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Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

Description: The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Firestone, Ryan & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

Description: The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.
Date: April 30, 2013
Creator: Howell, Thomas Russell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

Description: Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.
Date: February 1, 2014
Creator: Sedano, Richard; Selecky, James; Iverson, Kathryn & Al-Jabir, Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

Description: Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold ...
Date: October 30, 2013
Creator: Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalog of CHP Technologies

Description: This report is a survey of technologies related to combined heat and power (CHP) which is an efficient and clean approach to generating electric power and useful thermal energy from a single fuel source.
Date: March 2015
Creator: Darrow, Ken; Tidball, Rick; Wang, James & Hampson, Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020

Description: The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris & Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass Combined Heat and Power Catalog of Technologies. Appendix E: Modular Biomass Systems Available in Pre-Commercial Development

Description: Appendix E of a biomass energy report from the EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership. This report offers a comparison of pre-commercial companies, the biomass systems utilized by each, and the effectiveness/efficiency of each. Contact information for each company is provided.
Date: September 2007
Creator: [Wickwire, Susan]
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

Description: Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.
Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M. & Zhou, Nan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Optimization and Assessment on DG adoption in JapanesePrototype Buildings

Description: This research investigates a method of choosing economicallyoptimal DER, expanding on prior studies at the Berkeley Lab using the DERdesign optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources CustomerAdoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination ofinstalled equipment from available DER technologies, given prevailingutility tariffs, site electrical and thermal loads, and a menu ofavailable equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeit idealized,that shows how the site energy load scan be served at minimum cost byselection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, andcooling. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examined andDER-CAM applied to select thee conomically optimal DER system for each.The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sportsfacility. Based on the optimization results, energy and emissionreductions are evaluated. Furthermore, a Japan-U.S. comparison study ofpolicy, technology, and utility tariffs relevant to DER installation ispresented. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions,and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savings were mostnoticeable in the sports facility, followed by the hospital, hotel, andoffice building.
Date: November 30, 2005
Creator: Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun & Nishida,Masaru
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

Description: This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.
Date: August 2, 2007
Creator: Energy, Alliance to Save; Incorporated, ICF; Incorporated, ERG; Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

Description: This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.
Date: August 2, 2007
Creator: Energy, Alliance to Save; Incorporated, ICF; Incorporated, ERG; Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

Description: The ongoing deregulation of electricity industries worldwide is providing incentives for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that of central-station production, relatively high tariff rates and the potential for CHP applications increase the attraction of on-site generation. Nevertheless, a microgrid contemplatingthe installation of gas-fired DG has to be aware of the uncertainty in the natural gas price. Treatment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of the investment opportunity, which then delays the adoption decision as the opportunity cost of exercising the investment option increases as well. In this paper, we take the perspective of a microgrid that can proceed in a sequential manner with DG capacity and HX investment in order to reduce its exposure to risk from natural gas price volatility. In particular, with the availability of the HX, the microgrid faces a tradeoff between reducing its exposure to the natural gas price and maximising its cost savings. By varying the volatility parameter, we find that the microgrid prefers a direct investment strategy for low levels of volatility and a sequential one for higher levels of volatility.
Date: August 18, 2008
Creator: Siddiqui, Afzal & Maribu, Karl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microgrid Selection and Operation for Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

Description: The addition of storage technologies such as lead-acid batteries, flow batteries, or heat storage can potentially improve the economic and environmental attractiveness of on-site generation such as PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines (with or without CHP), and can contribute to enhanced demand response. Preliminary analyses for a Californian nursing home indicate that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. While economic results do not make a compelling case for storage, they indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which may lower carbon emissions as well as energy costs depending on the test site, its load profile, and DER technology adoption.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Division, Environmental Energy Technologies; Lacommare, Kristina S H; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Coffey, Brian et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

Description: The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

Description: In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.
Date: July 1, 2003
Creator: Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L. & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass Combined Heat and Power Catalog of Technologies

Description: An introduction and overview from a larger report about the partnership between the Environmental Protection Agency and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) stakeholders, including CHP Industry, state and local governments, energy users, etc., in an effort to promote biomass as an alternative energy resource.
Date: September 2007
Creator: Wickwire, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department