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Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} abatement using zeolite-supported copper. Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

Description: The authors have begun the investigation of the adsorption of NO on the Cu/{gamma}-alumina samples. The object of this aspect of the project is to investigate the modes of adsorption of NO on the Cu/{gamma}-alumina sorbents, to investigate the potential activity of these materials for the catalysis of the reduction of NO. Additionally, when subsequent measurements of NO interacting with a sulfated sorbent are investigated, a baseline of data will have been obtained which can be used to evaluate the effects of surface sulfation on the adsorption process in the absence of other competing effects. Based on the current results and by comparing results with those found by others, the authors have determined that the copper species exist predominantly as isolated copper atoms on the aluminum oxide surface, which behave chemically as copper aluminate. The copper species is responsible for the formation of an NO/Cu{sup 2+} complex which gives rise to an infrared absorption at 1,863 cm{sup {minus}1}. There do exist some Cu{sup +} species on the surface, which are formed only after some time by an interaction with NO, which give rise to an NO{sup {minus}}/Cu{sup +} complex with an infrared absorption at approximately 1,700 cm{sup {minus}1}. Additionally, an intense feature at 1,640 cm{sup {minus}1} is observed which may be due to NO{sub 2} on the surface, which is the expected oxidation product if NO reduces Cu from Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup +}.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOx-NOx-Rox Box Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

Description: The SNRB{trademark} test program demonstrated the feasibility of controlling multiple emissions from a coal-fired boiler in a single processing unit. The degree of emissions removals for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates all exceeded the project goals. A high degree of removal for HAPs was also achieved. The SNRB system offers low space requirements, control of multiple pollutants, and operating flexibility. The pneumatic SO{sub 2} sorbent and ammonia injection systems are expected to have high reliability because of their mechanical simplicity. Despite these advantages, the SNRB process may not be an economic choice for applications involving SO{sub 2} removals above about 85%. For lower levels of SO{sub 2} removal, the projected economics for SNRB appear to be more favorable than those of existing processes which involve separate units for the same degree of control for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} , and particulates. Specific findings are summarized as follows: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of 85-90% was achieved at a calcium utilization of 40-45%, representing a significant improvement in performance over other dry lime injection processes. (2) When firing 3-4% sulfur coal, compliance with the 1990 CAAA Phase I SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 2.5 lb/10{sup 6} Btu was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio of less than 1.0. For the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu, compliance was achieved with a Ca/S molar ratio as low as 1.5. Phase II compliance is the more relevant emissions limit. (3) When using NaHCO{sub 3} as the sorbent, the Phase II SO{sub 2} emissions limit was achieved at a Na{sub 2}/S molar ratio of less than 2.0 (NSR < 1.0). (4) Compliance with the Phase I NO{sub x} emissions limit of 0.45 lb/10{sup 6} Btu for Group 1 boilers was achieved at an NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio of 0.85, ...
Date: December 15, 2000
Creator: National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} abatement using zeolite-supported copper. Progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: The bulk of the results from this project, besides being found in the research reports, are in the form of two theses presented for advanced degrees by two different students at two different institutions. Francis E. Porbeni is a Master`s Degree student in Chemistry at Clark Atlanta University and has prepared his Master`s Thesis entitled Simultaneous SO{sub 2} Oxidation and NO Decomposition over Copper Oxide on {gamma}-Alumina Catalysts: An Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Study. Sumit Rao, a Ph.D. student in Chemical Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology has defended his thesis entitled Role of Copper Ensemble Size in Silica and Zeolite Supported Catalysts for Nitric Oxide Decomposition. These two documents, which will be forwarded when final copies are available, provide the details of the bulk of the research accomplished over the duration of this project. These two documents are summarized, and other results from the project are given.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} abatement using zeolite-supported copper. Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

Description: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the nature of copper ions supported on oxides and on zeolites. The results show that, unfortunately, EPR may not be a very useful predictor of the catalytic activity of supported copper catalysts.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} abatement using zeolite-supported copper. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

