1,375 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE

Description: The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone, with special emphasis on the semi-arid Hanford site. While we focused some of the experiments on hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of the Hanford site, many of our results apply to colloid and colloid-facilitated transport in general. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the mechanisms of colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in undisturbed Hanford sediments under unsaturated flow, (2) to quantify in situ colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclidetransport from Hanford sediments under field conditions, and (3) to develop a field-scale conceptual and numerical model for colloid mobilization and transport at the Hanford vadose zone, and use that model to predict long-term colloid and colloid- facilitated radionuclide transport. To achieve these goals and objectives, we have used a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods at different spatial scales, ranging from microscopic investigationsof single particle attachment and detachment to larger-scale field experiments using outdoor lysimeters at the Hanford site. Microscopic and single particle investigations provided fundamental insight into mechanisms of colloid interactions with the air-water interface. We could show that a moving air water interface (such as a moving water front during infiltration and drainage) is very effective in removing and mobilizing particles from a stationary surface. We further demonstrated that it is particularly the advancing air-water interface which is mainly responsible for colloid mobilization. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborated our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of ...
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zhang, Fred; Gee, Glendon W.; Mattson, Earl D. & L, Peter C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a model colloidal system for rheology simulation.

Description: The objective of the experimental effort is to provide a model particle system that will enable modeling of the macroscopic rheology from the interfacial and environmental structure of the particles and solvent or melt as functions of applied shear and volume fraction of the solid particles. This chapter describes the choice of the model particle system, methods for synthesis and characterization, and results from characterization of colloidal dispersion, particle film formation, and the shear and oscillatory rheology in the system. Surface characterization of the grafted PDMS interface, dispersion characterization of the colloids, and rheological characterization of the dispersions as a function of volume fraction were conducted.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Schunk, Peter Randall; Tallant, David Robert; Piech, Martin (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT); Bell, Nelson Simmons & Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF IRRADIATED $alpha$-LEAD AZIDE

Description: The thermal decomposition of unirradiated and heavily reactor irradiated colloidal alpha -PbN/sub 6/ was studied in the temperature range 195 to 253 deg C and 173 to 239 deg C, respectively. The irradiation vastly reduces the induction and acceleratory periods found with unirradiated material and increases the maximum rate and the rate of the final decay. The maximum rate normally occurs at about 40% decomposition but is shifted to approximately zero time on irradiation. The change in decay rate on irradiation is demonstrated by the two rate constants for decay, k (unirradiated) = 10/sup 12.0 plus or minus 1.0/ exp (-38.3 plus or minus 2.3 kc/m/RT) and k (irradiated) = 10/sup 7.9 plus or minus 1.0/ exp (-25.7 plus or minus 2.4 kc/m/RT). The significant drop in activation energy is possibly associated with changes in electronic excitation energies, while the drop in frequency factor is thought to result from gross structaral changes accompanying the irradiation. The power laws observed in the acceleratory region are interpreted in terms of simultaneous surface and 3- dimensional reactions. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1963
Creator: Jach, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray stereo microscopy for investigation of dynamics in soils

Description: The presented combination of stereo imaging and elemental mapping with soft X-ray microscopy reveals the spatial arrangement of naturally aqueous colloidal systems, e.g. iron oxides in soil colloid clusters. Changes in the spatial arrangement can be induced by manipulating the sample mounted to the X-ray microscope and thus be investigated directly.
Date: September 16, 2008
Creator: Gleber, S.-C.; Sedlmair, J.; Bertilson, M.; von Hofsten, O.; Heim, S.; Guttmann, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis and Characterization of Crystalline Assemblies of Functionalized Hydrogel Nanoparticles

Description: Two series monodispersed nanoparticles of hydroxylpropyl cellulose (HPC) and functionalized poly-N-isopropylamide (PNIPAM) particles have been synthesized and used as building blocks for creating three-dimensional networks, with two levels of structural hierarchy. The first level is HPC nanoparticles were made from methacrylated or degradable cross-linker attached HPC. These nanoparticles could be stabilized at room temperature by residual methacrylate or degradable groups are present both within and on the exterior of HPC nanoparticles. Controlled release studies have been performed on the particle and networks .The nearly monodispersed nanoparticles have been synthesized on the basis of a natural polymer of hydropropylcellulose (HPC) with a high molecular weight using the precipitation polymerization method and self-assembly of these particles in water results in bright colors. The HPC nanoparticles can be potential using as crosslinkers to increase the hydrogels mechanical properties, such as high transparency and rapid swelling/de-swelling kinetics. The central idea is to prepare colloidal particles containing C=C bonds and to use them as monomers - vinylparticles, to form stable particle assemblies with various architectures. This is accomplished by mixing an aqueous suspension of hydrogel nanoparticles (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) with the organic solvent (dichloromethane) to grow columnar crystals. The hydrogels with such a unique crystal structure behavior not only like the hydrogel opals, but also have a unique property: anisotropy.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: December 2005
Creator: Cai, Tong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Study of Engineered Heterogenous Polymer Gels

