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A Study of Combustion in a Flowing Gas

Description: Note presenting the results of a preliminary study of combustion in flowing gases and apparatus for obtaining high rates of heat release per unit volume of combustion space are described. Tests were made over a wide range of fuel-air ratios, inlet-mixture velocities, and electrical heat inputs, using propane gas as the fuel. Results indicate that the greater the surface-volume ratio, or the greater the amount of heat addible to the gas stream, the greater the inlet-mixture velocity at which appreciable combustion can be obtained.
Date: April 1946
Creator: Gilbert, Mitchell; Haddock, Gordon & Metzler, Allen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion instability in an acid-heptane rocket with a pressurized-gas propellant pumping system

Description: Report presenting results of experimental measurements of low-frequency combustion instability of a 300-pound-thrust acid-heptane rocket engine as compared with the trends predicted by an analysis of combustion instability in a rocket engine. Results regarding the chugging frequency, combustion time delay, effect of rocket combustion-chamber characteristic length, effect of throttling, effect of injection velocity, effect of oxidant-fuel ratio, variation of chugging frequency with amplitude of chamber pressure fluctuations, and evaluation of the analysis are provided.
Date: May 1953
Creator: Tischler, Adelbert O. & Bellman, Donald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some screeching-combustion characteristics of a transpiration-cooled afterburner having a porous wall of wire cloth

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the screeching characteristics of two flame-holder configurations in a full-scale transpiration-cooled afterburner. The investigation indicated that a porous wall of wire cloth may be effective in eliminating or reducing the tendency to screech in some high-performance afterburners, but further testing is required. Results regarding the diametrical V-gutter, single-ring V-gutter, and durability of wire cloth are provided.
Date: November 29, 1954
Creator: Koffel, William K.; Harp, James L., Jr. & Bryant, Lively
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steady Nuclear Combustion in Rockets

Description: "The astrophysical theory of stationary nuclear reactions in stars is applied to the conditions that would be met in the practical engineering cases that would differ from the former, particularly with respect to the much lower combustion pressures, dimensions of the reacting volume, and burnup times. This application yields maximum rates of hear production per unit volume of reacting gas occurring at about 10(exp 8) K in the cases of reactions between the hydrogen isotopes, but yields higher rates for heavier atoms. For the former, with chamber pressures of the order of 100 atmospheres, the energy production for nuclear combustion reaches values of about 10(exp 4) kilocalories per cubic meter per second, which approaches the magnitude for the familiar chemical fuels" (p. 1).
Date: April 1957
Creator: Sänger, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of air-fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow" (p. 119).
Date: August 26, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Powdered Coal as Fuel for Power-Plant Boilers: Tests at Oneida Street Power Station, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Description: From Introduction: "This bulletin presents the results of 36 tests made on a 468-horse-power Edge Moor boiler fired with pulverized coal at the Oneida Street Station of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., Milwaukee, Wis."
Date: 1923
Creator: Kreisinger, Henry; Blizard, John; Augustine, C. E. & Cross, B. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analytical study of turbulent and molecular mixing in rocket combustion

Description: From Introduction: "The many physical processes which occur simultaneously in rocket combustion make the entire process extremely complex (ref. 1). The combustion chamber length required for evaporation of liquid-propellant sprays has already been studied (refs. 2, 3, and 4)."
Date: September 1958
Creator: Bittker, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of spark-ignition engine knock as seen in photographs taken at 200,000 frames per second

Description: Report discussing a motion picture of the development of knock in a spark-ignition engine, which consists of 20 photographs taken at intervals of 5 microseconds, or at a rate of 200,000 photographs per second, with an equivalent wide-open exposure time of 6.4 microseconds for each photograph.
Date: 1946~
Creator: Miller, Cearcy D.; Olsen, H. Lowell; Logan, Walter O., Jr. & Osterstrom, Gordon E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Run-of-Mine and Briquetted Coal in a Locomotive Boiler

Description: From Object of Tests: "The primary object of the tests was to study the relative performances of the two types of briquets and of the coal, with reference to efficiency, tendency to smoke, and the ease with which steam could be kept up, when each of the three varieties of fuel was burned at several rates of combustion. Many secondary objects were in mind, the data concerning which are discussed under "Effect of varying rates of combustion," pages 20-27."
Date: 1911
Creator: Ray, Walter T. & Kreisinger, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Study of Ignition by Hot Spot in Internal Combustion Engines

Description: "In order to carry out the contemplated study, it was first necessary to provide hot spots in the combustion chamber, which could be measured and whose temperature could be changed. It seemed difficult to realize both conditions working solely on the temperature of the cooling water in a way so as to produce hot spots on the cylinder wall capable of provoking autoignition. Moreover, in the majority of practical cases, autoignition is produced by the spark plug, one of the least cooled parts in the engine. The first procedure therefore did not resemble that which most generally occurs in actual engine operation" (p. 1).
Date: August 1938
Creator: Serruys, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

