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Pacific Design Center

Description: Night time view of the facade of Center Green is visible behind a portion of Center Blue.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1985/1988
Creator: Victor Gruen Associates
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Pacific Design Center

Description: The view is a floodlit view across the landscaped plaza with some Center Green facade visible behind Center Blue.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1985/1988
Creator: Victor Gruen Associates
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Pacific Design Center

Description: Design of the floor and ceiling of the interior of the atrium of Center Green is seen.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1985/1988
Creator: Victor Gruen Associates
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Pacific Design Center

Description: Escalators in cylindrical escalator tower are part of Center Green.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1985/1988
Creator: Victor Gruen Associates
Location Info:
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices

Description: This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.
Date: March 28, 2008
Creator: Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D. & McMahon, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Operation of an Open, Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure for Commercial Buildings

Description: This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automated demand response (auto-DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation, improved reliability, and repeatability of the DR in participating facilities. This paper also presents the technical and architectural issues associated with auto-DR and description of the demand response automation server (DRAS), the client/server architecture-based middle-ware used to automate the interactions between the utilities or any DR serving entity and their customers for DR programs. Use case diagrams are presented to show the role of the DRAS between utility/ISO and the clients at the facilities.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Watson, David; Koch, Ed & Hennage, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Action-Oriented Benchmarking: Using the CEUS Database to Benchmark Commercial Buildings in California

Description: The 2006 Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS) database developed by the California Energy Commission is a far richer source of energy end-use data for non-residential buildings than has previously been available and opens the possibility of creating new and more powerful energy benchmarking processes and tools. In this article--Part 2 of a two-part series--we describe the methodology and selected results from an action-oriented benchmarking approach using the new CEUS database. This approach goes beyond whole-building energy benchmarking to more advanced end-use and component-level benchmarking that enables users to identify and prioritize specific energy efficiency opportunities - an improvement on benchmarking tools typically in use today.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Mathew, Paul; Mills, Evan; Bourassa, Norman & Brook, Martha
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of community structure in networks of correlated data

Description: We present a reformulation of modularity that allows the analysis of the community structure in networks of correlated data. The new modularity preserves the probabilistic semantics of the original definition even when the network is directed, weighted, signed, and has self-loops. This is the most general condition one can find in the study of any network, in particular those defined from correlated data. We apply our results to a real network of correlated data between stores in the city of Lyon (France).
Date: December 25, 2008
Creator: Gomez, S.; Jensen, P. & Arenas, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anderton Court Shops

Description: This view shows a passageway with a circular window and a doorway to an upper floor. The concrete surface is a cream color.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1952/1954
Creator: Wright, Frank Lloyd
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Methodology for Analyzing the Technical Potential for Energy Performance in the U.S. Commercial Buildings Sector with Detailed Energy Modeling: Preprint

Description: This paper summarizes a methodology for developing quantitative answers to the question, ''How low can energy use go within the commercial buildings sector''? The basic process is to take each building in the 1999 CBECS public use data files and create a baseline building energy model for it as if it were being built new in 2005 with code-minimum energy performance.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Griffith, B. & Crawley, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating the energy performance of the first generation of LEED-certified commercial buildings

Description: Over three hundred buildings have been certified under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system for sustainable commercial buildings as of January 2006. This paper explores the modeled and actual energy performance of a sample of 21 of these buildings that certified under LEED between December 2001 and August 2005, including how extensively the design teams pursued LEED energy-efficiency credits, the modeled design and baseline energy performance, and the actual energy use during the first few years of operation. We collected utility billing data from 2003-2005 and compared the billed energy consumption with the modeled energy use. We also calculated Energy Star ratings for the buildings and compared them to peer groups where possible. The mean savings modeled for the sample was 27% compared to their modeled baseline values. For the group of 18 buildings for which we have both modeled and billed energy use, the mean value for actual consumption was 1% lower than modeled energy use, with a wide variation around the mean. The mean Energy Star score was 71 out of a total of 100 points, higher than the average score of 50 but slightly below the Energy Star award threshold of 75 points. The paper discusses the limitations inherent to this type of analysis, such as the small sample size of disparate buildings, the uncertainties in actual floor area, and the discrepancies between metered sections of the buildings. Despite these limitations, the value of the work is that it presents an early view of the actual energy performance for a set of 21 LEED-certified buildings.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Diamond, Rick; Opitz, Mike; Hicks, Tom; Von Neida, Bill & Herrera, Shawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Topic Brief 4: Above-Code Buildings