Description: This dissertation studies physical properties and technological applications of engineered heterogenous polymer gels. Such gels are synthesized based on modulation of gel chemical nature in space. The shape memory gels have been developed in this study by using the modulated gel technology. At room temperature, they form a straight line. As the temperature is increased, they spontaneously bend or curl into a predetermined shape such as a letter of the alphabet, a numerical number, a spiral, a square, or a fish. The shape changes are reversible. The heterogenous structures have been also obtained on the gel surface. The central idea is to cover a dehydrated gel surface with a patterned mask, then to sputter-deposit a gold film onto it. After removing the mask, a gold pattern is left on the gel surface. Periodical surface array can serve as gratings to diffract light. The grating constant can be continuously changed by the external environmental stimuli such as temperature and electric field. Several applications of gels with periodic surface arrays as sensors for measuring gel swelling ratio, internal strain under an uniaxial stress, and shear modulus have been demonstrated. The porous NIPA gels have been synthesized by suspension technique. Microstructures of newly synthesized gels are characterized by both SEM and capillary test and are related to their swelling and mechanical properties. The heterogenous porous NIPA gel shrink about 35,000 times faster than its counterpart--the homogeneous NIPA gel. Development of such fast responsive gels can result in sensors and devices applications. A new gel system with built-in anisotropy is studied. This gel system consists of interpenetrated polymer network (IPN) gels of polyacrylamide (PAAM) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA). The swelling property of the anisotropy IPN gels along the pre-stressing direction is different from that along other directions, in contrast to conventional gels which swell isotropically. ...
Date: August 1998
Creator: Chen, Yuanye
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization, Properties and Applications of Novel Nanostructured Hydrogels.

Description: The characterization, properties and applications of the novel nanostructured microgel (nanoparticle network and microgel crystal) composed of poly-N-isopropylacrylanmide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid(AA) have been investigated. For the novel nanostructured hydrogels with the two levels of structure: the primary network inside each individual particle and the secondary network of the crosslinked nanoparticles, the new shear modulus, drug release law from hydrogel with heterogeneous structure have been studied. The successful method for calculating the volume fraction related the phase transition of colloid have been obtained. The kinetics of crystallization in an aqueous dispersion of PNIPAM particles has been explored using UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. This dissertation also includes the initial research on the melting behavior of colloidal crystals composed of PNIPAM microgels. Many new findings in this study area have never been reported before. The theoretical model for the columnar crystal growth from the top to bottom of PNIPAM microgel has been built, which explains the growth mechanism of the novel columnar hydrogel colloidal crystals. Since the unique structure of the novel nanostructured hydrogels, their properties are different with the conventional hydrogels and the hard-sphere-like system. The studies and results in this dissertation have the important significant for theoretical study and valuable application of these novel nanostructured hydrogels.
Access: This item is restricted to the UNT Community Members at a UNT Libraries Location.
Date: December 2006
Creator: Tang, Shijun
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fabrication and light scattering study of multi-responsive nanostructured hydrogels and water-soluble polymers.

Description: Monodispersed microgels composed of poly-acrylic acid (PAAc) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) interpenetrating networks were synthesized by 2-step method with first preparing PNIPAM microgel and then polymerizing acrylic acid that interpenetrates into the PNIPAM network. The semi-dilute aqueous solutions of the PNIPAM-PAAc IPN microgels exhibit an inverse thermo-reversible gelation. Furthermore, IPN microgels undergo the reversible volume phase transitions in response to both pH and temperature changes associated to PAAc and PNIPAM, respectively. Three applications based on this novel hydrogel system are presented: a rich phase diagram that opens a door for fundamental study of phase behavior of colloidal systems, a thermally induced viscosity change, and in situ hydrogel formation for controlled drug release. Clay-polymer hydrogel composites have been synthesized based on PNIPAM gels containing 0.25 to 4 wt% of the expandable smectic clay Na-montmorillonite layered silicates (Na-MLS). For Na-MLS concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 3.2 wt%, the composite gels have larger swelling ratio and stronger mechanical strength than those for a pure PNIPAM. The presence of Na-MLS does not affect the value of the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the PNIPAM. Surfactant-free hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) microgels have been synthesized in salt solution. In a narrow sodium chloride concentration range from 1.3 to 1.4 M, HPC chains can self-associate into colloidal particles at room temperature. The microgel particles were then obtained in situ by bonding self-associated HPC chains at 23 0C using divinyl sulfone as a cross-linker. The volume phase transition of the resultant HPC microgels has been studied as a function of temperature at various salt concentrations. A theoretical model based on Flory-Huggins free energy consideration has been used to explain the experimental results. Self-association behavior and conformation variation of long chain branched (LCB) poly (2-ethyloxazoline) (PEOx) with a CH3-(CH2)17 (C18) modified surface are investigated using light scattering techniques in various ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Xia, Xiaohu
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