Description: Several catalysts for NO decomposition have been reported in the literature to include the following: Cu/ZSM-5; Cu/Zeolite-Y; Cu/mordenite; Cu/{beta} zeolite; Cu/alumina; and Cu/silica which have been studied less than Cu/ZSM-5. The catalytic properties for NO conversion are found to be different on these samples with the ZSM-5 supported catalysts showing the highest activity in a dry environment free from sulfur oxides. One of the goals of this study is to have a better fundamental understanding on the different roles of Cu and the support in the catalytic reaction. The authors use stable, cationic metal complexes in non-aqueous solvents as sources of the Cu ions in producing model catalysts for which the fate of the source molecule is known and is controlled during the ion exchange/impregnation. Molecular models of these systems can be used to identify the possible configurations of the metal complexes within the zeolite support. The authors compare the performance of the model catalysts to one prepared by aqueous impregnation of ZSM-5 zeolite. The performance of the dinuclear metal complex on silica is compared to the same complex in ZSM-5 and Y-zeolites.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} abatement using zeolite supported-copper. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: The authors have continued the investigation of the adsorption of NO on the Cu/{gamma}-alumina samples and have begun the study of the interaction of NO with sulfated Cu/{gamma}-alumina. The interaction of NO with a sulfated surface is extremely important, since the copper sites in the most popular NO reduction catalyst, Cu/ZAM-5, also adsorb SO{sub 2}, and the catalyst is poisoned by SO{sub 2}. It may be possible to determine whether the poisoning mechanism is due to a chemical effect, or some other effect, and investigate measures which might alleviate the deleterious effects of surface sulfation on the adsorption/reduction process. The results for NO interacting with the sulfated surface do not appear to result in the formation of any new species, but do show a dramatic change in the relative amounts of the NO species formed on the surface. The sulfation of the copper species apparently forces the copper species to remain as Cu{sup 2+}, which gives rise to a strong band at 1850 cm{sup {minus}1}, shifted to lower frequency from the 1863 cm{sup {minus}1} absorption found for the unsulfated catalyst, but which is still probably due to the formation of a Cu{sup 2+}/NO complex, given the small frequency shift. Two other infrared absorption bands observed for NO adsorbed on the un-sulfated catalyst are observed in the current study only weakly, and are due to the formation of adsorbed NO{sub 2}, the NO oxidation product formed when Cu{sup 2+} is reduced to Cu{sup +}, and to the Cu{sup +}/NO{sup {minus}} complex. The relatively intense absorption due to the Cu{sup 2+}/NO complex and the weak absorptions due to adsorbed NO{sub 2} and the Cu{sup +}/NO{sup {minus}} complex indicate that little reduction of the copper has taken place. Stabilization of the Cu species as Cu{sup 2+} by the sulfate apparently prevents participation of ...
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combined removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from flue gas using non-thermal plasma. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

Description: The removal of NO{sub x} from flue gas was studied during this period. About 44% of NO{sub x} in concentrations of about 400 ppm and 100% of NO{sub x} in concentrations below 80 ppm can be removed without any chemical additives. Also some pre experiments have been done on the combined removal of S0{sub 2} and NO. Indications are that the NO in the flue gas helps the removal of S0{sub 2}. Work is continuing on the combined removal at present.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Dhali, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental control: Combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} control

Description: For over ten years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US Department of Energy`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. The goal is to help US industries compete in an environmentally sound manner by providing cost-effective control technologies. As new issues arise and emission limits are gradually reduced, there are continuing needs for engineering improvements and research into new concepts that could lead to improved processes. Efforts continue to emphasize combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} control.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Livengood, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Final report, Volume 1: Public design

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and the Public Services Company of Colorado (PSCo) signed the cooperative agreement for the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System in March 1991. This project integrates various combinations of five existing and emerging technologies onto a 100 MWe, down-fired, load-following unit that burns pulverized coal. The project is expected to achieve up to 70% reductions in both oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Various combinations of low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), overfire air (OFA) ports, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), dry sorbent injection (DSI) using both calcium- and sodium-based reagents, and flue-gas humidification are expected to integrate synergistically and control both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions better than if each technology were used alone. For instance, ammonia emissions from the SNCR system are expected to reduce NO{sub 2} emissions and allow the DSI system (sodium-based reagents) to achieve higher removals of SO{sub 2}. Unlike tangentially or wall-fired units, down-fired require substantial modification to their pressure parts to retrofit LNBs and OFA ports, substantially increasing the cost of retrofit. Conversely, the retrofitting of SNCR, DSI, or humidification systems does not require any major boiler modifications and are easily retrofitted to all boiler types. However, existing furnace geometry and flue-gas temperatures can limit their placement and effectiveness. In particular, SNCR requires injecting the SNCR chemicals into the furnace where the temperature is within a very narrow temperature range.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Hunt, T. & Hanley, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOXAL combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} flue gas control demonstration. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

