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Multiobjective Optimization Power Generation Systems Involving Chemical Looping Combustion

Description: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system using coal gasification is an important approach for future energy options. This work focuses on understading the system operation and optimizing it in the presence of uncertain operating conditions using ASPEN Plus and CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation and multiobjective optimization capabilities developed by Vishwamitra Research Institute. The feasible operating surface for the IGCC system is generated and deterministic multiobjective optimization is performed. Since the feasible operating space is highly non-convex, heuristics based techniques that do not require gradient information are used to generate the Pareto surface. Accurate CFD models are simultaneously developed for the gasifier and chemical looping combustion system to characterize and quantify the process uncertainty in the ASPEN model.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Salazar, Juan M.; Diwekar, Urmila M. & Zitney, Stephen E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical review of Westinghouse`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program

Description: US DOE`s ATS program has the goals of increased efficiency of natural gas-fired power generation plants, decreased cost of electricity, and a decrease in harmful emissions. The Westinghouse ATS plant is based on an advanced gas turbine design combined with an advanced steam turbine and a high efficiency generator. Objectives of the ATS Program Phase 2 are to select the ATS cycle and to develop technologies required to achieve ATS Program goals: combustion, cooling, aerodynamics, leakage control, coatings, materials. This paper describes progress on each.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Diakunchak, I.S. & Bannister, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

Description: The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer conflation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. The objective of this task is to design 7H and 9H compressor rotor and stator structures with the goal of achieving high efficiency at lower cost and greater durability by applying proven GE Power Systems (GEPS) heavy-duty use design practices. The designs will be based on the GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) CF6-80C2 compressor. Transient and steady-state thermo-mechanical stress analyses will be run to ensure compliance with GEPS life standards. Drawings will be prepared for forgings, castings, machining, and instrumentation for full speed, no load (FSNL) tests of the first unit on both 9H and 7H applications.
Date: April 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Westinghouse`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program

Description: The proposed approach is to build on Westinghouse`s successful 501 series of gas turbines. The 501F offered a combined cycle efficiency of 54%; 501G increased this efficiency to 58%; the proposed single-shaft 400 MW class ATS combined cycle will have a plant cycle efficiency greater than 60%. Westinghous`s strategy is to build upon the next evolution of advances in combustion, aerodynamics, cooling, leakage control, materials, and mechanical design. Westinhouse will base its future gas turbine product line, both 50 and 60 Hz, on ATS technology; the 501G shows early influences of ATS.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Bannister, R.L.; Bevc, F.P.; Diakunchak, I.S. & Huber, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

Description: The Wind Energy Deployment System model was used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030. This generation capacity expansion model selects from electricity generation technologies that include pulverized coal plants, combined cycle natural gas plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, nuclear plants, and wind technology to meet projected demand in future years. Technology cost and performance projections, as well as transmission operation and expansion costs, are assumed. This study demonstrates that producing 20% of the nation's projected electricity demand in 2030 from wind technology is technically feasible, not cost-prohibitive, and provides benefits in the forms of carbon emission reductions, natural gas price reductions, and water savings.
Date: June 9, 2008
Creator: Bolinger, Mark A; Hand, Maureen; Blair, Nate; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Hern, Tracy et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HyPEP FY-07 Report: System Integration Model Development

Description: The integrated system of a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) and a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory. This system will produce hydrogen by utilizing a highly efficient VHTR with an outlet temperature of 900 °C and supplying necessary energy and electricity to the HTSE process for electrolysis of high temperature steam. This report includes a description of five configurations including an indirect parallel cycle, an indirect serial cycle, a direct serial cycle, a steam combined cycle, and a reheat cycle. HYSYS simulations were performed for each of these configurations coupled to a HTSE process. Final results are presented along with parametric studies and process optimization.
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Oh, C. H.; Kim, E. S.; Sherman, S. R. & Vilim, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability Regimes of Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames

Description: One option for combustion in zero-emission Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants is non-premixed combustion of nitrogen-diluted hydrogen in air. An important aspect to non-premixed combustion is flame stability or anchoring, though only a few fundamental stability studies of these flames have taken place to date. The following paper presents the results of experiments investigating the effects of nitrogen diluent fraction, jet diameter, and exit velocity on the static stability limits of a turbulent hydrogen jet flame issuing from a thin-lipped tube into a quiescent atmosphere. Four different stability limits are observed: detachment from the burner lip, reattachment to the burner lip, transition from a laminar lifted flame base to blowout or to a turbulent lifted flame, and transition from a turbulent lifted flame to blowout. The applicability of existing theories and correlations to the stability results is discussed. These results are an important step in assessing the viability of a non-premixed combustion approach using hydrogen diluted with nitrogen as a fuel.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Weiland, N. T. & Strakey, P. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Concepts for the Compression of Large Volumes of Carbon Dioxide