Description: "An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature" (p. 125).
Date: September 11, 1934
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Cohn, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion Velocity of Benzine-Benzol-Air Mixtures in High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: "The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined" (p. 1).
Date: April 1932
Creator: Schnauffer, Kurt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Inlet-Air Parameters on Combustion Limit and Flame Length in 8-Inch-Diameter Ram-Jet Combustion Chamber

Description: Report presenting an investigation with a ram-jet combustion chamber to determine the effect of fuel-air ratio and the inlet-air parameters of pressure, temperature, and velocity on combustion limit, combustion efficiency, and flame length.
Date: July 22, 1948
Creator: Cervenka, A. J. & Miller, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-Ignition and Combustion of Gases

Description: This paper attempts to state laws for the self-ignition and combustion of gases in a comprehensive manner. The primary focus is recent investigations in which new combustion phenomena or new methods of studying them experimentally are brought out and investigations that throw new light on already known phenomena.
Date: August 1942
Creator: Sokolik, A. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Smokeless Combustion of Coal in Boiler Furnaces

Description: From Introduction: "The present bulletin not only shows that bituminous coals high in volatile matter can be burned without smoke, but also that large plants carrying loads that fluctuate widely, where boilers over banked fires forced to the capacity of their units, can be operated without producing smoke that is objectionable."
Date: 1912
Creator: Randall, D. T. & Weeks, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Heat of Combustion of Tetraethyldiborane

Description: "The net heat of combustion of a sample of tetraethyldiborane was found to be 20,400 plus or minus 130 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water ,and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen bomb calorimeter and the combustion is believed to have been 99 percent complete. A more reasonable value for the net heat of combustion would therefore be 20,600 plus or minus 130 Btu per pound" (p. 1).
Date: January 16, 1957
Creator: Tannenbaum, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-Stressed Structural Components in Combustion-Engine Design

Description: "Heated structural parts alter their shape. Anything which hinders free heat expansion will give rise to heat stresses. Design rules are thus obtained for the heated walls themselves as well as for the adjoining parts. An important guiding principle is that of designing the heat-conducting walls as thin as possible" (p. 1).
Date: September 1938
Creator: Kraemer, Otto
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Summary of Preliminary Investigations Into the Characteristics of Combustion Screech in Ducted Burners

Description: "Increasing demands for higher afterburner performance have required operation at progressively higher fuel-air ratios, which has increased the occurrence and intensity of screeching combustion. The onset of screech may be followed by rapid destruction of the combustor shell and other combustor parts. Because of its destructive characteristics, considerable effort has been expended to understand and eliminate screech. NACA work on the screeching combustion problem prior to 1954 is summarized herein" (p. 1195).
Date: February 8, 1954
Creator: Lewis Laboratory Staff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Symbols for Combustion Research

Description: Note presenting a list of commonly used and standardized symbols for combustion research in order to facilitate the exchange of technical information and to provide a basis for comparison of results obtained by various investigators.
Date: June 1948
Creator: NACA Subcommittee on Combustion
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interrelation of Exhaust-Gas Constituents

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m.
Date: September 7, 1937
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Voss, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion of Gaseous Mixtures

Description: This report not only presents matters of practical importance in the classification of engine fuels, for which other means have proved inadequate, but also makes a few suggestions. It confirms the results of Withrow and Boyd which localize the explosive wave in the last portions of the mixture burned. This being the case, it may be assumed that the greater the normal combustion, the less the energy developed in the explosive form. In order to combat the detonation, it is therefore necessary to try to render the normal combustion swift and complete, as produced in carbureted mixtures containing benzene (benzol), in which the flame propagation, beginning at the spark, yields a progressive and pronounced darkening on the photographic film.
Date: November 1932
Creator: Duchene, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contribution to the Study of Normal Burning in Gaseous Carbureted Mixtures: Part 1

Description: In the present study it is proposed to provide an equipment permitting the study of the propagation of the region of reaction in mixtures of air and carbureted gases enclosed within a cylinder. Ignition is produced at the end of compression by an electric spark. With this apparatus it is proposed to determine: 1) the influence of the richness of the explosive mixture on the rate of flame propagation; 2) the influence of the degree of volumetric compression on one of the hydrocarbons; 3) the influence of the variation of initial temperature of the mixture before compression; 4) the influence of tetraethyl-lead on the propagation - notably on the formation of the explosive wave.
Date: January 1930
Creator: Duchene, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department