Description: AQUATECH Systems, a business unit of Allied-Signal Inc., proposes to demonstrate the technical viability and cost effectiveness of the SOXAL process a combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control process on a 3 MW equivalent flue gas slip stream from Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Dunkirk Steam Station Boiler No. 4, a coal fired boiler. The SOXAL process combines 90+% sulfur dioxide removal from the flue gas using a sodium based scrubbing solution and regeneration of the spent scrubbing liquor using AQUATECH Systems` proprietary bipolar membrane technology. This regeneration step recovers a stream of sulfur dioxide suitable for subsequent processing to salable sulfur or sulfuric acid. Additionally 90+% control of NO{sub x} gases can be achieved in combination with conventional urea/methanol injection of NO{sub 2} gas into the duct. The SOXAL process is applicable to both utility and industrial scale boilers using either high or lower sulfur coal. The SOXAL demonstration Program began September 10, 1991 and is approximately 26 months in duration. During the 6 months of scheduled operations, between January and July of 1993, data was collected from the SOXAL system to define: SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control efficiencies; Current efficiency for the regeneration unit; Sulfate oxidation in the absorber; Make-up reagent rates; Product quality including concentrations and compositions; System integration and control philosophy; and Membrane stability and performance with respect to foulants. The program is expected to be concluded in November 1993.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IGR NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Quarterly report January 1, 1995--February 28, 1995

Description: During the first quarter of 1994, work was concentrated on improving the power efficiency of the IGR NOx/SOx control technology. IGR continued to work on its electrocatalyst materials to improve the electrical efficiency required for economical NOx/SOx destruction. In addition IGR continued to modify the electrocatalyst/electrolyte interface with the goal of improving selectivity and current efficiency. Specifically, work concentrated on changing the solid state defect concentration in the solid oxide electrolyte both on the surface and in the bulk. Results from two months of work indicate that these modifications have significantly improved current efficiency. For some conditions the current efficiency was improved by a factor of ten. Further work has been truncated as we have reached the end of the Phase I term of this research contract.
Date: January 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IGR NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Quarterly report October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

Description: Work this quarter continued on the development of electrocatalysts and electrolyte materials and processing to improve the electrical efficiency required for economical NOx/SOx destruction. Efforts focused on two critical areas: first, modifying electrocatalyst composition in order to improve current efficiency, and, second, changing the solid state defect concentration in the solid oxide electrolyte itself.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOXAL combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} flue gas control demonstration. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

Description: AQUATECH Systems a business unit of Allied-Signal Inc., proposes to demonstrate the technical viability and cost effectiveness of the SOXAL process a combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control process on a 2--3 MW equivalent flue gas slip stream from Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Dunkirk Steam Station Boiler {number_sign}4, a coal fired boiler. The SOXAL process combines 90+% sulfur dioxide removal from the flue gas using a sodium based scrubbing solution and regeneration of the spent scrubbing liquor using AQUATECH Systems` proprietary bipolar membrane technology. This regeneration step recovers a stream of sulfur dioxide suitable for subsequent processing to salable sulfur or sulfuric acid. Additionally 90+% control of NO{sub x} gases can be achieved in combination with conventional urea/methanol injection of NO{sub 2} gas into the duct. The SOXAL process is applicable to both utility and industrial scale boilers using either high or low sulfur coal. The SOXAL Demonstration Program began September 10, 1991 and is approximately 22 months in duration.
Date: February 16, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} abatement using zeolite-supported copper. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

Description: The goals of this project have evolved from an investigation of ways of preparing Li and Hall`s Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst using new methods to yield a more robust catalyst, into an investigation of modified Cu-ZSM-5 catalysts for the simultaneous reduction of NO and oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This was not a conscious effort or decision on the part of the investigators, but resulted from a natural evolution of the project. The authors have developed a zeolite synthesis and characterization capability in the group and have prepared impregnated test materials for the investigation of different catalyst precursors. They have prepared different vanadium-impregnated aluminas, for evaluation of the impregnation method, and have succeeded in reproducing the results of Li and Hall`s Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst. This report reviews the progress during the first three quarters of the year, and includes progress from the last quarter. Results are discussed for the Raman spectroscopy of precursors; infrared spectroscopy of vanadium-impregnated alumina; zeolite overlayer on cordierite; reactivity of Cu-ZSM-5; and impregnation of vanadyl acetylacetonate on alumina.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} abatement using zeolite-supported copper. Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

Description: A flow reactor is being constructed at Georgia Tech for the NO decomposition reaction. The reactor is partially complete with the construction of a flow meter/controller system and a temperature controller system in place now. The stainless steel reactor tube and the furnace have been fabricated and fit to the sub-assembly containing the temperature control devices. The reactor sampling system is under fabrication. The authors plan to purchase a GC-MS to determine the composition of the exit gas. They have used Raman spectroscopy to characterize Zeolite A, a cobalt ethylenediamine complex, Co(en){sub 3}Cl{sub 3}, and Zeolite A impregnated with the cobalt complex. The Raman spectra from 1,700--100 cm{sup {minus}1} are shown.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Mitchell, M.B. & White, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report Number 12

