interface design are informed by an end-user needs assessment survey and best-practice guidelines from ASHRAE.
Date: February 13, 2008
Creator: Commission, California Energy; Mathew, Paul; Mills, Evan; Mathew, Paul; Piette, Mary Ann; Bourassa, Norman et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The 28 MHz accelerating system consists of a quarter wave cavity driven by an inductively coupled 100kW tetrode amplifer and 1kW solid state driver amplifer. 40dB of rf feedback closed around the cavity and amplifers reduces small perturbations within the loop by a factor of 100, and reduces the time required to shift the phase at transition by a factor of 10, limited by the saturation of the drive chain. The cavity is tuned over a 200kHz range by a mechanical tuner which varies the gap capacitance. Broadband HOM damping is provided by two orthogonal loop coupled high pass filters. Design parameters and commissioning results are presented.
Date: June 18, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commissioning and early operating experience with the Fermilab horizontal test facility

Description: Fermilab has constructed a facility for testing dressed superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cavities at 1.8 K with high-power pulsed RF. This test stand was designed to test both 9-cell 1.3 GHz TESLA-style cavities and 9-cell 3.9 GHz cavities being built by Fermilab for DESY's TTF-FLASH facility. An overview of the test stand and a description of its initial commissioning is described here.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Harms, E.; Hocker, A.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparisons of Yield Calculations with Data

Description: Given what is claimed to a reasonably accurate technique for calculating the pbar yield, it is useful to ask for comparisons with the data available from the recent commissioning run. The simplest comparison to make is that of the yield. The number of pbars circulating in the Debuncher was measured many times; the total number of secondaries at IC728 in AP-2 was also measured many times. The ratio of pbars to total flux at IC728 was measured once (Bk. I, p 166); this number was {bar P}/total = 0.032. Typically, the ratio of secondaries at IC728 to protons on target was about 0.0012 (this was about the same number, independent of whether the lens was operated at 600 or 1000 T/m.). Thus, at IC728 we have N{sub P}/N{sub {bar P}} {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -3} x 3.2 x 10{sup -2} = 3.8 x 10{sup -5} = 38 ppm.
Date: February 1, 1986
Creator: Dugan, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Upgrade and Operation of the DZero Central Track Trigger

Description: The D{O} experiment at the Fermilab p{bar p} Tevatron collider (Batavia, IL, USA) has undergone significant upgrades in anticipation of high luminosity running conditions. As part of the upgrade, the capabilities of the Central Track Trigger (CTT) to make trigger decisions based on hit patterns in the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) have been much improved. We report on the implementation, commissioning and operation of the upgraded CTT system.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Pangilinan, M.P.; U., /Boston; Buehler, M.D. & U., /Virginia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Global linear coupling has been extensively studied in accelerators and several methods have been developed to compensate the coupling coefficient C using skew quadrupole families scans. However, scanning techniques can become very time consuming especially during the commissioning of an energy ramp. In this paper they illustrate a new technique to measure and compensate, in a single machine cycle, global linear coupling from turn-by-turn BPM data without the need of a skew quadrupole scan. The algorithm is applied to RHIC BPM data using AC dipoles and compared with traditional methods.
Date: June 26, 2006
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of LHC crab activity simulations and beam studies

Description: The LHC crab cavity program is advancing rapidly towards a first prototype which is anticipated to be tested during the early stages of the LHC phase I upgrade and commissioning. The general project status and some aspects related to crab optics, collimation, aperture constraints, impedances, noise effects. beam transparency and machine protection critical for a safe and robust operation of LHC beams with crab cavities are addressed here.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Calaga,R.; Assman, R.; Barranco, J.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Caspers, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the CDF Run II Silicon Detector

Description: A snapshot of the status of the CDF Run II Silicon Detector is presented, with a summary of commissioning issues since the start of Run II, current performance of the detector, and the use of the data in both the trigger and offline reconstruction.
Date: April 10, 2003
Creator: Nahn, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings

Description: Although this guide focuses on the retrocommissioning process and its advantages, all three types of commissioning--retrocommissioning, commissioning, and recommissioning--play an equally important role in ensuring that buildings perform efficiently and provide comfortable, safe, and productive work environments for owners and occupants. For new construction and retrofit projects, commissioning should be incorporated early, during design, and last throughout the length of the project. For buildings that were never commissioned, the retrocommissioning process can yield a wealth of cost-saving opportunities while enhancing a building's environment. Finally, once a building is commissioned or retrocommissioned, incorporating recommissioning into the organization's O and M program (by periodically reapplying the original diagnostic testing and checklist procedures) helps ensure that cost savings and other benefits gained from the original process persist over time.
Date: May 11, 1999
Creator: Haasl, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commissioning plan for a high-current proton linac

Description: High-power proton linacs (E>500 MeV) are potentially useful for transmutation applications, such as the production of tritium. In production applications, high availability is essential. Achieving high availability requires an accelerator design that simplifies maintenance and accommodates commissioning procedures designed to minimize tune-up time. These are worthwhile goals for any accelerator, but the very high beam powers (170 MW) and heavy beam loading of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) linac introduce significant new challenges. This paper will describe the commissioning plan, as developed to date.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Chan, K.C.D.; Barber, R.L. & Garnett, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department