Description: We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.
Date: December 17, 2008
Creator: Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo & Somorjai, Gabor A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Precipitation of Strontium Sulfate in Gels

Description: The growth of strontium sulfate precipitate by diffusion in various gels was studied by using optical transmission and confocal microscopies, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and energy dispersive X ray fluorescence. Pure silica gel, pure agarose gel and the silica/agarose mixed gel at pH 7 - 10 were used throughout the present study. Precipitate morphology is sensitive to pH and to the nature of the growth medium. The morphology was observed as a function of time. The lack of change is presumably because of rapid depletion of the limiting reagent after the very beginning of precipitation. The problem of separating strontium sulfate precipitate from the gel medium is discussed.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Lee, Ya
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and study of crystalline hydrogels, guided by a phase diagram.

Description: Monodispersed nanoparticles of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid (AA) have been synthesized and used as building blocks for creating three-dimensional networks. The close-packed PNIPAM-co-allylamine and PNIPAM-co-AA nanoparticles were stabilized by covalently bonding neighboring particles at room temperature and at neutral pH; factors which make these networks amicable for drug loading and release. Controlled release studies have been performed on the networks using dextran markers of various molecular weights as model macromolecular drugs. Drug release was quantified under various physical conditions including a range of temperature and molecular weight. These nanoparticle networks have several advantages over the conventional bulk gels for controlling the release of biomolecules with large molecular weights. Monodispersed nanoparticles of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) can self-assemble into crystals with a lattice spacing on the order of the wavelength of visible light. By initiating the crystallization process near the colloidal crystal melting temperature, while subsequently bonding the PNIPAM-co-allylamine particles below the glass transition temperature, a nanostructured hydrogel has been created. The crystalline hydrogels exhibit iridescent patterns that are tunable by the change of temperature, pH value or even protein concentration. This kind of soft and wet hydrogel with periodic structures may lead to new sensors, devices, and displays operating in aqueous solutions, where most biological and biomedical systems reside. The volume-transition equilibrium and the interaction potential between neutral PINPAM particles dispersed in pure water were investigated by using static and dynamic light-scattering experiments. From the temperature-dependent size and energy parameters, the Sutherland-like potential provides a reasonable representation of the inter-particle potential for PNIPAM particles in swollen and in collapsed phases. An aqueous dispersion of PNIPAM particles can freeze at both high and low temperatures. At low temperatures, the freezing occurs at a large particle volume fraction, similar to that in a hard-sphere system; while at high temperature, the freezing occurs at ...
Date: December 2004
Creator: Huang, Gang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Asymmetrical polarization of spherical colloidal particle double layer in electrical fields

Description: It has long been accepted that the drastic increase in the viscosity of electrorheological fluids subjected to electric fields is due to interactions between the induced dipole moments of the colloidal particles in the suspensions. Computer simulations of dipole-dipole interactions have produced chain and column formations of particles in the direction of the applied field that agree well with experimental observations. In an aqueous suspension of colloidal particles, however, the polarization of particles is very sensitive to the frequency of the applied electric field, and the dynamics of the particles can differ drastically from the dynamics that would be expected from a simple induced dipole model. In certain frequency regimes, instead of forming chains and columns in the direction of a linear applied field, the particles are dynamically unstable and circulate in bands that tilt at a significant angle relative to the direction of the field. This indicates that the interactions between the particles are no longer symmetrical with respect to the applied electric field. The authors have proposed a phenomenological model to explain the mechanism of this symmetry breaking. They have carried out a computer simulation of colloidal particle dynamics resulting from their model, and the results of the simulation agree well with experimental observations. When a particle is spinning, the diffusion of the ions in the double layer becomes asymmetrical with respect to the electric field, with the ions diffusing faster in the direction of spinning than against it. This causes the induced dipole moment of the particle to be misaligned with respect to the applied field. The authors earlier simulation results show that this misalignment between the polarization of the particle and the applied electric field plays a crucial role in the formation of a band of particles tilted at an angle relative to the direction of ...
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Hu, Y.; Kumar, V. & Fraden, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The preparation and characterization of thermo-sensitive colored hydrogel film and surfactant-free porous polystyrene three-dimensional network.