Description: The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). During the first quarter of 1995, the authors continued work on Task 8, and also began working on Task 9. In Task 8, they have presented the modified experimental arrangement for testing the efficacy of Co(II)-phthalocyanine solution for NO{sub x} absorption as well as desorption over extended periods of time. The key feature of this new experimental setup is to continuously circulate the warm Co(II)-phthalocyanine solution (using a computer) through the HFC in order to avoid precipitation within the fibers. Also, this arrangement allows one to automatically acquire process data. In Task 9, the authors carried out preliminary design calculations to determine the performance of a rectangular module that will be supplied by Setec. Also, they designed and constructed the apparatus for testing these modules.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Riggs, T.; Tagg, T.; Ventura, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and design of an advanced pulverized coal-fired system

Description: Under the US Department of Energy (DOE) project `Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems` (LEBS) the ABB team developed the design of a 400 MWe advanced pulverized coal fired electric generating system. The work and the results are described in the paper. Early work included concept development and evaluation of several subsystems for controlling the emission of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates and for reducing wastes. Candidate technologies were then evaluated in various combinations as part of complete advanced supercritical power generation systems. One system was selected for the design of the advanced generating system. Pilot scale testing is now being conducted to support the design of subsystems. The design meets the overall objective of the LEBS Project by dramatically improving environmental performance of pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Advanced technologies will be used to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions to one-fifth to one-tenth of current NSPS limits. Air toxics will be in compliance, and wastes will be reduced and made more disposable. Net station (HHV) efficiency can be increased to 45 percent without increasing the cost of electricity.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M.D.; Wesnor, J.D. & Bender, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SNOX demonstration project: Volume 1, Public design. Final report

Description: The SNOX process, developed by Haldor Topsoe A/S and demonstrated and marketed in North America by ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES), is an innovative process which removes both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from power plant flue gases. Sulfur dioxide is recovered as high purity, concentrated sulfuric acid and nitrogen oxides are converted to nitrogen gas and water vapor; no additional waste streams are produced. As part of the Clean Coal Technology Program, this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, Ohio Coal Development Office, ABBES, Snamprogetti, and Ohio Edison. The project objective was to demonstrate the SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of the SNOX process on an electric power plant firing high-sulfur Ohio Coal. A 35-MWe demonstration was conducted on a 108-MWe unit, Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit 2, in Trumbull County, Ohio. The $31 million project began site preparation in November 1990 and commenced treating flue gas in March of 1992. Testing at the site concluded in December of 1994. This report presents a description of the technology and design criteria for the demonstration plant including modifications and additions to the Ohio Edison Niles Station Unit 2. Pertinent drawings and a complete list of drawings are provided for information and reference. In addition to design information, cost data is provided for the design and construction of the demonstration plant; and cost estimates are provided for startup and operating expenses of the demonstration unit. The influence of commercial site specific conditions on the design and economics of the technology are also discussed.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IGR combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Phase 1, volume 1.

Description: The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new, simple, modular, all solid-state electrochemical technology for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} pollutants from coal-fired combustors, in a cost effective, reliable and practical manner. The work accomplished in this Phase 1 project involved the formulation and testing of proprietary materials for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal under conditions appropriate to coal-fired combustors for electric power production. The Phase 1 work also explored methods for reduction of the operating temperatures of the process, reduction of its power requirements, and increasing the levels of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal at higher levels of oxygen. The Phase 1 work has demonstrated the basic technical feasibility of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology. We have successfully achieved NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal in the presence of large concentrations of oxygen (including the range of oxygen levels in coal-fired combustors). We have demonstrated successful operation of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology at greatly reduced operating temperatures. Significant progress has been made in the reduction of the electrical power requirement of the removal process. In particular, NO{sub x} removal has been accomplished at power consumption levels that are economically feasible. In addition, the ability of this technology to remove SO{sub 2} from a high concentration gas stream (such as that generated from the copper oxide absorption process) has been demonstrated. In summary, the Phase 1 work has served to resolve the basic feasibility questions associated with this technology. The importance of the Phase 1 work is that it has greatly reduced the technical risk associated with IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology, which makes the development of commercially feasible devices highly probable.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Gordon, A.Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidized-bed copper oxide process. Phase IV. Conceptual design and economic evaluation, Volume I. Final report