Description: In the effort to reduce the release of CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, sequestration of CO{sub 2} from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Oxy-Fuel power plants is being pursued. This approach, however, requires significant compression power to boost the pressure to typical pipeline levels. The penalty can be as high as 8% to 12% on a typical IGCC plant. The goal of this research is to reduce this penalty through novel compression concepts and integration with existing IGCC processes. The primary objective of the study of novel CO{sub 2} compression concepts is to boost the pressure of CO{sub 2} to pipeline pressures with the minimal amount of energy required. Fundamental thermodynamics were studied to explore pressure rise in both liquid and gaseous states. For gaseous compression, the project investigated novel methods to compress CO{sub 2} while removing the heat of compression internal to the compressor. The high-pressure ratio due to the delivery pressure of the CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery results in significant heat of compression. Since less energy is required to boost the pressure of a cooler gas stream, both upstream and interstage cooling is desirable. While isothermal compression has been utilized in some services, it has not been optimized for the IGCC environment. This project determined the optimum compressor configuration and developed technology concepts for internal heat removal. Other compression options using liquefied CO{sub 2} and cryogenic pumping were explored as well. Preliminary analysis indicates up to a 35% reduction in power is possible with the new concepts being considered.
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Moore, J. Jeffrey; Nored, Marybeth G.; Gernentz, Ryan S. & Brun, Klaus
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

Description: The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided ...
Date: March 31, 2003
Creator: Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L. & Rezaie, Alireza
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

Description: The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided ...
Date: March 30, 2004
Creator: Headrick, William L.; Karakus, Musa & Rezaie, Alireza
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

Description: The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C. & Sudhoff, F.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing

Description: The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.
Date: September 15, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

Description: Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly using a sorbent containing a combination of zinc and iron oxides.
Date: October 14, 1999
Creator: Jothimurugesan, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

Description: Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.
Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: Jothimurugesan, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

Description: Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.
Date: May 31, 1998
Creator: ROBERTS, G.W.; PORTZER, J.W.; KOZUP, S.C. & GANGWAL, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

Description: The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown in Figure 1-1. Information specifically related to 9H production is presented for continuity in H program reporting, but lies outside the ATS program. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q98 through 3Q99. The most significant accomplishments are listed.
Date: October 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

Description: Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent sintering during pure air regeneration. Modifications were made to the sorbent to increase its ability to withstand ...
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Jothimurugesan, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline and optional bench-scale testing of a chemical candle filter safeguard device

Description: This project was undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and test the feasibility of a hot-gas filter safeguard device (SGD) to prevent the release of dust in the event of candle filter failure under both pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) (oxidizing) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (reducing) operating conditions. The SGD must use existing filter system seals, gaskets, fixtures, and assemblies as much as possible. It must also activate quickly when a candle filter has failed, preferably preventing dust concentrations downstream of the SGD from exceeding 1 ppmw. In addition, the SGD must be able to operate in an inactive mode with minimal pressure drop, and its operation cannot be affected by repeated backpulse cleaning events of up to 3 psia and 1/2 second in duration.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Hurley, J.P. & Swanson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Electric ATS Program technical review Phase 2 activities

Description: The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program Phase 2 objectives are to select a cycle, and to identify and resolve technical issues required to realize the ATS Program goals of 60% net combined cycle efficiency, single digit NOx, and a 10% electric power cost reduction, compared to current technology. The Phase 2 efforts have showns that the ATS Program goals are achievable. The GE Power Generation advanced gas turbine will use closed-loop steam cooling in the first two turbine stages and advanced coatings, seals and cooling designs to meet ATS performance and cost of electricity goals.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Chance, T. & Smith, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of mixed-conducting ceramic membrane for hydrogen separation.

Description: The Office of Fossil Energy of the US Department of Energy is formulating ''Vision 21,'' a program aimed at developing technologies for highly efficient power and coproduction plants that discharge almost no pollutants and close the carbon cycle. An integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system is a likely modular component of a Vision 21 coproduction plant. IGCC technology is ideally suited for the coproduction of electricity and high-quality transportation fuel and/or a host of high-value chemicals. As part of the IGCC system, high-temperature membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gasification and other partial-oxidation-product streams are being considered. Thin and dense ceramic membranes fabricated from mixed protonic and electronic conductors provide a simple, efficient means for separating hydrogen from gas streams. Dense mixed-conducting ceramic membranes effect transport via ion- and electron-conducting mechanisms. Because these membranes have no interconnected porosity, selectively for hydrogen is nearly 100%. Hydrogen separation is achieved in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without the need for electrodes and external power supply to drive the separation. BaCeO{sub 3}-based materials exhibit protonic conductivity that is significantly higher than its electronic conductivity. To enhance the electronic conductivity and increase hydrogen permeation, we have fabricated BaCeO{sub 3}-containing cermet membranes and used them in a nongalvanic mode to separate hydrogen from gas streams containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and trace amounts of H{sub 2}S. Material selection, fabrication, performance as well as technical/technological challenges of the ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation are discussed in this talk.
Date: August 20, 1999
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E. & Lee, T. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

Description: The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between Ge and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially be GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q97 through 3Q98.
Date: October 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING PHASE 3 RESTRUCTURED (3R)

Description: Much of the ''H'' technology design is based on proven, established technologies. The major technologies of the combined cycle powertrain, including the bearing designs, the evaluation methods for rotor dynamics, the compressor and turbine blading designs, and the generator field construction methods are all either direct applications of proven design technology or evolutionary refinement of existing designs. It is for these reasons that GE expects that the reliability of the new ''H'' Class generating system will be fully commensurate with the levels associated with today's ''F'' Class combined cycle power plants. With maintenance and operations performed at ''best practice'' levels, the new ''H'' Class plant should reach its full reliability potential of 97.0% or better.
Date: September 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS

Description: This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Bock, Bert; Rhudy, Richard; Herzog, Howard; Klett, Michael; Davison, John; Ugarte, Danial G. De La Torre et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department