Description: Polymer hydrogel films change their properties in response to environmental change. This remarkable phenomenon results in many potential applications of polymer hydrogel films. In this thesis colored thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) hydrogel film was prepared by firstly synthesizing polymer latex and secondarily crosslinking the nanoparticles and casting the polymers onto glass. The shape-memory effect has been observed when changing the environmental temperature. The temperature-dependent of turbidity of polymer hydrogel film was measured by HP UVVisible spectrophotometer. This intelligent hydrogel might be used in chemomechanical systems and separation devices as well as sensors. Polymer adsorption plays an important role in many products and processes. In this thesis, surfactant-free three-dimensional polystyrene (PS) nanoparticle network has been prepared. The infrared spectroscopy and solubility experiment are performed to prove the crosslinking mechanism, also the BET method was used to measure the adsorption and desorption of polystyrene network. The BET constant (C) is calculated (C=6.32). The chemically bonded polymer nanoparticle network might have potential applications as catalyst or used for chromatographic columns.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Zhou, Bo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Scaling Behaviors and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels

Description: Polymer gels undergo a volume phase transition in solvent in response to an infinitesimal environmental change. This remarkable phenomenon has resulted in many potential applications of polymer gels. The understanding of its mechanical properties has both scientific and technological importance. For this purpose, we have developed a novel method for measuring Poisson's ratio, which is one of the most important parameters determining the mechanical property of gels. Using this method, Poisson's ratio in N-isopropyacrylamide (NIPA) and polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels has been studied.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Li, Chʻun-fang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Physical Properties of Environmentally Responsive Polymer Gels

Description: Polymer gels undergo the volume phase transition in response to an infinitesimal environmental change. This remarkable phenomenon results in many potential applications of polymer gels. This dissertation systematically investigates the chemical and physical properties of polymer gels. It is found that infrared radiation laser not only induces a volume phase transition in N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel, but also causes the gel to bend toward the laser beam. The transmission of visible laser light through a NIPA gel can also be controlled by adjusting the infrared laser power. A new class of environmentally responsive materials based on spatial modulation of the chemical nature of gels has been proposed and demonstrated. Three simple applications based on the modulated gels are presented: a bi-gel strip, a shape memory gel, and a gel hand. The bending of bi-gels has been studied as a function of temperature, acetone aqueous solution, and salt solution. As the polymer network concentration increases, the behavior of shear modulus of acrylamide (PAAM) gels deviates significantlyfromthe classical theory. The ionic NIPA gels undergo two sequential volume phase transitions: one occurs in dilute NaCl solution, the other occurs in concentrated NaCl solution. An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of PAAM--NIPA has also been synthesized using free radical polymerization. It is found that the IPN gels preserve the essential properties of individual components. The volume phase transition of the IPN gels can be triggered by multiple external stimuli including temperature, acetone concentration, and salt concentration.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Zhang, Xiaomin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Polymer hydrogel nanoparticles and their networks

Description: The thermally responsive hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) hydrogel nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized. The HPC particles were obtained by chemically crosslinking collapsed HPC polymer chains in water-surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) dispersion above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the HPC. The size distributions of microgel particles, measured by dynamic light scattering, have been correlated with synthesis conditions including surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and reaction temperature. The swelling and phase transition properties of resultant HPC microgels have been analyzed using both static and dynamic light scattering techniques. By first making gel nanoparticles and then covalently bonding them together, we have engineered a new class of gels with two levels of structural hierarchy: the primary network is crosslinked polymer chains in each individual particle, while the secondary network is a system of crosslinked nanoparticles. The covalent bonding contributes to the structural stability of the nanostructured gels, while self-assembly provides them with crystal structures that diffract light, resulting in colors. By using N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer hydrogel nanoparticles, we have synthesized nanoparticle networks that display a striking iridescence like precious opal but are soft and flexible like gelatin. This is in contrast to previous colored hydrogels, which were created either by adding dyes or fluorescent, or by organic solvent or by embedding a colloidal crystal array of polymer solid spheres . Creating such periodic 3D structures in materials allows us to obtain useful functionality not only from the constituent building blocks but also from the long-range ordering that characterizes these structures. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and poly (acrylic acid ) (PAA) complexes were studied using turbidity measurement and laser light scattering. The phase transition temperature of the complexes is found to depend on pH and molecular weights of PAA and HPC. The driving force for this phenomenon is due to the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction ...
Date: August 2002
Creator: Lu, Xihua
Partner: UNT Libraries