Description: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) requires a plan for achieving compliance with building energy codes in at least 90% of the new and renovated residential and commercial building space. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is developing procedures and tools for measuring compliance as required in this legislation. This is the fourth topic brief, to be posted on the BECP website, responding to feedback received on these procedures.
Date: October 7, 2009
Creator: Connell, Linda M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Test Results of Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building

Description: Demand response (DR) is an emerging research field and an effective tool that improves grid reliability and prevents the price of electricity from rising, especially in deregulated markets. This paper introduces the definition of DR and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). It describes the Auto-DR technology utilized at a commercial building in the summer of 2006 and the methodologies to evaluate associated demand savings. On the basis of field tests in a large office building, Auto-DR is proven to be a reliable and credible resource that ensures a stable and economical operation of the power grid.
Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann & Kiliccote, Sila
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demand Shifting with Thermal Mass in Light and Heavy Mass Commercial Buildings

Description: The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies. This project studied the potential of pre-cooling and demand limiting in a heavy mass and a light mass building in the Bay Area of California. The conclusion of the work to date is that pre-cooling has the potential to improve the demand responsiveness of commercial buildings while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions. Results indicate that pre-cooling increases the depth (kW) and duration (kWh) of the shed capacity of a given building, all other factors being equal. Due to the time necessary for pre-cooling, it is only applicable to day-ahead demand response programs. Pre-cooling can be very effective if the building mass is relatively heavy. The effectiveness of night pre-cooling under hot weather conditions has not been tested. Further work is required to quantify and demonstrate the effectiveness of pre-cooling in different climates. Research is also needed to develop screening tools that can be used to select suitable buildings and customers, identify the most appropriate pre-cooling strategies, and estimate the benefits to the customer and the utility.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Xu, Peng & Zagreus, Leah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Building Energy Asset Score Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.1)

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a voluntary national scoring system for commercial buildings to help building owners and managers assess a building’s energy-related systems independent of operations. The goal of the score is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system, known as the Commercial Building Energy Asset Score, will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrades over time. The system will also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building investors, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset scoring tool. The alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach are described in the Program Overview and Technical Protocol Version 1.0.
Date: August 9, 2013
Creator: Wang, Na; Goel, Supriya & Makhmalbaf, Atefe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Building Energy Asset Score System: Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.0)

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a national voluntary energy asset score system that includes an energy asset score tool to help building owners evaluate their buildings with respect to the score system. The goal of the energy asset score system is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrade progress over time. The system can also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building operators, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from their operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset score tool. This report also describes alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach. Finally, this report describes a few features of the program where alternative approaches are still under evaluation.
Date: January 11, 2013
Creator: Wang, Na & Gorrissen, Willy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

Description: This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.
Date: September 16, 2013
Creator: Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E. & Baechler, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

Description: We present a simple spreadsheet-based tool for estimating window-related energy consumption in the United States. Using available data on the properties of the installed US window stock, we estimate that windows are responsible for 2.15 quadrillion Btu (Quads) of heating energy consumption and 1.48 Quads of cooling energy consumption annually. We develop estimates of average U-factor and SHGC for current window sales. We estimate that a complete replacement of the installed window stock with these products would result in energy savings of approximately 1.2 quads. We demonstrate that future window technologies offer energy savings potentials of up to 3.9 Quads.
Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Apte, Joshua & Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anderton Court Shops

Description: This view of the Rodeo Drive facade shows a portion of the shopping center with the originally copper colored details now painted black.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1952/1954
Creator: Wright, Frank Lloyd
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Anderton Court Shops

Description: This detail view of the shopping center shows some Christmas tree decoration and the entrance overhangs and a portion of the steeple like structure rising from the center of the building.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1952/1954
Creator: Wright, Frank Lloyd
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design