Description: Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP) of Des Plaines, Illinois has contracted A.E. Roberts & Associates, Inc. (AERA) of Atlanta, Georgia to prepare a sensitivity analysis for the development of the Fluidized-bed Copper Oxide (FBCO) process. As proposed by AERA in September 1991, development of the FBCO process design for a 500 mega-watt (MW) unit was divided into three tasks: (1) Establishment of a Conceptual Design, (2) Conceptual Design, (3) Cost Analysis Task 1 determined the basis for a conceptual design for the 500 megawatt (MW) FBCO process. It was completed by AERA in September of 1992, and a report was submitted at that time {open_quotes}Establishment of the Design Basis for Application to a 500 MW Coal-fired Facility.{close_quotes} Task 2 gathered all pertinent data available to date and reviewed its applicability to the 500 MW FBCO process. Work on this task was carried out on a joint basis by the AERA team members: Roberts & Schaefers worked on the dense phase transport aspect of the design; Cornell and Carnegie Mellon Universities worked on the design kinetics and modeling; and AERA contributed commercial power and combustion experience. Task 3 provides budgetary cost estimates for the FBCO process and competing alternative technologies for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide removal.
Date: November 30, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report

Description: Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents. In the past quarter the effect of ammonia on sulfation was investigated. It was found that the presence of ammonia affects the sulfation process unfavorably by forming ammonium sulfate species on the surface which subsequently decompose and cause sulfur loss from the surface. Since formation of surface ammonium sulfates increase the sorbent mass, it is difficult to deduce the magnitude of the sulfur loss from the surface only by thermogravimetric analysis.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Akyurtlu, A. & Akyurtlu, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production and use of activated char for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

Description: Carbon adsorbents have been shown to remove sulfur oxides from flue gas, and also serve as a catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides at temperatures between 80 and 150{degree}C. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois coal is a suitable feedstock for the production of activated char which could be used as a catalyst for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal, and to evaluate the potential application of the products in flue gas cleanup. During this quarter, further analyses of SO{sub 2} adsorption and TPD data revealed that SO{sub 2} adsorption was directly proportional to the number of unoccuppied (free) adsorption sites on the carbon surface. The SO{sub 2} capacity of a series of prepared IBC-102 chars and commercial activated carbons normalized with respect to the number of free sites varied by less than a factor of two, which indicated an excellent correlation. Based on these results, a mechanism for SO{sub 2} adsorption on carbon and conversion to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was proposed. To study NO{sub x} reduction by activated char, a packed bed flow through system was designed and constructed. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was installed to monitor the [NO] and [NO{sub 2}]; NO breakthrough curves were obtained for a commercial activated carbon at various [NO].
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Donnals, G.L.; Feizoulof, C.A.; Kruse, C.W.; Lytle, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup: Quarterly technical report No. 16, January 1996--March 1996

Description: The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the SO{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble plithalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media described in the open literature. Our past work with the phthalocyanine compounds, used as sensors for NO and NO{sub 2} in flue gases, shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no ...
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Bhown, A.S.; Bahman, A.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S. & Bhaumick, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced NO{sub x} removal in wet scrubbers using metal chelates. Final report, Volume 1

Description: Successful pilot plant tests of simultaneous removal of S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a wet lime flue gas desulfurization system were concluded in December. The tests, at up to 1.5 MW(e) capacity, were conducted by the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company and Dravo Lime Company for the US Department of Energy at a pilot facility at the Miami Fort station of CG&E near Cincinnati, Ohio. The pilot plant scrubbed a slipstream of flue gas from Unit 7, a 530 MW coal-fired electric generating unit. Tests were conducted in three phases between April and December. The technology tested was wet scrubbing with Thiosorbic{reg_sign} magnesium-enhanced lime for S0{sub 2} removal and simultaneous NO scrubbing with ferrous EDTA, a metal chelate. Magnesium-enhanced lime-based wet scrubbing is used at 20 full-scale high-sulfur coal-fired electric generating units with a combined capacity of 8500 NW. Ferrous EDTA reacts with nitric oxide, NO, which comprises about 95% of NO{sub x} from coal-fired boilers. In this report, although not precise, NO and NO{sub x} are used interchangably. A major objective of the tests was to combine NO{sub x} removal using ferrous EDTA, a developing technology, with SO{sub 2} removal using wet lime FGD, already in wide commercial use. If successful, this could allow wide application of this NO{sub x} removal technology.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Smith, K.; Lani, B.; Berisko, D.; Schultz, C.; Carlson, W. & Benson, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department