Multifunctional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanophotonic Devices

Description: The emergence of optical applications, such as lasers, fiber optics, and semiconductor based sources and detectors, has created a drive for smaller and more specialized devices. Nanophotonics is an emerging field of study that encompasses the disciplines of physics, engineering, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and biomedical technology. In particular, nanophotonics explores optical processes on a nanoscale. This dissertation presents nanophotonic applications that incorporate various forms of the organic polymer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) with inorganic semiconductors. This includes the material characterization of NIPA, with such techniques as ellipsometry and dynamic light scattering. Two devices were constructed incorporating the NIPA hydrogel with semiconductors. The first device comprises a PNIPAM-CdTe hybrid material. The PNIPAM is a means for the control of distances between CdTe quantum dots encapsulated within the hydrogel. Controlling the distance between the quantum dots allows for the control of resonant energy transfer between neighboring quantum dots. Whereby, providing a means for controlling the temperature dependent red-shifts in photoluminescent peaks and FWHM. Further, enhancement of photoluminescent due to increased scattering in the medium is shown as a function of temperature. The second device incorporates NIPA into a 2D photonic crystal patterned on GaAs. The refractive index change of the NIPA hydrogel as it undergoes its phase change creates a controllable mechanism for adjusting the transmittance of light frequencies through a linear defect in a photonic crystal. The NIPA infiltrated photonic crystal shows greater shifts in the bandwidth per ºC than any liquid crystal methods. This dissertation demonstrates the versatile uses of hydrogel, as a means of control in nanophotonic devices, and will likely lead to development of other hybrid applications. The development of smaller light based applications will facilitate the need to augment the devices with control mechanism and will play an increasing important role in the future.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Garner, Brett William
Partner: UNT Libraries

Speciation, Mobility and Fate of Actinides in the Groundwater at the Hanford Site (Sept. 1999-Sept. 2002)

Description: The objectives of this project are: (1) the determination of the speciation of plutonium and other actinides (Np, U) in groundwater at the 100 and 200 areas at the Hanford Site. This includes the separation of Pu into particulate, colloidal and <1 kilo-Dalton dissolved phases and the determination of redox states and isotopic composition in each fraction; (2) the characterization of groundwater colloids, which includes submicron-sized inorganic particles and organic macromolecules (3) the prediction of the rate of transport and fate of actinides in the groundwater of the Hanford Site using a three-phase (dissolved-colloid-particulate) model.
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Buesseler, K. O.; Dai, M. & Repeta, D. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim report on interaction of waste glass colloids with corrosion products

Description: Thermodynamic data for aqueous reactions of key radionuclides are needed for geochemical modeling studies of the Yucca Mountain Project. This report summarizes progress through February 1999 in a study of waste glass colloid interaction with corrosion product solids. The purpose of the present task is to investigate more directly the exchange behavior of the Pu associated with the waste glass colloids. The goal is to obtain results that will be used to improve models of colloidal transport of Pu from the repository. The major experimental subtasks are (1) synthesis of waste glass colloidal suspensions and (2) batch experiments in which the suspensions are equilibrated with Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> solids of defined particle size.
Date: February 26, 1998
Creator: Wruck, D A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

Description: The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for \textit{in situ} mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facili\-tated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment. We have previously shown that upon contact with simulated waste tank solutions, Hanford sediments change their mineralogical composition. Certain minerals, i.e., quartz, smectite, and kaolinite, are partially dissolved, and new mineral phases, i.e., the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite, are formed. We have characterized these mineral transformations and clarified the mineral transformation pathways. The new minerals were mainly in the colloidal size fraction (diameter less than 2 mum), had a negative surface charge, and were microporous, meaning they contained small pores. When Cs was present during the formation of the minerals, contaminants, like Cs, could be trapped inside the mineral structure. Transport experiments under water saturated and unsaturated conditions showed that the colloids were mobile in Hanford sediments. As the water saturation of the sediments decreased, the amount of colloids transported also decreased. The colloids had the ability to enhance the migration of the radionuclide Cs; however, Cs initially sorbed to colloids was desorbed during transport through uncontaminated Hanford sediments. The finding ...
Date: November 21, 2006
Creator: Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C. & Zachara, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department